Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "History of Monroe County, Wisconsin, past and present : including an account of the cities, towns and villages of the county [microform]"

See other formats


IH»N.    .lOSKI'll    M.    MOKKOW 





Including  an  account  of  the  Cities,  Towns  and 
Villages  of  the  County 




t   > 

*        >    ».     <     0    o        # 

■      ■ 

)        3       '  .  '        '               ^       ' 


C.  F.  COOPER  &  CO. 




•    *  •  •    »      « 

«       *  ■      •      >  . 


After  more  than  half  a  century  of  growth  since  its  organization 
as  a  county,  it  seemed  fitting  that  an  historical  account  of  its  set- 
tlement, development,  its  people  and  institutions  should  l)e  made 
at  this  time  and  preserved ;  its  primary  importance  is  the  placing 
in  book  form  and  for  all  time  the  earlier  historical  incidents  sur- 
rounding the  settlements  of  the  various  towns,  cities  and  villages, 
and  that  the  time  was  almost  too  late  and  the  work  too  long  neg- 
lected became  very  apparent  to  the  editors  when  the  search  for 
material  began,  for  with  the  passing  of  the  early  settlers,  com- 
paratively few  of  them  still  live  in  different  parts  of  the  county, 
have  gone  forever  the  opportunity  to  get  early  facts  in  some 

To  properly  and  adetiuately  Avrite  the  History  of  ]\Louroe 
County  has  been  a  task  encompassed  with  tremendous  difficulties ; 
it  has  been  accomplished  after  laborious  research  and  the  co-opera- 
tion of  many  of  its  oldest  citizens,  whose  aid  the  editors  acknowledge 
most  gratefully,  for  without  it  some  parts  of  this  work  would  have 
been  impossible. 

Despite  its  difficulties  its  preparation  has  been  fraught  with 
mucli  interest,  which  grew  as  the  work  progressed;  INEonroe 
County  from  its  humble  beginning  having  been,  through  the 
untiring  energy  and  perseverance  of  its  pioneers,  brought  to  be 
one  of  the  finest  counties  in  the  State  of  AVisconsin,  holds  indeed 
a  wonderful  story  of  progress ;  its  two  cities,  built  to  stay,  whose 
schools,  churches  and  institutions  are  equal  to  any  in  the  state, 
whose  people  are  progressive  and  possess  a  fine  sense  of  civic 
pride  are  alone  w^orthy  of  the  efforts  of  the  historian ;  in  addition 
to  that  its  beautiful  little  villages,  its  rich  agricultural  resources 
and  dairying  interests  place  it  in  the  front  rank  in  many  respects. 

In  preparing  the  account  of  the  Indian  tribes  the  editor  wishes 
to  acknowledge  the  valuable  material  secured  from  Lawson's 
'* History  of  Winnebago  County";  the  uniform  courtesy  and  help- 
fulness of  the  various  newspaper  editors  of  the  county  has  been 
of  immense  value. 

In   gathering  the  great  mass  of  material  necessary  for  this 



4  liJSTUliV  (}[•    MONKOK  (01  XTY 

important  work  the  editors  have  liad  to  jii-range,  sort  out  and 
select  such  as  was  of  historical  interest  wliicli  couhl  be  regarded 
as  correct;  tluit  there  are  omissions  ou  some  subjects,  there 
can  l)e  no  doubt  l)ut  the  instances  of  this  arc  almost  Avholly 
brought  about  by  tlie  neglect  of  parties  called  upon,  and  in  whose 
possession  facts  alone  were,  have  caused  such  omissions,  l)ut  the 
editors  believe  that  nothing  of  important  historical  value  has  been 
left  out  and  have  endeavored  to  cover  every  representative  sul)- 
ject  and  the  stoi-y  of  every  interest  has  Iteen  related  impartially. 

1912.  Editor-in-Chief. 


All  the  biographical  sketches  published  in  this  history  were 
submitted  to  their  respective  subjects,  or  to  the  subscribers  from 
whom  the  facts  were  primarily  obtained,  for  their  approval  or 
correction  before  going  to  press,  and  a  reasonable  time  was  al- 
lowed in  each  case  for  the  return  of  the  typewritten  copies. 
Most  of  them  were  returned  to  us  within  the  time  allotted,  or 
before  the  work  was  printed,  after  being  corrected  or  revised, 
and  these  therefore  may  be  regarded  as  reasonably  accurate. 

A  few,  however,  were  not  returned  to  us,  and,  as  we  have  no 
means  of  knowing  whether  they  contain  errors  or  not,  we  cannot 
vouch  for  their  accuracy.  In  justice  to  oiTr  readers,  and  to  render 
this  work  valuable  for  reference  purposes,  we  have  indicated 
these  uncorrected  sketches  by  a  small  asterisk  (*)  placed  imme- 
diately after  the  name  of  the  subject. 

C.  F.  COOPER  &  CO. 






































The  Menomonee  Tribe 9 

The  Winnebago  Tribe 12 

The  Winnebago  Chiefs 33 

The  Black  Hawk  AVar 45 

Early  Settlement 63 

Making  a  County 66 

The  Legend  of  Castle  Rock 79 

Railroads 82 

West  Wisconsin  Railroad 87 

Monroe  County  Newspapers 91 

]\Ionroe  County  in  the  Civil  War 99 

Enlisted  Men  in  Rebellion 116 

Commissioned  Officers 132 

Died  in  the  Service 139 

Henry  W.  Cressy  Post,  G.  A.  R 147 

John  W.  Lynn  Post,  G.  A.  R 162 

The  Soldiers'  Monument 171 

Government  Military  Reservation 175 

Circuit  Judges 188 

Agriculture  and  Dairying 204 

Apple  Industry 209 

The  County  Seat  AVar 214 

The  Country  Schools 227 

The  Insane  Asylum  and  Poor  Farm 240 

The  City  of  Sparta 244 

Sparta  Schools 287 

Banks  of  Sparta 301 

Lodges  and  Societies  of  Sparta 306 

Sparta  Free  Library 312 

Sparta  Fair  Association 316 

Manufactures  and  Business  Enterprises  of  Sparta  319 

Churches  of  Sparta 325 

Tomah,  Menomonee  Chief 333 

City  of  Tomah 339 

Tomah  Schools 363 











XLI  [I. 






,  XLIX. 









Churches  and  Lodges,  Tomah 372 

Helping  Hand  Society,  Tomah 377 

Toniah  Library  379 

Civic  Improvement  Chib,  Tomah 381 

^lanufactnring  Interests,  Tomah 386 

Banks  of  Tomah 389 

Tomah  Indian  School 392 

State  Public  School 395 

Villages 398 

Berry  Culture 411 

The  Spanish- American  War 414 

The  Military  Companies 429 

The  Legal  Profession 440 

The  County  Court 473 

The  Medical  Fraternity 482 

Township  History 503 

Women's  Christian  Temperance  Union 539 

German  Lutheran  Churches 543 

Norwegian  Churches 579 

Biography 582 

History  of  Monroe  County 



Perhaps  not  as  closely  identified  with  the  earlier  days  in  this 
section  of  the  state  as  the  AVinnebago  Indians,  still  the  Menomi- 
nee tribe  played  its  part  in  the  history  of  the  territory  in  which 
Monroe  county  is  situated,  especially  as  members  of  the  tribe 
in  large  numbers  crossed  the  state  from  the  eastern  side  fre- 
quently to  trade  and  from  this  tribe  came  the  noted  chief,  Tomah, 
whose  name  the  city  of  Tomah  now  bears. 

The  "Winnebago  and  Fox  tribes  were  the  first  Indian  nations 
in  this  section  of  the  country  and  as  they  gradually  withdrew 
before  the  advance  of  civilization,  the  Menominee  tribe  followed 
them;    by   the  treaty   of  1836   this  tribe   came   to   the  territory 
around    Neenah    and    occupied   Winnebago    county   for    a   long 
number  of  years.     They  were  there  when  the  first  settlers  came 
and   left   numerous   traces   of  their   occupancy   in   that   county; 
they  were  of  great  assistance  to  Marquette,  the  explorer  on  his 
visit  to  the  AVestern  Territory  and  were  not  as  warlike  a  tribe 
as  the  AVinnebago,  but  were  said  to  have  been  good-natured  but 
selfish  and  avaricious ;   although  they  did  not  steal  or  lie  and  the 
men  made  brave  warriors. 

Their  Avar  parties  traveled  far  and  aided  the  French  in  the 
battle  of  Detroit  against  the  Fox  and  other  tribes,  they  assisted 
in  the  ambush  in  Monongahela.  They  were  with  Langlade 
fighting  under  the  banner  of  the  French,  when  IMontealm  fell  on 
the  plains  of  Abraham;  they  fought  under  Burgoyne  at  his 
invasion  from  the  North  and  at  Bennington,  so  that  their  exploits 
for  a  long  series  of  years  had  made  them  a  tribe  to  be  reckoned 
with.  After  the  A^^ar  of  1812  the  Americans  maintained  an  Army 
Post  at  Prairie  du  Chien  where  the  Menominees  often  camped 
and   frequently    wintered   in   the   Mississippi    valley.      The    first 



missionary  ainoiif;  them  was  a  Frenchman  ])y  the  name  of  Allouez 
in  1«)<;!>  and  since  that  time  they  liave  been  under  the  teachings 
of  many  good  priests,  among  whom  liave  been  Andre  and  Mar- 
<|iictte,  and  they  now  liave  their  churches,  schools  and  missions 
at  Keshena.  but  to  them  cling  some  of  their  weird  songs  and 
customs  and  they  still  propitiate  the  Manitou  of  the  red  man  with 
offerings  of  tobacco  and  jn-esents  and  make  provision  for  the 
journey  of  the  dead  to  the  "IIapj)y  Hunting  Ground.'" 

In  1848  the  Menominee  tribe  had  to  cede  all  their  lands  in 
AVisconsin  ;ii  llic  treaty  of  Poygan  and  they  were  removed  to 
Minnesota,  but  the  district  assigned  them,  not  being  found  suit- 
able to  their  wants,  they  were,  with  the  consent  of  the  AViseonsin 
Legislature,  allowed  to  remain  in  this  state. 

In  1H')2  they  were  removed  to  their  reservation  on  the  Wolfe 
river,  nine  miles  north  of  Shawano,  containing  27f),480  acres  of 
timber  lands.  This  removal  caused  them  much  distress  and  the 
next  year,  Oshkosh,  the  renowned  chief  of  this  tribe,  represented 
to  the  Government  that  his  tribe  had  never  been  so  poor  and 
destitute  of  provisions. 

Perhaps  the  most  celebrated  of  the  chiefs  was  ''Old  King," 
who  died  in  ]821  at  tlie  age  of  100  years.    This  old  fellow  had  a 
varied  career.    His  village  was  situated  north  of  Green  Bay  and 
he  resisted  all  attempts  of  the  Government  to  move  him  west  of 
the  Mis.sissippi.  and  in  1852  led  most  of  the  tribe  up  the  AVolfe 
river  to  their  present   reservation  within   a    few   miles  of  their 
ancient   home.     His   grandson   was   Chief   Oshkosh,   after  Avhom 
the  city  of  Oshkosh  was  named.     The  Americans  had   a   small 
garrison  in  the  old  fort  at  Mackinac  Island  at  the  outbreak  of 
the    AVar    of    1812.      Col.    Kobert    Dixon    organized    a    band    of 
AVi.sconsin  Indians,  including  the  ^Nlenominees  under  their  then 
chief,   Tomah:     with    Oshkosh   in   the   party   they   proceeded  by 
boats    and    canoes    fi-om    Green    Bay    and    there    captured    the 
stockade  without   any  loss  on  either  side.     During  the   war  the 
Americans  could  not  rei)  the  fort.     Colonel  Dixon  with  the 
Fox  river  Indians,  including  the  Menominee  tribe  under  Tomah, 
defended  the  f(.rt  in  a  hard  luittle  with  the  Americans  to  capture 
the  stronghold  in  1814. 

Major  Holmes  was  kiih-d  an<l  a  chief  named  AVee-kah,  of  the 
Ar.Miominec  tribe  was  killed  neai-  the  same  spot.  In  1813 
Oshkosh  went  on  the  warpath  with  Tecumseh  against  Fort  Meigs 
and  later  under  Proctor  and  Dixon  attacked  Fort  Sandusky;  this 
chief  was  no  doid)t  with  the  .Menominee  war  parties  which  fre- 
quently went  out   against  the  Chippewa   Indians  in  the  northern 


aiul  western  portions  of  the  State.  He  died  at  Kesliema  Aug'ust 
20,  1858,  and  a  few  days  before  his  death  liis  picture  was  painted 
hy  the  artist  Brooks,  and  it  now  han<>s  in  the  room  of  tlie  his- 
torical society  at  ^Madison.  Succeeding  Chief  Oshkosh  came 
Neopope  Oshkosh  and  Old  Carron,  the  latter  being  said  to  be  a 
son  of  a  French  trader ;  he  was  a  fierce  old  warrior  and  served 
in"  all  of  the  French  wai's  and  was  with  Montcalm  on  the  plains 
of  Abraham.  Then  came  Glade  or  Connote,  the  son  of  Old 
Carron ;  he  was  said  to  be  an  orator  and  a  fine  speaker  who 
made  sensible  remarks  and  to  the  point. 

Tomah  was  the  most  noted  son  of  Old  Carron,  born  in  1752 
in  Old  King's  Village  opposite  Green  Bay;  his  life  and  character 
are  given  in  a  subsequent  chapter  in  this  work  and  will  not  be 
extended  here.  lometah,  the  main  war  chief,  was  a  brother  of 
Tomah  and  a  son  of  Old  Carron,  was  born  in  1772.  He  was  an 
honest,  quiet  Indian  who  died  at  Kenosha  in  1861.  These  are 
the  names  of  some  of  the  old  chiefs  of  the  tribe  and  it  would, 
indeed,  be  an  extensive  chapter  to  attempt  to  follow  out  the 
succession  down  to  the  present  time.  It  is  sufficient  to  say  that 
this  tribe  has  followed  the  usual  course  of  Indian  tribes,  degener- 
ated somewhat  from  the  tine  physique  of  the  earlier  Indians  and 
cursed  Avith  the  usual  appetite  of  the  Indians  for  the  "fire- 
water," as  they  term  it.  Some  of  the  children  have  been  sent 
to  the  schools  at  Carlyle,  Pennsylvania,  made  good  progress  and 
the  average  number  of  them  became  good  citizens;  gradually 
the  tribe  is  undergoing  that  change  which  will  bring  them  from 
their  partial  state  of  ignorance  into  that  of  education  and 


at  the  falls  of  the  Ohio,  now  Louisville.  As  early  as  1701,  Gravier 
said,  the  Ohio  was  known  to  the  Illinois  and  ]\Iiaini  as  the  ''river 
of  tlie  Arkansa."'  The  name  of  the  tribe  is  now  Kansa  or 
Quapaw  of  the  AVinnebago  branch  of  the  Siouan  stock,  living 
then  on  the  lower  Arkansas  river.  Traditions  of  tli(>  Osage, 
]\Iandan  and  almost  all  the  tribes  confirm  this.  Two  of  the 
plains  tribes,  the  Kansa,  cherish  sacred  shells  which  they  assert 
were  brought  with  them  "from  the  great  river  of  the  sunrise.'' 
It  is  possible  that  the  Winnebagos  also  brought  the  sea  shells 
with  them.  They  have  been  found  in  large  numbers  in  Wiscon- 
sin. ]\Ir.  Clarence  Olen,  of  Oshkosh,  has  several  picked  up  in 
Winnebago  County.  When  the  migration  took  place  is  not  known. 
Doubtless  it  was  of  gradual  progress  during  several  centuries. 
When  De  Soto  looked  over  the  broad  Mississippi  from  the  Chaska 
mounds  at  ^Memphis  in  1541  he  found  these  "Capaha,"  or  Kwapa, 
the  southern  branch  of  the  AVinnebago,  already  established  on  the 
western  bank,  though  still  a  considerable  distance  north  of  their 
later  location  "down  the  river,"  the  converse  of  Omaha,  which 
means  "up  the  river."  In  their  slow  march  towards  the  setting 
sun  the  Kwapa  prol)ably  brought  up  the  rear,  as  their  name 
lingered  longest  in  the  traditions  of  the  Ohio  tribes,  and  they 
were  still  near  that  stream  when  encountered  by  DeSoto. 

The  principle  reason  of  this  movement  from  Virginia  was  the 
presence,  both  North  and  South  of  powerful  and  hostile  tribes 
leaving  them  only  one  way  of  retreat  across  the  mountains.  As 
late  as  1728,  as  mentioned  by  Byrd,  the  Iroquois  had  "an  implac- 
able hatred''  for  "the  Siouan  tribes  of  the  Soutli,"  who  still 
clung  to  their  ancestral  domain.  From  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio 
the  Winnebago  worked  their  w^ay  up  the  Mississippi.  As  they 
are  first  known  from  Champlain's  map  (1632)  as  located  on  Lake 
Winnebago  it  is  supposed  they  made  the  journey  by  the  Wiscon- 
sin river  to  the  Portage  into  the  Fox  river,  where  they  descended 
to  the  spot  on  the  Doty  island,  under  wide  branching  oaks  and 
elms,  which  they  occupied  so  many  years.  There  is  evidence  in 
their  traditional  wars  with  the  Illinois,  the  Alenominees,  the 
Potawatomi,  Sauk  and  Foxes,  that  the  maintenances  of  this 
Siouan  wedge  in  the  beautiful  region  of  lake,  forest  and  prairie, 
occupied  very  soon  for  hundreds  of  miles  in  all  directions  by 
Algoncjuin  tribes,  was  attended  by  constant  and  bloody  warfare. 

The  oldest  map  of  the  region,  now  known  as  Lake  Winnebago 
and  the  Fox  river,  is  Champlain's  map  of  1632,  on  which  he 
names  the  "Nation  des  Puans''  on  a  lake  named  "Lac  des 
Puans, "  which   discharges  itself  through   a  long  river  to  Lake 

U  IlISToin'  OF  :\I()XKOK  (OrXTY 

Superior.  'J'luit  tlu'  ma[)  \v;is  intended  to  rv'present  Lake  AVinne- 
l)ago  and  the  Fox  rivci-  is  now  aceepted  and  seems  tiie  correct 
interpretation  from  th<'  laltcr  known  habitat  of  ihc  Winnebago. 
Tlie  map  is  said  to  !)«'  made  up  from  information  furnished  by 
AVestcrn  Indians  visiting;  <^u<'b('c.  h  fuiiiislies  the  evidence  that 
both  Lake  Wimicbago  and  Ihc  Fox  river  were  the  earliest  names 
of  all  the  i)hysi('al  ol)jeets  in  Wisconsin,  and  the  lake  has  ever 
since  retained  the  name  «riven  it  by  ('hamj)lain.  two  years  before 
any  white  man  had  been  within  several  hundred  miles  of  the 

]t  was  two  years  after  the  date  of  this  map  that  Nicolet 
visited  "Wisconsin  in  1()34,  ''delegated  to  make  a  journey  to  the 
nation  called  'Gens  de  mer, '  People  of  the  Sea.  and  arranged 
peace  between  them  and  the  Hurons,  from  Avhom  they  are  distant 
about  three  hundred  leagues  westward.''  The  account  of 
Nicolet 's  journey  was  not  published  until  1()43.  nearly  ten  years 
after  his  visit,  and  then  only  mentioned  as  an  incident  in  Avestern 
travel,  giving  sucli  vague  description  of  places  and  topograpliy 
that  it  Avas  not  until  over  two  hundred  years  afterward  that 
John  G.  Shea  discovered,  in  1(S.')2.  that  "Gens  de  mer."  the 
People  of  the  Sea.  referred  1o  the  Winnebago,  and  lhat  Nicolet 
visited  Wisconsin;  and  the  year  (1634)  of  his  coming  Avas  not 
settled  until  ]87*).  In  1()43  Jean  Boisoeau's  map  Avas  published, 
in  Avhich  he  folloAved  the  main  topography  features  of  Cham- 
])lain"s  nui{).  ])lacing  "La  Nation  des  Puans"  on  "La  des  Puans" 
and  named  the  river  from  Avhieh  it  discharged  "H  des  Puans.'' 

C'hai-levoix,  Avho  visited  tlie  tribe  in  1720.  names  them  "tlie 
Otchagras,  Avho  are  commonly  called  Puans.''  Father  Hennepin 
in  his  map  1()97  has  this  same  name  spelled  Ocitigan  placed 
against  Lake  AVinnebago.  The  name  by  wliicli  ihe  AVinnebago 
are  best  known  1o  all  the  old  French  Avi-iters  is  "Puans"  or 
"Puants."  This  is  said  1o  liave  been  an  en-oneous  retranslation 
by  the  Fi-eiich  of  the  AlgoiKjuin  name  for  the  tiibe.  Avhich  Avas 
Ovenibigoutz.  It  is  from  the  English  spelling,  and  the  French 
Oui  being  ])ronounced  as  "Ave."'  and  the  free  pronunciation  of 
the  Algoufpiin  name,  handed  doAvn  in  the  .lesuit  Kelations,  that 
the  modei-n  name  is  derived;  and  the  Bureau  of  American 
Ethnology  have  determined  that  the  plural  of  AVinnebago  shall 
be  the  same  as  the  singular. 

Alost  Avriters  have  amused  themselves  by  giving  the  reason 
Avliy  tlie  AVinnebago  Avere.  called  Puans.  The  French  Avord  for 
Ouenibigoutz  of  their  Indian  neighboi-s,  the  meaning  of  Avhich 
Avas  feted  or  putrid  or  foul-smelling  as  variously  given.     It  has 


been  noticed  that  as  early  as  1632  and  1613  tlie  ti'il)c  and  Lake 
AVinnebago,  where  they  lived,  and  the  Fox  river  had  all  been 
named  Puans.  No  one  knows  why  their  neighbors  gave  them 
this  name.  As  long  as  1720  Charlevoix  had  said  they  were  called 
"Puans,  for  what  reason  I  do  not  know."  Yet  he  did  try  an 
explanation:  "They  seated  themselves  on  the  border  of  a  kind 
of  lake  (Winnebago),  and  I  judge  it  was  there  that  living  on  fish 
which  they  got  in  the  lake  in  great  plenty  they  were  given  the 
name  of  Puans,  beqause  all  along  the  shore  where  their  cabins 
were  built  one  saw  nothing  but  stinking  fish,  Avhich  infected  the 
air.  It  appears  at  least  that  this  is  the  origin  of  the  name  which 
the  other  savages  had  given  them  before  us,  and  which  has  com- 
municated itself  to  the  Bay."  John  G.  Shea  says  their  name 
Ouenibigoutz  given  them  by  the  Algonquins,  means  "feted," 
therefore  the  French  translated  it  by  the  "Puants. " 

The  name  of  Puans  was  frequently  more  roughly  translated 
"stinkards,"  as  used  by  Augustin  Grignon  as  late  as  1857.  In 
1816  Mr.  Biddle  mentions,  "the  Winnebago,  a  bold  and  warlike 
tribe,  who  lived  at  Lake  Au  Paimt  or  Stinking  Lake,  now  Lake 
AVinnebago";  and  the  eccentric  student  of  English,  Radisson, 
wrote  of  them  in  1659,  as  at  "the  great  lake  of  the  Stinkings"; 
while  Allouez,  before  his  visit  to  them,  mentions  their  lake  of 
"the  Stinkards"  in  1666,  so  that  this  "ill  smelling"  name  has 
clung  to  the  tribe  through  all  the  centuries  down  to  the  present 

The  explanation  of  their  name  is  simple  when  relieved  from 
the  numerous  explanations  that  have  been  given,  for  the  most 
l)art  erroneous.  Dr.  Dorsey,  a  student  of  the  Siouan  language, 
says  the  Siouan  root  Changa  or  Hanga  signified  first,  foremost, 
original,  ancestral.  Thus  the  W^innebago  call  themselves 
Hochanga-ra,  "the  people  speaking  the  original  language." 
The  student  of  dialect  can  easily  trace  in  the  various  spelling 
quoted  above  the  attempt  to  reduce  the  gutteral  sounds  of  the 
AVinnebago  name  to  a  written  language,  though  their  explana- 
tion and  definitions  have  often  gone  far  afield.  Their  name  as 
known  to  the  whites,  however,  is  not  so  easy  to  understand.  The 
migrating  Algonquin  tribes  despised  the  AVinnebago,  as  they 
were  of  a  different  stock,  speaking  a  different  language,  and  tried 
at  once  to  drive  them  out ;  but  these  savages  were  no  match  for 
the  Winnebago,  who  had  the  power  by  numbers  or  prowess  to 
maintain  their  place  in  their  new  home.  If  the  name  by  which 
they  were  called  by  these  Algonquin  neighbors,  Ouenibigoutz. 
liad  been  translated  at  Quebec  when  first  heard  by  the  French, 


as  iiU'aii.  base  or  vik'  in  ])lac('  of  riiaiis.  il  would  Jiave  more 
correctly  expressed  as  intended  the  extreme  disfavor  of  their 
neighbors,  .nid  ihis  is  the  rational  explanation  of  the  name  which 
has  come  down  to  us  as  AVinnebago. 

Perrol.  as  rclatetl  hy  La  Polhcric  as  Ihe  eai-liest  traditions 
of  the  tribe,  gives  the  circumstances  of  their  fall  as  their  dis- 
regard of  others'  i-ights.  lie  says  the  nation  was  poj)ulous,  very 
I'cdoubtable.  s|)ared  no  one  and  \iolated  all  the  laws  of  nature, 
as  they  wei-c  Sodomites,  and  c\<-\\  had  intercourse  Avith  heasts. 
If  any  stranger  came  among  tiiem  he  was  cooked  in  their  kettles. 
They  declared  war  on  all  the  other  nations,  though  they  had 
only  stone  hatchets  and  knives.  When  the  Ottawa  sent  envoys 
to  Ihi'iii  Ihey  \V('re  eaten;  and  then  the  n;itions  formed  an  alliance 
against  them,  which  occasioned  ciNil  war  among  themselves. 
They  finally  united  all  their  forces  in  one  village  of  five  thousand 
men;  but  an  epidemic  occurred  which  reduced  them  to  one  thou- 
sand five  Inmdred.  "Despite  all  these  misfortunes  they  sent  a 
party  of  five  hundred  wai-i-iors  against  the  Foxes,  Avho  dwelt  on 
the  other  shorc^  of  the  lake,  but  they  perished  in  a  tempest."  It 
is  supposed  this  was  on  Litlle  i^ake  Butte  des  Morts.  as  it  had 
been  stated  the  Puans  resided  on  an  island  whidi  it  is  supposed 
was  Doty  island,  where  they  had  lived  from  the  earliest  times; 
and  the  Fox  tribes  resided  on  the  op])osite  side  of  tiie  lake  from 
very  early  lime.  Ixeduced  to  despair  and  famine  the  other  nations 
took  pity  on  tlieiii.  ceased  to  make  war,  and  the  Illinois  sent  five 
hundred  men.  including  "fifty  of  the  most  prominent  persons  in 
their  nation."  to  carry  them  a  su]iply  of  pi-ovisions.  "Those 
man  eaters  i-ecei\('d  them  with  the  utmost  gratitude.""  but  at 
the  same  time  meditated  sacriticing  the  Illinois  to  the  shades  of 
their  dead.  A  large  cabin  was  erected  to  lodgi'  their  guests,  but 
while  the  Illinois  Avere  dancing  their  lutw  sti-ings  were  cut  and 
the  "Winnebago  "threw  themselves  on  the  Illinois  and  massacred 
them,  not  sparing  one  man,  and  made  a  general  feast  of  their 
llesh.""  In  a  few  years  the  Illinois  assembled  a  large  army,  com- 
posed of  all  the  nations,  and  came  to  avenge  their  dead. 
"Having  reached  the  island  (Doly  island)  over  the  iee  they 
found  oidy  cabins — the  AVinnebago  had  gone  to  their  hunt — 
traveling  in  a  body — that  they  might  not  be  surprised  by  the 
Illinois."  The  hostile  army  followed  the  hunters  in  the  dead 
of  winter,  coming  up  to  them  on  the  sixth  day.  and  laid  siege  to 
theii-  camp.  "So  vigorous  was  tlieii-  attack  that  they  killed. 
wounded  or  made  i)risoners  all  the  Puans  except  a  few  who 
escaped,  and   who  reached  the   Menominee  village,  but  severely 


wounded  by  arrows. ' '  He  again  refers  to  these  traditional  events 
as  those  of  "the  ancestors"  of  the  tribe  as  he  knew  them,  and 
which  refers  to  "ancestors  of"  the  Puans  of  possibly  1660. 
There  is  no  record  to  say  how  many  years  before,  though  it 
is  doubtless  several  score,  for  fifty  years  before  La  Potherie  was 
published  Rev.  Jean  Claude  Allouez  had  told  this  same  story 
of  the  massacre  of  the  AYinnebago  by  the  Illinois  as  "about 
thirty  years  ago, ' '  which  would  be  in  the  year  1640 ;  "all  the 
people  of  the  nation  were  killed  or  taken  captive  by  the  Illinois, 
with  the  exception  of  a  single  man,  who  escaped,  shot  through 
the  body  with  an  arrow,"  and  adds  that  when  the  captives  were 
permitted  to  return  to  their  homes  this  one  was  made  a  chief  as 
having  never  been  a  slave.  John  G.  Shea,  commenting  on  this 
disastrous  defeat  of  the  AYinnebago,  says,  if  this  strange  event 
took  place  at  all  Ave  must  ascribe  it  to  an  earlier  date  than  1634, 
when  visited  by  Nicolet,  who  found  them  prosperous,  and  we  can 
hardly  suppose  a  tribe  almost  annihilated  and  then  restored  to 
its  former  numbers  in  thirty  years. 


Jean  Nicolet  was  the  first  white  man  to  visit  the  AVinnebago. 
He  was  sent  over  these  ^^nknown  lakes  and  rivers  by  Governor 
Champlain  to  make  a  treaty  of  peace  between  the  AA^innebago 
and  the  Hurons  of  Canada.  He  visited  them  with  seven  Huron 
savages  in  the  summer  of  1634,  returning  home  the  next  year. 
As  he  approached  their  village,  word  was  sent  in  advance  to 
announce  his  mission,  and  the  AViunebago  sent  out  envoys  to 
meet  him,  who  gave  him  a  Avarm  welcome  and  carried  his  bag- 
gage. AA^ord  was  sent  out  to  the  surrounding  savages,  and  a 
great  council  was  held  with  five  thousand  men,  who  indulged 
themselves  in  a  barbaric  banquet,  in  which  the  choicest  dish  was 
six  score  beaver  tails.  This  was  the  first  council  held  Avith  the 
Indians  in  the  region  erected  into  the  State  of  AA^isconsin.  There 
is  no  contemporary  narrati^'e  inspired  by  Nicolet  which  gives 
a  hint  of  the  place  at  Avhich  this  council  was  held,  or  the  location 
of  the  AA'innebago  village,  Avhich  was  the  objective  point  of 
Nicolet 's  voyage.  The  habitat  of  the  AVinnebago  during  this 
period  must  therefore  be  sought  from  other  narratives  and  maps, 
and  these  clearly  show  the  AA^innebago  village  of  1634,  and  for 
two  hundred  years  thereafter,  to  have  been  at  the  foot  of  Lake 
AYinnebago,  and  from  the  later  accounts,  which  give  a  more  exact 
locus  in  cpio,  on  Doty  island,  on  what  is  now  the  cities  of  Menasha 

18  HISTORY  OF  :moxroe  county 

and  Nec^'iiali,  ou  tlie  Fox  river,  yet  on  I  lie  shore  of  Lake 

It  lias  been  therefore  stated  that  Cliaiiiplain  "s  map  of  1632, 
made  two  years  before  Nicolet's  visit  named  the  "Nation  des 
Piians, "  on  "Lae  des  Piians.*'  Also  the  map  of  Jean  Boisseau's 
of  ]t)43  Avliich  is  found  in  Jjciinox  lji])rary  in  New  York,  and 
published  in  "Jesuit  Relations,"  has  "La  Nation  des  Puans, " 
on  "Las  des  Puans, ''  wliieh  discharges  through  "R.  des  Puans. " 
The  next  map  to  mention  the  tribe  is  that  of  Marquette.  His 
.iournal  of  the  famous  voyage  through  tli<^  river  valley  was  pu))- 
lislied  in  Paris  by  Thevenot  in  1681.  Avitli  his  real  map  of  the 
voyage.  It  ])laees  tlu^  "Puans"  village  at  the  foot  of  Lake 
AVinnebago.  The  master  of  this  voyage  was  Joliet,  and  his  map 
also  places  the  "Puans"  village  at  the  foot  of  Lake  of  the  AVinne- 
bago.  Father  Hennepin  also  places  the  word  "Ocitagan"'  against 
Lake  AVinnebago  on  his  map,  dated  ]698.  He  also  was  a  traveler 
among  them  and  this  is  his  attem])t  to  spell  their  own  name, 
rendered  by  the  Nicolet  century  while  those  of  the  next  century, 
which  show  the  village,  all  place  it  at  the  foot  of  the  lake,  which 
always  bore  tlieir  name. 

There  is  no  historic  reference  narrative  of  travel  or  maps 
Avhich  i)laces  the  AVinnebago  at  any  location  other  than  Lake 
AVinnebago  during  the  century  in  wliich  Nicolet  visited  the  re- 
gion, nor  until  1760  when  they  seem  to  have  divided  into  three 
villages  with  their  head  village  still  on  Lake  AVinnebago. 

Perrot  visited  the  Fox  river  region  for  a  number  of  years,  and 
took  some  of  the  AVinnebago  Avith  the  otlun*  tri])es  to  the  great 
council  at  Sault  Ste.  Alarie  Avhen  Sr.  Lusson  took  formal  posses- 
sion of  the  AVest,  in  the  name  of  the  French  king.  In  1690,  while 
in  this  valley,  the  Fox  tribes  who  resided  on  the  west  shore  of 
tile  Little  l^ake  l^utte  des  Alorts,  contemplated  treachery  to 
Perrot,  and  he  was  informed  of  their  intentions  by  the  "chief  of 
the  Puans,"  who  acted  as  his  messenger  and  remained  his  stead- 
fast friend.  He  advised  and  helped  to  prevent  the  Foxes  making 
an  alliance  with  the  Iroiiuois  of  New  A'ork.  which  they  contem- 
plated, and  Pen-ol   was  detcrmiiUMl  to  pi'cxciit. 


Later  in  the  long  Fox  war  they  formed  a  thii-d  party  in  an 
alliance  between  the  Foxes  and  Sauk,  and  were  ever  present  with 
the  Foxes  in  that  long  battl(»  which  they  raged  against  the 
French  throughout  the  Fox  river  valley  and  the  prairie  of  the 


Illinois.  This  was  the  war  to  save  the  region  of  the  golden  fleece 
to  the  fur  trade  of  France,  in  which  the  war  whoop  of  the  Foxes 
was  heard  around  the  world;  "a  dreary  half  century  of  spas- 
modic conflict,  which  absorbed  the  attention  and  helped  to  drain 
the  treasury  of  New  France,  contributing  not  a  little  to  her 
downfall'';  meanwhile,  as  Bancroft  remarks,  the  ''Foxes  were 
a  nation,  passionate  and  untamable,  springing  up  into  new  life 
from  every  defeat,  and  though  reduced  in  the  number  of  their 
warriors,  yet  present  everywhere  by  their  ferocious  enterprise 
and  savage  daring."  Throughout  those  long  years  of  frontier 
warfare  the  AVinnebago  were  everywhere  the  silent  allies, 
wearing  the  livery  of  the  forest  and  committing  the  terror  of 
their  name  to  strike  dismay  to  the  border  post.  And  though  the 
Foxes  are  mostly  mentioned  the  French  were  aware  of  close 
friendship  to  their  allies,  the  AVinnebago.  As  early  as  1714 
Ramezay  had  reported  the  Winnebago  as  friendly  to  the  Foxes, 
which  date  the  colonial  office  at  Paris  had  determined  on  the 
extermination  of  the  Fox  tribe.  At  this  time  Father  Marest 
writes  the  governor  that  "the  Puans  were  sixty  brave  men,  all 
boatmen. ' ' 

The  long  enmity  between  the  AVinnebago  and  the  Illinois  was 
a  part  of  the  French  war,  and  a  relic  of  ancient  days  when  the 
AVinnebago  had  been  almost  destroyed  by  the  Illinois.  The  AVin- 
nebago were  with  the  Foxes  in  their  raids  against  this  tribe  in 
1723.  Captain  DeLignery  was  sent  up  the  river  in  1724,  and 
called  a  council  of  the  tribes  at  the  old  French  fort  at  Green 
Bay.  Those  present  were  the  AVinnebago,  Foxes,  and  Sauk.  The 
council  to  induce  the  tribes  to  cease  their  war  on  the  Illinois  was 
fruitless,  as  the  AVinnebago  declared  the  Illinois  retained  some 
of  their  tri])e  prisoners^  and  an  exchange  must  be  efi^ected  before 
a  treaty.  However,  the  difference  seemed  to  have  been  compro- 
mised, as  at  a  council  held  by  the  same  officer  June  7,  1726,  with 
the  AVinnebago,  Foxes,  and  Sauk,  a  treaty  was  settled  by  which 
these  tribes  consented  not  to  fight  the  Illinois  again.  Very  soon 
after  this,  however,  war  broke  out  afresh  and  the  frontier  rang 
with  the  savage  war  cry. 

The  French  had  sent  an  army  against  the  Fox  palisade  or 
Fort  village  on  the  west  shore  of  Little  Lake  Butte  des  Morts, 
under  cle  Louvigny,  in  1716,  opposite  the  AVinnebago  village  on 
the  eastern  shore.  The  three  days'  battle  and  siege  had  resulted 
in  a  treaty  of  peace,  but  in  which  the  French  had  no  confidence. 
They  determined  to  establish  a  post  in  the  border  of  the  Sioux 
country  to  prevent  an  alliance  with  the  Foxes  and  that  powerful 


tribe  of  the  plains,  'i'liis  (,-(jiii])iu(nt  witii  soldiei-s  and  j^oods  for 
trado  made  llicir  way  over  Fox  river  towards  the  head  of  Lake 
Pepin,  to  ('sta))lisli  tliis  post.  The  journal  of  the  voyage  was  made 
l>y  Father  Guignes.  As  tliey  passed  the  Fox  ri\('i-  lie  says  of  the 
visit  to  the  "Winnebago,  August  14.  ]727:  "The  chief  im-l  him 
there  three  leagues  from  their  village  Avitli  peace  calumets  and 
refresliments  of  l)ears'  meat,  and  escorted  them  into  their  village 
mid  dischai'ge  of  musketry  and  great  demonstrations  of  joy, 
requesting  Ihem  to  remain  some  tinu'.  There  were  sixty  to  eighty 
num  in  the  village.  Both  men  and  women  are  tall  and  well  built. 
They  are  located  on  the  borders  of  a  pretty  lake  at  thirty-five 
miles  from  LaBaye  and  eight  leagues  from  the  Foxes."  The 
Foxes  seem  to  have  been  on  the  uppci'  Fox  river  at  this  season. 

AVhen  Captain  DeLignery  arrived  at  LaBaye  with  liis 
expedition  against  the  Foxes,  composed  of  four  hundred  fifty 
Frenchmen  and  one  thousand  two  hundred  savages,  in  the  month 
of  August.  1728,  he  captured  three  AVinnebago  Avhom  he  handed 
over  to  the  tribes.  They  put  them  to  death  with  slow  torture 
and  ate  them.  He  then  pushed  on  up  the  Fox  river  to  the  village 
of  the  "\Vinnel)ago  on  the  Doty  island,  which  had  been  abandoned 
several  days  hefore,  and  burned  the  wigwams  ami  fort,  and 
ravaged  their  fields  of  Indian  corn,  which  is  tlieir  principal  article 
of  food. 

In  pursuance  of  their  policy  to  combine  all  the  tribes  against 
the  Foxes,  the  French  in  some  manner  bought  over  the  Winne- 
bago, the  lifelong  friends  of  the  Foxes  and  Sauk.  So  we  read 
that  in  the  autumn  of  1729  Avord  was  l)rought  to  (Quebec  by 
information  given  by  the  Indians,  of  an  attack  by  llic  Winne- 
bago, Ottawa  and  Menominee  on  a  Fox  village,  in  which  thera 
were  killed  one  hundred  Fox  warriors  and  seventy  women  and 
children.  Among  the  killed  of  the  assaulting  party  were  four 
of  the  AVinnebago.  The  Winnebago  having  Itroken  up  their 
neighbors  and  friends,  the  Foxes,  by  the  treacherous  and  un- 
provoked slaughter,  were  now  in  tei-ror  fi>i-  the  conseciuences  of 
their  misei-able  acts.  Further  attempts  against  the  Fox  tribe  were 
projected  from  (Quebec  and  by  the  fall  of  1725)  Sieur  Captain 
]\Iarin  appeai-ed  at  the  old  Freucli  foi-t  at  Green  Bay  and  repaired 
its  fallen  roofs,  lie  had  with  him  ten  Frenclunen.  On  Septem- 
ber 10  the  AVinnebago  returned  from  their  hunt  aiul  went  to 
]\rarin  to  assure  him  that  they  still  renuiined  faithful  to  the 
French,  presenting  him  Avith  three  slaves.  They  were  rewarded 
by  powder,  bullets,  hatchets,  guns  and  knives.  Some  days  after, 
having  ascertained  that  the  Foxes  were  not    in  llie  country,  the 


Winnebago  took  their  families  and  camped  on  Dendo  island, 
where  "their  former  fort  stood."  But  very  soon  the  Foxes  and 
Sauk  surprised  some  AVinnebago  fisherman,  and  then  began  a 
long  siege  of  the  Winnebago,  by  erecting  on  the  Doty  island  water 
side  two  forts  to  command  the  water  in  all  directions.  The  siege 
lasted  two  months ;  but  was  finally  abandoned  after  IMarin  came 
with  the  Menominee  to  aid  the  Winnebago. 

Before  1739,  after  being  at  enmity  with  the  Foxes  for  ten 
years,  the  old  friendship  was  revived,  and  at  a  council  in  Quebec, 
held  that  year  with  the  Avestern  savages,  the  W^innebago  chief 
spoke  for  mercy  for  the  Foxes,  some  representatives  of  whom 
were  present.  The  following  year,  at  a  council  held  in  Montreal, 
the  Winnebago  chief  again  spoke  for  the  good  will  of  the  French 
for  "their  kinsman,  the  Foxes  and  Sauk."  The  next  year  they 
appeared  in  Montreal  again  and  reported  they  had  returned  to 
their  home  on  Doty  island.  AVhile  at  a  council  at  Quebec  the  next 
year  the  Mayoba,  chief  of  the  Alascoutins,  whispered  to  Beau- 
harnois  that  the  AA^innebago  sought  refuge  in  their  village  the 
year  before,  as  they  feared  the  Foxes.  At  this  council  the 
Winnebago  said  half  of  their  village  had  returned  to  its  old  home 
and  half  was  at  Rock  river.  The  Rock  river  band  were  notified 
to  join  the  Fox  river  band  and  form  one  village.  Serotchon  and 
Chelanois  were  AVinnebago  chiefs  present  and  promised  medals 
by  Beauharnois ;  but  he  had  none  then  to  bestow,  they  must  wait 
until  next  year.  Sieur  de  Clignaucoiirt  had  sole  right  in  1747 
to  trade  at  Green  Bay  with  the  AA^innebago. 


By  some  very  ancient  maps  in  possession  of  Mr.  Hames  B. 
Albrigt,  of  Milwaukee,  which  bear  dates  of  1755,  1756,  1757,  the 
"Otchagras"  village  is  marked  against  Lake  Winnebago.  About 
this  time  the  De  Langlades  had  settled  in  AVisconsin  as  the  first 
pioneers,  and  in  a  few  years  the  great  M^ar  between  France  and 
England  has  its  influence  on  this  farthest  frontier,  where  the  bold 
warrior.  Captain  Charles  de  Langlade,  was  appointed  to  command 
the  western  tribes.  With  his  motley  throng  of  savages  there 
were  about  one  hundred  AA^innebago,  and  midst  the  din  of  Brad- 
doek's  defeat  was  "mingled  the  blood  curdling  screech  of  the 
Winnebago."  They  were  at  the  council,  with  Montcalm,  on  the 
banks  of  Lake  George ;  and  at  the  massacre  of  Fort  AVilliam 
Henry,  and  at  the  fall  of  Quebec. 

After  the  Fleur  de  Lis  was  hauled  down  from  Quebec  and 


Kiiy:laiul  took  all  ('aiiada  undt'i'  her  autliorily,  coiuiiiantlaiit.s  and 
soldiers  were  seiil  west  to  assume  eoiniiiaiid  of  the  aneient  border 
posts,  wliieli  had  been  iiiub'r  the  irenllc  sway  of  Franee  since  the 
first  white  iiicii  ciniic.  liy  17()2  Liciit.  .lames  (Joi'i'cll  was  in  com- 
iiiand  III  ihc  ii'iiin.inis  of  tin-  old  l-'iviidi  t'oii  al  Green  Bay,  and 
licid  ;\  coiiiicil  with  ilic  \\'iiin"l>a^<»  chief,  who  |)i-omis('(l  to  send 
the  bell  hr  lia<i  received  to  the  otht-r  1  wo  chiefs  of  his  nation, 
lie  reports  soon  after  that  ''a  chic^f  belon^ino:  to  a  second  Puans 
town  arrived."  In  Aujiusl  Ihe  WinnebajLro  chief  fi-om  the  third 
town  came  and  declared  he  had  Jiever  foujilit  ajrainst  Ihe  Fnfrlisli. 
They  all  i-ecjuc^sted  a  gunsmith,  a  trader  and  I'um.  The  following 
summer  (17H8).  Avhen  Captain  Etherington,  after  the  massacre 
at  Old  ^Mackinaw,  sent  woi-d  1o  Gorrell  to  go  to  him  willi  the 
gai-i'ison,  the  Winnebago  were  among  the  four  Indian  tril)es 
which  formed  his  escort. 

In  his  Journal  Lieut.  James  Gorrell  reports  of  the  "Indian 
warriors.  l)esides  Avomen  and  children  dei)ending  on  the  i)ost  at 
Green  Bay,"  there  were  "Puans,  loO  al  the  end  of  Puan's  lake 
(AVinnebago)  and  over  against  Louistonant."  It  was  in  17(i() 
that  the  celebrated  Capt.  Jonathan  Carver  mad"  his  voyage  up 
the  historic  Fox  river  and  pased  four  days  enjoying  the  hos- 
pitality of  the  Winnebago  village  on  Doty  island,  then  presided 
Dver  l)y  their  ((ueen,  Glory  of  the  ^loi-niug.  or  Ilopokoekau.  who 
had  married  Kebrevoir  De  Carrie,  an  officer  of  the  b'l-cnch  ai'uiy, 
Avlu)  after  ]'esigning  in  172!)  Ix'canu'  the  first  trader  among  the 
AVinnebago.  Three  sons  and  one  daughter  Avei-e  boi'u  to  the 
iniion.  He  reentered  the  army  and  died  for  his  flag  before  Que- 
bec, April  28,  1760.  Captain  Carver  called  the  village  "the  great 
town  of  AVinuebago,"  and  said  it  contained  fifty  houses  which 
were  strongly  built  Avith  i^alisades. 

During  the  war  of  the  l\e\()lution  there  was  iu)t  a  friend  of 
the  colonists  in  all  Wisconsin,  and  Capt.  Charles  de  Langlade, 
now  in  the  red  uniform  of  a  British  officer,  recruited  his  dusky 
troops  from  among  the  Winnebago  to  join  Burgoyne's  invasion. 
bnt  all  had  abandoned  the  English  geiu'i-al  befoi-e  his  surrender. 
The  Winnebau'o  recei\-ed  a  wai-  belt  from  De  Peystei-.  in  command 
at  Old  .Mackinaw,  and  liad  notice  to  be  ready  to  go  to  Hamilton's 
aid,  at  Vincennes.  in  the  autumn  of  1778.  In  the  ]>arty  of  savages 
who  went  down  the  ^Mississippi  in  the  spring  to  aid  Hamilton,  l)ut 
I'ejni'iu'd  on  receiving  woi'd  ol  iiis  sui'i-ender  to  (reorge  Roger 
Clark,  tliei'e  were  Winnebago.  On  theii'  return  to  old  Mackinaw 
witii  (Joutier  the  Winnebago  were  at  once  sent  (in  .Inne.  177!^ 
south   thi'ongh   ^lichigan  to  commit    depredations  and   "bring  in 


some  prisoners."  The  AVinnebago  repaired  to  Montreal  with 
other  western  savages  under  De  Langlade,  and  returned  on  news 
of  the  operations  of  George  Roger  Clark  in  Illinois.  When  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Sinelair  sent  the  army  of  savages  under  Captain 
de  Langlade  to  the  massacre  of  St.  Louis,  there  Avas  a  band  of 
AVinnebago,  as  usual,  in  his  party.  The  assault  on  the  embank- 
ment at  the  stone  warehouse  was  made  by  the  AVinnebago,  Avho 
left  one  chief  and  three  warriors  dead  on  the  parapet,  Avhile  four 
others  were  badly  wounded,  the  only  casualty  of  the  expedition. 
Governor  Sinclair  reports  in  July,  1780,  sending  sixty  AVinnebago 
and  a  party  of  other  Indians  south  to  the  Ohio  and  AVabash 
rivers  to  intercept  convoys  of  provisions  intended  tor  Americans 
in  the  Illinois  region. 

After  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war  the  British  fur 
trader  had  no  intention  of  giving  up  the  rich  fur  bearing  region 
of  AVisconsin,  and  began  at  once  to  keep  the  savages  in  good 
feeling,  by  a  liberal  distribution  of  presents,  an  annual  favor 
which  was  accorded  llic  AVinnebago  and  others  for  many  vears 
and  until  after  the  close  of  the  last  war  in  1815.  At  the  instance 
of  the  merchants  of  Alontreal  in  1787,  after  the  cession  of  the 
region  now  AVisconsin,  the  British  sent  ]Mr.  Ainsee  up  the  Fox 
river  to  the  Alississippi  with  a  "canoe  loaded  with  thirteen  bales 
of  goods"  for  presents  to  AVisconsin  savages.  At  the  Portage  he 
"assembled  all  the  Puants  to  give  them  a  speech  and  made  them 
presents  of  goods,  rum  and  tobacco."  In  the  same  report  Ainsee 
gives  the  number  of  Puants  as  310  men  in  "the  village  of  the 
Puants  altogether." 

The  principal  or  head  village  of  the  AVinnebago  was  still  on 
Lake  Winnebago,  as  it  had  been  since  long  prior  to  the  coming  of 
Nicolet  in  1634.  The  first  record  of  any  other  village  was  the 
reference  given  from  Gorrell  in  1762.  During  the  Revolution, 
when  Goutier  took  to  the  woods  on  snowshoes  to  rouse  the  clans 
for  the  spring  campaign  in  1778,  he  mentions  "the  great  village 
of  the  Puants  of  the  lake.  Avhich  was  the  strongest  one." 

Antoine  LeClaire,  a  trader  who  settled  in  Alilwaukee  in  1800, 
mentions  sending  out  "engages"  to  trade  Avith  the  Indians,  "on 
AVinnebago  lake  to  the  AVinnebago."  The  merchants  of  ^Montreal 
reported  to  the  agents  of  the  croAvn,  in  1786,  that  the  AVinnebago 
numbered  six  hundred  men,  and  had  their  first  Anllage  only 
twelve  leagues  (thirty  miles)  fi'om  "LaBaye,"  and  being  on  the 
road  to  the  Mississippi,  they  are  frecpiently  troublesome  to  the 
traders  passing.  This  system  of  claiming  to  own  the  river  and 
exacting  presents  for  the  right  to  pass  had  been  practiced  for 


many  years  by  the  tril)e,  and  had  been  a  frequent  cause  of  strife 
between  the  "Winnebago  on  Doty  island  and  the  numerous  traders 
obliged  to  stem  the  tides  of  the  Fox  river  to  reach  their  posts 
along  the  ^Mississippi  river. 

The  frontier  discpiict  of  the  Indians,  inspired  by  l^ritisli 
agents,  finally  resulted  in  sending  ^Nlad  Anthony  AVayne  into  the 
border  huuls  of  Ohio,  where  he  fought  several  successful  battles 
■with  the  savages,  the  most  desperate  and  successful  one  being 
that  near  Maumee  City,  in  Ohio,  on  ilie  ;Wth  day  of  August.  17i)4. 
The  Winne])ago  hud  been  liil  into  these  border  troubles  and  were 
among  the  savages  defeated  in  tli;i1  disastrous  battle.  Mr.  Wil- 
liam J.  Snelling  relates  that  he  remembers  a  AVinnebago  at  the 
AVisconsin  portage  who  met  travelers  Avith  a  human  hand 
dangling  on  his  breast,  which  he  had  taken  from  a  Yankee  soldier 
at  Tip})ecanoe,  and  says  sixty  AVinnebago  were  killed  in  that 
battle.  The  last  war  with  England  was  declared  on  June  19. 
1812,  by  the  President's  proclamation.  Before  it  was  possible  to 
reinforce  the  small  garrison  at  Fort  IMackinaAv,  on  the  island  of 
that  name,  it  Avas  surprised  and  captured  and  held  during  the 
Avar  as  a  rally  outpost  of  the  British,  from  Avhich  the  saA'ages  of 
AVisconsin  Avere  constantly  recruited  to  add  to  the  frontier  hor- 
rors of  that  Avar.  It  is  said  that  after  the  capture  of  Proctor's 
camp  in  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  bales  of  scalps  Avere  discovered 
on  Avhich  had  been  paid  a  bounty  by  the  British  agents.  The 
"Winnebago  took  part  in  many  of  the  important  movements  of  the 
British  on  the  Avestern  border.  AVhen  Col.  Robert  Dickson,  the 
"Red  Head,"  gathered  the  tribes  for  the  English  in  1812.  he  ran 
into  (}i-eeii  Bay  Avilli  100  Sioux,  and  enlisted  Tomah  and  the 
Grizzly  Bear  Avith  100  Alenominee,  and  a  large  body  of  "Winne- 
bago led  by  Teal.  One-eyed  Decorah  and  other  chiefs.  They 
A'oyaged  over  to  ^NFackinac  island  and  captured  the  fort  from  the 
Americans,  July  17,  1812,  Avithout  a  bloAv,  after  Avhich  the  AVinne- 
bago  and  Sioux  returned  home.  Jn  the  spring  of  1813,  Avhen 
Colonel  Dickson  rallied  the  clans  again  for  the  AA'ar.  there  sailed 
out  of  tlie  Fox  river  on  his  train,  beside  the  Sioux  and  IMenom- 
inee,  a  considerable  band  of  AYinncbago  under  their  chiefs.  Old 
Decorah,  Carrymaunee.  AYinnocheek,  Pesheu.  or  the  AYild  Cat, 
Sausamaunee,  Black  AYolf,  Sarcel,  or  the  Teal,  and  Neokautah, 
or  Four  Legs.  Avith  AFichael  Brisbois  as  their  interpreter.  Arriving 
at  Fort  Meigs  too  late  for  the  action,  they  retired  to  Detroit, 
from  AA-hence  they  sailed  under  Proctor  and  Dickson  to  Sandusky 
and  attacked  the  fort  so  gallantly  defended  by  the  young  Afaj. 
George    Croghan,   Avhere   they   Avere    defeated.      In   June,    1813, 


Colonel  Dickson  emerged  at  ^Mackinac  from  a  lon^  sojourn  among 
the  Wisconsin  tribes,  bringing  with  him  600  savages  and  their 
families,  to  be  sent  to  General  Proctor  as  a  part  of  his  force. 
There  were  130  Winnebago  in  the  party.  After  eating  nearly  all 
of  Proctor's  available  provisions  and  committing  wanton  depreda- 
tions on  the  settlers'  live  stock  tlie  AYisconsin  Indians  returned 
home.  During  the  winter  of  1813-14  a  delegation  of  AVisconsin 
savages  visited  Quebec,  where  they  were  warmly  welcomed  by 
Sir  George  Prevost.  The  AVinnebago  were  represented  by 

The  expedition  under  the  British  Col.  AVilliam  AtcKay,  which 
surprised  and  captured  the  American  fort  Shelby  at  Prairie  Du 
Chien,  July  17,  1814,  had  with  them  a  band  of  100  AVinnebago 
under  their  chiefs,  Pesheu  or  AVild  Cat,  Sarcel  or  Teal,  Carry- 
maunee,  AVinnocheek,  Sar-ra-chau,  Neokautah  or  Four  Legs,  and 
Black  Wolf.  As  McKay's  fleet  of  barges  and  canoes  floated  down 
the  Wisconsin,  a  AVinnebago  was  in  the  party  of  scouts,  who 
went  under  cover  of  night  into  the  to-\vn  and  captured  a  citizen, 
whom  they  carried  away  to  get  information.  In  deploying  before 
the  fort  the  AYinnel)ago  took  post  above  the  fort.  Two  of  the 
AVinnebago,  discovering  some  hams  in  a  house,  mounted  to  the 
roof  and  began  to  tear  off  the  shingles  to  gain  an  entrance  and 
were  both  shot  in  the  thigh.  On  the  second  day  of  tlie  siege 
Colonel  AIcKay  assembled  the  Indian  chiefs  and  requested  their 
consent  to  an  assault,  but  the  AVinnebago  chief,  Sarcel  or  the 
Teal,  demurred,  saying  he  and  his  people  remembered  taking  part 
with  the  English  in  assaulting  an  American  fort,  when  they  were 
beaten  back  with  terrible  slaughter.  Sarcel  proposed  to  dig  a 
trench  in  the  sand  and  blow  up  the  fort,  to  which  Colonel  McKay 
agreed;  but  after 'a  few  hours'  labor  the  Indians  tired  of  the 
Avork  and  refused  to  go  ahead.  After  the  surrender,  and  just 
before  the  time  appointed  for  the  Americans  to  give  up  their 
arms,  a  AVinnebago  cut  off  the  finger  of  a  soldier  whose  hand 
was  thrust  through  a  port  hole  in  friendly  greeting.  In  his 
reports  Colonel  McKay  mentions  the  AVinnebago  as  in  the  Indian 
contingent,  and  says  of  them  that  they  were  ''perfectly  useless 
to  him,"  and  severely  criticises  them.  They  would  not  receive 
officers'  orders  unless  he  "held  a  blanket  in  one  hand  and  a  piece 
of  pork  in  another." 

Col.  Robert  Dickson  on  his  way  to  the  British  garrison  at 
Prairie  Du  Chien  in  the  fall  of  1814,  caught  by  the  freezing  of 
Lake  AVinnebago  at  Doty  Island  and  forced  to  remain  the  winter, 
writes  in  the  spring:     "I  shall  move  from  this  as  soon  as  I  can. 


;is  the  Puaiits  an'  lic^iiiniim  !(•  draw  aritiiiid  inc.  and  one  liad  as 
well  l)('  in  lu'll  as  with  tlirm."'  Al'tt'i-  llic  peace  the  Hritish  lield 
a  council  June  .'5.  isi.'t.  at  .Mailxinaw,  helween  Sau-sa-niau-nee, 
Black  Wolf,  Xeokautaii  or  Four  iiC^s.  and  ioi-ly  waj-riors.  Sau- 
sa-niau-nee  was  tlie  orator  foi-  liis  people  and  liis  s|)eecli  is 
recorded.  .Jud,u:e  LocUwood  rc|)(»i'1s  their  number  in  liSlG  as  i)()() 
warriors,  from  estimates  of  tlie  traders  best  ac(iuain1eil  with 
them.  The  treaty  made  with  a  portion  ol  the  Fox  tril)es  Novem- 
bei'  ;},  1804.  whiih  caused  so  much  dissatisfaction  amon^  members 
of  that  tribe,  was  confirmed  a1  a  council  h^ld  at  SI.  Louis.  May 
18.  181(1.  at  which  those  Wiiiiicba'-o  present,  residents  of  Wis- 
consin, coniirmetl  tliat  part  of  the  ti-eaty  wliich  was  sui)posed  to 
tri'ant  their  rights  in  the  lands  of  the  b'ad  reuion. 


The  AVinneliago  were  involved  in  the  iiiimigration  of  the  New 
York  Indians  by  the  range  of  their  hunting  gi-ounds.  Tiie  Winne- 
bago and  JVIenominee,  August  IS.  1S21,  tii'aiited  to  tlie  Xew  ^'oil< 
tribes  a  ribl)on  of  land  diagonal! \'  across  the  state  five  miles  wide, 
the  strij)  crossing  the  Fox  river  at  Little  ('hut(\  At  this  tinu' 
the  jMenominee  claimed  all  Green  Bay  and  the  shore  of  Lake 
^lichigan  to  tlu^  mouth  of  the  ]Milwauk(M>  lixcr  and  west  to  the 
.Mississippi  imnct  in  a  northwest  direction.  The  Winnebago 
claimed  all  the  balance  of  the  state  north  and  west  of  the  Fox 
river  and  Lake  Winnebago.  The  following  summer  the  Xew 
York  Iiulians  returned  to  urge  a  larger  grant  :  but  on  coming 
into  a  council  the  AVinnebago  refused  to  concede  any  further 
grants  and  left  in  a  body  to  go  on  their  hunt.  Before  leaving, 
however,  they  were  induced  to  favoi'  the  visitor  with  an  exhibi- 
tion of  their  war  dance,  pipe  dance  and  begging  dance,  which 
are  grai)hically  described  by  (Jeneral  Willis,  who  adds:  "The 
AViuTiebago  exhibited  the  largest,  most  perfectly  formed  men  aiul 
women  ever  seen  anywhere.  The  display  of  action  and  muside 
in  the  dances  stru(dv  the  Ixdiolder  with  admiration  and  terror. 
The  ring  around  the  dancers  of  several  thousand,  all  singing  in 
chorus  to  the  chief  drunnner.  the  voices  of  the  AVinnebago  women 
pi-evailing  in  clarion  tone  above  the  whole."  August  11,  1827. 
was  a  treaty  concluded  at  tlie  Little  P.ntte  des  Morts.  "the  Hill 
of  the  Dead,"  on  the  west  bank  of  the  lake  of  that  name,  now 
in  the  town  of  Alenasha.  betAvecMi  the  AVinnebago.  .Menominee 
aiul  Xew  A'ork  Indians,  by  which  the  above  lrii)es  ceiled  their 
lanils  in  the  Fox   vallev   to  the   I'nited  States.     Lewis  Cass  and 


Thos.  L.  ^Mc'Kinney  were  the  commissioners.  This  council  was 
lickl  during-  the  Winnebago  war,  so  called.  It  was  attended  by 
live  thousand  savages.  Colonel  AVhistler,  while  on  his  journey 
up  the  Fox  river  from  Fort  IIoAvard  to  join  General  Atkinson  at 
Portage,  remained  with  his  regiment  at  the  Little  Butte  des  Morts 
as  the  Governor's  guard  until  the  close  of  the  council,  when  he 
resumed  his  journey  uji  stream.  During  the  council  the  Winne- 
bago were  notified  that  they  must  give  up  the  murderers.  It  is 
said  to  have  been  due  to  this  council  that  brought  the  surrender 
at  Portage  the  next  month  on  the  arrival  of  Colonel  Whistler. 
There  is  a  painting  of  the  Little  Butte  des  jMorts  council  made  by 
Lewis,  "painted  on  the  spot,"  in  his  rare  portfolio  of  frontier 

Tlie  AVinnel)ago  war  took  place  in  1827.  It  was  not  a  war, 
but  only  a  widespread  scare  to  the  few  pioneers  who  had  come 
to  settle  in  the  far  aAvay  lands  of  the  Avest.  Those  who  mention 
the  events  of  that  day  generally  agree  that  the  energetic  move- 
ments of  Governor  Lewis  Cass,  and  the  promptness  of  the  militia 
under  Gen.  Henry  Dodge,  and  the  dispatch  of  General  Atkinson 
witli  the  United  States  army  into  the  field,  inspired  the  AVin- 
nebago  with  such  respect  for  the  poAver  of  the  United  States  that 
the  incipient  disturbance  was  quelled  before  it  was  barely  com- 
menced. As  there  were  at  that  time  nearly  nine  thousand  Winne- 
bago, they  could  have  set  the  torch  to  the  whole  frontier  before 
being  conquered.  At  that  period  there  was  a  small  settlement  of 
whites  at  Green  Bay,  another  at  Prairie  du  Chien.  and  possibly 
seven  hundred  people  in  the  lead  region  south  of  the  Wisconsin 
river.  Fort  Winnebago  was  then  erected  at  Portage  as  a  protec- 
tion to  the  frontier  from  any  Winnebago  treachery. 


I>y  this  time  the  trilie  had  very  nuich  increased  in  numbers, 
and  were  scattered  all  along  the  Fox  and  Wisconsin  rivers.  Mrs. 
John  Kinzie  reports  in  ''Wau  Bun,"  in  1880,  two  divisions  of 
Winnebago  Indians,  "one  paid  l)y  the  agent  at  Portage  and  the 
other  at  Prairie  du  Chien."  "The  Portage  division  numbered  be- 
tween four  and  five  thousand."  At  the  Winnebago  annuity  pay- 
ment in  1884,  jNIr.  Henry  ]\lerrill  says  there  asseml)led  at  Portage 
upwards  of  three  thousand  men.  women  and  children.  Mr.  Mc- 
Call  reports  in  1830,  "Four  thousand  Winnebago  in  the  nation." 

The  smallpox  scourge  broke  out  in  the  tribe  in  1834  and  raged 
a  fearful  epidemic,  from  Avhich  nearly  half  the  tribe  died.     The 


inodiciiic  men  a])aiul()iir(l  ilicii'  ftitilc  attciiipts  to  stay  its  I'avages, 
ami  1li('  post  sw('])t  through  the  \illajr('s,  and  sur\i\'()rs  fleeing 
before  i1.  Icaxin^'  tlicii'  dead  uiiliiii-icd. 

The  delegates  wlio  visited  Washington  in  1837  to  make  a  treaty 
liad  no  anthority  to  eonelude  a  treaty,  and  so  declared.  That  was 
the  treaty  (Nov.  1,  1887.)  by  whieh  all  the  lands  of  tiie  Winne- 
bago east  of  the  ^Mississippi  were  eeded  to  the  Ignited  States. 
It  Avas  loudly  jiroelaimed  by  the  tribe  to  be  a  fraud.  Chief  Yel- 
low Thunder,  whose  village  was  near  Eureka,  in  AVinnebago 
county,  and  two  others  were  of  this  party,  and  all  declared  they 
had  no  right  to  make  a  treaty.  The  first  allrnipl  to  remove  the 
tribe  was  begun  in  1840.  when  a  considerable  band  wei-c  induced 
to  remove  to  the  Turkey  river  in  Iowa.  In  1837  the  AVinnebago, 
headed  ])y  One-eyed  Dekaury,  Ijittle  Dekaury,  AVinnosheek, 
AVaukon  Dekaury,  and  six  other  chiefs,  went  to  AVashington  and 
ceded  all  the  land  still  claimed  by  them  east  of  the  Alississippi 
river,  reserving  the  privilege  of  occupying  until  18-40.  That  year 
the  troops  came  to  Portage  to  remove  them.  Yellow  Tlninder 
and  Black  AVolf 's  son  were  invited  to  Portage  to  get  provisions, 
l)ut  as  soon  as  they  arrived  at  Portage  they  were  put  in  the 
guardhouse  Avith  l)all  and  chain  on  their  ankles,  which  Inirt  their 
feelings,  as  1lie\-  luid  done  no  harm.  The  Genei'al  liad  understood 
they  were  going  to  revolt,  and  i-efused  to  emigrate;  but  as  soon 
as  Governor  Dodge  came  to  Portage  they  were  released.  They 
all  promised  faithfully  to  be  in  Portage  in  three  days,  ready  for 
removal,  and  they  Avere  all  there.  Two  large  boats  Avere  pro- 
vided to  take  doAvn  the  Indians  Avho  had  no  canoes.  At  the  head 
of  Kickapoo  creek  they  came  to  some  AvigAvams,  Avhere  Iavo  old 
Avomen,  sisters  of  Black  AA^olf,  fell  on  their  knees,  crying  and  be- 
seeching Captain  Summer  to  kill  them  :  Ilie\'  wei'e  old  and  would 
rather  die  and  l)e  l)uried  Avith  their  fathers  and  mothers  and 
children  than  he  taken  aAvay.  The  Captain  let  them  remain,  and 
left  three  young  men  to  hunt  for  them.  Further  doAvn  they  came 
to  the  camp  of  Ke-ji-que-Ave-ka ;  the  people  Avere  told  to  ]>ut  tlunr 
things  in  the  wagon  and  go  along.  Depositing  their  l)elongings 
they  started  south  from  Avhere  they  Avere  Avhen  the  Captain  sent 
to  ask  Avhere  they  Avere  going.  They  said  they  Avere  going  to  bid 
good-bye  to  their  fathers,  mothers  and  children.  The  interpreter 
folloAved  lliem  and  found  them  on  Hieii'  knees,  kissing  the  ground 
and  crying  very  loud  Avhere  their  relations  Avere  buried.  This 
touched  the  Captain,  Avho  exclaimed:  "Good  God,  Avhat  harm 
can  these  poor  Indians  do  among  the  rocks." 

After  being  removed  at  difftM-ent  times  to  locations  in  loAva, 


Minnesota  and  Dakota,  they  Avere  finally  located  on  one  hundred 
twenty-eight  thousand  acres  of  the  northern  part  of  the  Omaha 
reservation  in  eastern  Nebraska,  containing  some  of  the  best 
timbered  lands,  by  May,  1866.  There  still  reside  in  the  pine  bar- 
rens of  Jackson  and  Adams  county  stragglers  who  have  returned, 
reported  in  1887  to  number  one  thousand  six  hundred.  Most  of 
these  have  homesteads,  where  they  live  by  picking  berries,  fishing 
and  hunting,  with  ever  increasing  families.  Large  families  are 
the  rule  among  the  Winnebago.  Green  Grass,  son  of  Kayrah- 
maunee,  came  to  the  payment  at  Black  River  Falls  to  draw  for 
fifteen  children;  but  could  not  count  or  name  them.  Major  Hal- 
leck,  the  agent,  had  him  bring  them  in  and  stand  them  in  a  row. 
''The  AVinnebago  as  a  tribe  has  due  them  $883,249.58  under 
their  treaties  of  1837  and  the  act  of  July  15,  1870,  which  has  not 
been  capitalized  and  placed  in  the  treasury  as  a  trust  fund.  Con- 
gress annually  appropriates  5  per  cent  interest  on  the  principal, 
amounting  to  $1:4,1 62.47.  The  AA^isconsin  band  received  $18,- 
026.13  of  that  amount,  whicli  is  paid  them  in  cash.  They  also 
receive  $7,000  each  year  from  that  amount  to  ecpialize  their  pay- 
ments with  the  Nebraska  branch  under  the  act  of  1881.  Under 
that  act  they  have  reecived  $147,000  and  $73,969.91  is  yet  due 
them  in  yearly  installments  of  $7,000.  The  Nebraska  branch  re- 
ceives yearly  $10,000  cash  for  per  capita  payments,  and  after  this 
and  the  amounts  due  to  the  AVisconsin  branch  are  deducted  the 
remainder  is  subject  to  expenditure  for  supplies  for  the  Nebraska 
branch.  Eventually  the  Wisconsin  branch  will  receive  their  share 
of  the  principal  after  it  has  been  capitalized  and  segregated." 


There  are  at  this  writing  1,180  AVinnebago  listed  in  Wisconsin 
and  2,613  in  Nebraska,  making  a  total  of  3,793  or  about  4,000 
Winnebago  now  living.  This  shows  an  increase  in  200  years  of 
700  per  cent,  due  to  enforced  peace ;  and  notwithstanding  the 
natural  decimation  due  to  smallpox,  famine,  habits  and  whisky. 

Rev.  Cutting  Marsh  crossed  Doty  island  in  1832,  and  found 
still  there  a  small  village  of  AVinnebago.  This  was  the  remnant 
of  Four  Leg's  tribe.  He  was  dead  two  years  before.  Three  years 
later  the  Alenomonee  mission  was  established  at  Neenah,  before 
which  time,  it  is  presumed,  the  last  of  those  who  had  made  this 
ancient  village  famous  in  border  annals  had  moved  up  the  river 
and  away. 

The  totems  of  the  AA^innebago  were  the  lynx,  catamount,  wild- 

30  HISTORY  OF  :moxroe  county 

fat  and  stajr.  'J'lu'v  drosscd  in  the  earlier  days  much  as  tlie 
]ii-iniitiv('  tribes,  in  the  tanned  skins  and  lurs  of  the  wild  animals, 
as  also  in  woven  cloth.  The  special  manner  of  doin^  their  hair 
was  to  shave  llie  sides  of  the  head  and  do  tlie  liaii-  in  two  square 
cushions  on  tlie  t)ack  of  the  head.  The  artist  in  ihe  Nieolet 
landfall,  i-eceiilly  hiin»i  in  the  i-ooms  of  the  State  Historical 
Society,  has  taken  llieii-  nakedness  too  literallv  ami  made  a  eari- 
cature  of  their  nudeness.  There  is  no  authority  for  such  literal 
nak(>dness.  They  were  an  industrious  and  thrifty  people,  having 
at  all  theii"  villa^res  wide  fields  of  corn  and  ve<?etal)les.  Some  of 
these  fields  were  several  hundred  acres  in  extent.  They  trathered 
wild  rice  for  food  also.  Sat.  Clark  told  Dr.  Lapham  that  General 
Atkinson  purchased  6,000  l)ushels  of  corn  from  the  AVinnebago ; 
and  in  1848  he  had  (lii\('n  over  half  a  mile  of  old  Indian  corn- 
fields in  Columbia  county,  Avhich  a  pioneer  had  told  him  the 
AVinnebago  had  cultivated.  Their  villages  contained  Avell  con- 
structed, warm  cabins  or  Avigwams,  and  they  appeared  to  enjoy 
])rosperity,  notwithstanding  their  history  contains  so  much  war. 
pestilence  and  whisky. 

AVhatever  may  have  l)een  tlu'  truth  of  the  mattci-.  they  seem 
to  have  the  universal  hatred  or  disfavor  of  all  their  neighbors 
aud  the  whites.  The  whites  write  them  down  invariably  filthy. 
It  is  such  a  general  charge  that  one  might  be  incdined  to  suppose 
it  to  be  repeated  by  suggestion.  AVhether  any  one  took  the 
trouble  to  inquire  if  this  was  a  domestic  infirmity  or  only  came 
from  the  supposed  derivation  of  their  nann^  we  cannot  learn.  One 
hundred  years  ago  Capt.  Thomas  A.  Anderson  Avintered  on  Kock 
river,  at  tlu^  foot  of  a  precipice,  ;W0  feet  above  the  river,  trading 
with  the  AVinnebago.  and  long  afterward  said.  "They  are  the 
nu)st  tilthy,  most  obstinate  and  bravest  people  of  any  Indian 
tribe."  As  an  instance  of  their  independence,  Hon.  Alorgan  L. 
Martin  relates  of  the  guide  he  i)rocured  at  Taycheedah,  who, 
after  leading  tlieiii  into  llie  prairie,  lay  down  and  refused  to  ju-o- 
ceed.  saying  ''he  had  never  yet  been  the  slave  of  a  white  man  and 
never  would  be." 

The  nunu'rous  missionaries  who  had  gone  among  the  AVis- 
consin  savages  seein  to  hMV(>  made  little  progress  Mith  the 
Winnebago.  The  first  to  devote  himself  specially  to  one  of  tlie 
bantls  was  Kev.  Father  Ma/zuchelli,  who,  April  Iti.  1  >■!:!.  visited 
the  AVinnebago  at  the  old  Decorah  village,  eight  miles  up  the 
AVisconsin  river  tVoiii  Portage.  Two  hundred  converts  were 
made,  and  he  translated  Father  Harago's  Catechism  from  Ottawa 
to  AVinnebago,  going  7(10  miles  to  Detroit  to  get  it  printed,  ami 


returned.  Pietre  Paquette  assisted  liim  in  talking  to  the  savages. 
The  Catechism  when  returned  had  eighteen  pages.  The  intluence 
of  the  missionary  was  such  that  on  ^Mrs.  Kinzie's  offering  wine 
to  one  of  the  Indian  women  she  pointed  to  the  cross  about  her 
neck  and  refused  to  drink. 


From  the  earliest  settlement  hands  of  AVinnebagoes  had,  at 
different  times,  established  their  villages  temporarily  in  several 
parts  of  the  county;  no  permanent  location  w^as  made  until  right 
after  the  Avar  of  the  rebellion,  when  a  considerable  number,  under 
the  chief,  Ah-oo-cho-ka  oi'  "Blue  AVing, "  settled  near  Water  Mill, 
a  few  miles  north  of  Tomah. 

"Blue  AVing"  Avas  the  head  of  this  branch  of  the  tribe  and 
was  its  chief  spokesman  in  the  councils  of  the  tribe  held  at  the 
original  settlement  near  Winnebago  Lake.  He  was  a  quiet,  peace- 
ful man,  who  ruled  his  tribe  Avith  justice,  whose  good  qualities 
made  him  many  friends  among  his  Avhite  neighbors  and  the  busi- 
ness and  professional  men  in  Tomah  Avith  Avhom  he  had  dealings ; 
he  lived  to  the  age  of  103  years,  and  at  his  death  he  Avas  held  in 
such  esteem  that  a  public  funeral  Avas  held  in  the  Methodist 
church  at  Tomah,  largely  attended  by  the  town  people  and  his 
neighbors;  a  striking  illustration,  indeed,  of  the  transition  from 
saA^agery  to  civilization,  a  modern  funeral  serA'ice  held  over  the 
remains  of  a  savage  attended  by  his  own  people.  After  the  death 
of  "Blue  Wing"  there  Avas  no  succession  as  chief  as  the  band  had 
gradually  taken  up  land  and  Avere,  and  are,  getting  away  from 
the  tribal  relations.  They  in  common  Avith  other  members  of 
the  tribe  Avere  moved  to  Nebraska  at  the  time  mentioned  in  this 
chapter,  but  this  band  of  about  200  came  back  and  settled  again 
at  AVater  Alill,  Avdiere  they  among  them  oAvned  quite  a  tract  of 
land.  They  enlisted  the  services  of  Harry  Lea,  of  Tomah,  Avho 
had  traded  A^dth  them  for  j^ears,  and  he  diA'ided  the  land  into 
ten-acre  pieces,  assigning  one  or  more  to  the  head  of  each  family 
so  that  they  became  land  OAvners  and  could  not  then  be  taken  back 
to  Nebraska. 

In  this  band  Avere  tAvo  Indians  avIio  Avere  in  the  army  during 
the  rebellion,  an  old  felloAV  familiarly  knoAvn  in  later  years  as 
"Sherman,"  because  he  served  in  the  Third  AVisconsin  and  Avas 
under  General  Sherman,  and  also  a  son  of  Chief  "Blue  AVing, " 
known  as  "Thunder  Chief." 

Among  them  exists  a  secret  religious  organization  Avhich  has 


IxH'ii  ill  existence  no  one  knows  liow  long.  It  lias  an  otter  skin 
lia<l<re,  to  lose  which  is  said  to  invoke  a  death  penalty;  they 
indulge  in  strange  and  fantastic  rites  and  ceremonies,  and  no 
Avhite  man  has  ever  been  able  to  discover  any  of  their  secrets. 
The  squaws  of  different  branches  of  the  tril)e  in  general  are 
known  by  the  kind  of  work  they  turn  out.  This  particular  branch 
was  noted  for  the  beautiful  bead  work  turned  out  by  its  women, 
everything  from  moccasins  and  hair  liands  to  entire  suits  of  buck- 
skin, beautifully  decorated  in  most  elaborate  patterns.  Some  of 
the  children  are  sent  to  the  Government  Indian  School  at  Tomah, 
although  it  seems  to  be  the  case  that  only  a  small  percentage 
take  advantage  of  the  education  thus  acquired,  but  go  back  to 
the  indolent  tribal  life. 



The  Sachems  of  the  great  Winnebago,  who  have  become  inti- 
mately associated  with  the  beginning  of  the  history  of  Wisconsin, 
were  either  residents  of  Winnebago  county  or  were  sired  by  its 
ancient  lords.    The  mother  and  grandmother  of  that  noble  line  of 
Decorah  chiefs,  who  met  the  pioneers  of  the  state,  was  the  beauti- 
ful queen  of  the  Winnebago,  "Glory  of  the  Morning,"  sister  of 
the  head  chief  of  the  Winnebago  tribe  on  Doty  island,  now  in 
Menasha  and  Neenali,  on  the  Fox    river,  at   the    foot    of    Lake 
Winnebago.    Her  Indian  name  was  Hopokoekau,  also  spelled  by 
LaRonde,  AVahopoekau.    Her  birth  was  not  of  record.    She  mar- 
ried Sebrevior  De  Carrie,  who  was  an  officer  in  the  French  army 
in  1699  under  De  Boisbraint.    He  resigned  his  commission  in  1729 
and  became  the  first  trader  in  Indian  goods  in  the  county,  living 
and  trading  with  the  Winnebago  on  Doty  Island.     During  the 
French  and  Indian  war  De  Carrie  reentered  the  French  army 
and  was  mortally  wounded  before  Quebec,  April  28,  1760.     In 
some  of  the  almost  daily  assaults  made  by  Wolfe  upon  some  part 
of  the  long  defenses  on  the  bluffs  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  being 
taken  to  Montreal,  died  there  in  the  hospital,  and  two  weeks  later 
France  lost  Canada  forever.    Three  sons  and  two  daughters  were 
born  to  this  union.     Glory  of  the  Morning  refused  to  go  to  Mon- 
treal with  her  husband,  and  remained  on  her  island  home  with 
her  family ;  but  De  Carrie  took  with  him  one  daughter,  who  mar- 
ried there  Sieur  Laurent  Fily,  a  merchant  of  Quebec,  who  subse- 
quently removed  to  Green  Bay,  where  they  have  descendants  still 
living  in  the  valley.     Capt.  Jonathan  Carver,  who  visited  the 
queen  in  1766  on  Doty  island,  mentions  the  pleasure  his  atten- 
tions to  the  queen  gave  her  attendants  as  well  as  herself.     She 
received  him  graciously  and  sumptuously  entertained  him  during 
the  four  days  he  remained  in  her  village.    He  writes  of  the  town 
that  it  "contained  fifty  houses."     "The  land,"  he  says,  "was 
very  fertile ;  grapes,  plums  and  other  fruit  grew  in  abundance. 
The  Indians  raised  large  quantities  of  Indian  corn,  beans,  pump- 
kins, squash,  watermelons  and  some  tobacco."    Mrs.  Kinzie  gives 


34  TiisToKV  (W  MosPxin:  corxTV 

a  long  clKiraclcr  sketch  of  the  ancient  queeii  in  August,  1831. 
"No  one  could  tell  iici-  age:  Iml  .ill  agreed  sin'  imist  have  been 
upwards  of  100.  llcr  diiiimed  eyes,  ahnost  Avhite  with  age;  her 
face  dai-ki'ii('(|  ;iii(l  wil  licrcd.  like  a  hakcd  appli':  \\r\-  voice 
tremulous  and  Icihlt'.  exce]»t  when  raised  in  I'ury — she  usually 
went  on  all  fours,  iiol  having  strength  to  stand  upi-ight.  On  the 
day  of  the  payment  she  received  liei'  nu)ney  and  ciawled  to  the 
agency  door  to  count  it."  ^Ir.  lleni-y  Merrill,  wi-iting  in  the  year 
IS.'S-l,  says  that  she  ""was  pointed  out  to  uie  several  years  after 
(1884),  and  I  was  told  she  iiiusi  lie  1].'!  yeai's  old.  She  was  then 
ahle  to  walk  si.\  oi-  eight  unles  to  Poi'tage.  She  lived  several 
years  after,  and  was  linall\'  hui-ned  to  death  hy  the  huruing  of 
'uer  Avigwain. "' 

As  she  then  lived  in  the  \illage  of  her  late  grandson.  Old 
Gray  Headed  Decoi'ali,  eight  niiles  hclow  P(uiage.  on  tln^  west 
side  of  the  AVisconsin  i-i\'er.  she  was  prohahly  huried  there.  She 
is  said  hy  some  Avriteis  to  have  l)een  a  daughter  of  the  head  chief. 
It  has  been  said  of  liei-  descendants,  the  Deeorah  chiefs,  that 
"they  were  generally  good  Indians,  and  frequently  urged  their 
claim  to  the  friendship  of  the  whites  hy  saying  they  were  them- 
selves half  white."  They  ai-e  said  to  have  been  " '  iutiuent  iai  men 
in  the  nation.""  and  Augustin  Grignon  says,  in  1801,  the  "Deco- 
ralis  are  among  the  most  infiueiitial  of  the  AVinnebago.''  Of  this 
marriage  there  were  two  sons,  wiH)se  names  hav(>  Ixh'U  reported. 
The  oldest  was  Chou  Ke  Ka.  oi-  Spoon  Deeorah  or  Ladle;  the 
other  was  Chah])ost  Kaw  Kaw.  or  the  Buzzard,  who  settled  with 
his  l)and  at   LaCrosse  about  1787. 

Chou  Ke  Ka.  also  spelled  ('hau  Ka  Ka.  called  S])oon  Deeorah  or 
Ladle,  Mas  the  eldest  SOU  of  Seltrevior  l)e  ('aiTie.  says  LaHonde. 
Augustin  Grignon  I'endeis  the  name  ( 'hongai'ali.  .Vs  he  knew 
the  chief  in  the  wint<'r  of  1801-2.  he  reports  him  then  as  head 
chief  of  the  Winnehago.  and  ""he  was  then  a  very  old  man  and 
died  at  Portage  in  1808.  IJy  his  i-iMjuest  he  was  buried  in  a  sitting 
posture  in  a  coffin,  jtlaeed  nw  the  sui'face  of  the  ground,  with  a 
low  cabin  alio\e  it.  surrounded  with  a  feiu-e."'  His  death 
occurred  in  1810,  according  to  LaRonde.  when  he  was  "quite 
aged."  It  also  appears  that  Chan  Ka  Ka  signed  the  treaty  of  St. 
Louis,  Alay  18,  181().  and  therefore  could  not  have  died  until 
after  that. 

Old  Gray-IIeaded  Decoi-ah.  or  Old  Deeorah.  or  Gray-IIeaded 
Deeorah,  or  AVhite  AVar  Eagle,  whose  coimiion  Indian  luune  was 
Schachip  Ka  Ka  and  Avhose  AViiniebago  name  was  AVarrahwi- 
koogah,  or  Bird  Sj)irit.  was  a  son  of  the  Ladle  and  a  gi-andson  of 


Glory  of  the  ^Morning.  He  died  at  Petenwell,  t!u'  lii<^li  rock  on 
the  Wisconsin  river,  April  20.  ISi^H.  said  to  have  been  ninety 
years  old.  He  fought  under  the  British  General  Proctor  at  San- 
dusky, twenty-one  years  of  age,  gallantly  held  the  frontier  fort 
Avith  l)ut  one  cannon.  The  AVar  Eagle  also  fought  with  Proctor 
and  Teciimseh  at  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  where  the  British 
army  was  mostly  slai^i  or  captured  and  Tecumseh  shot,  October 
5;  1813,  by  the  Americans  under  AYilliam  Henry  Harrison.  The 
War  Eagle  was  held  as  a  hostage  at  Prairie  du  Chien  in  1827  for 
the  good  behavior  of  the  AVinnebago  during  the  so-called  AVinne- 
bago  war.  and  for  the  delivery  of  Red  Bird  to  justice.  It  was 
Avhile  Alaj.  Zachary  Taylor  was  located  at  Prairie  du  Chien  that 
he  received  from  Old  Gray-Headed  Decorah  his  "peace  pipe," 
and  during  the  AVinnebago  war  it  was  he  who  gave  assurance  to 
General  Atkinson  at  Portage  of  the  peaceable  intentions  of  the 
AVinnebago.  Soon  after  Laurent  Barth  purchased  the  right  from 
the  AVinnebago  over  the  Portage,  1793,  Old  Gray-Headed  Decorah 
moved  from  Apuckawa  lake,  on  Fox  river,  in  Green  Lake  county, 
and  formed  a  village  with  his  tribe  on  the  AVisconsin  river,  about 
two  miles  above  Portage.  JjaHonde  says:  "Schachipkaka  De 
Kawry  died  April  26,  1836,  aged  ninety,  at  his  village,  the  locality 
in  1876  known  as  the  Caffrey  place  in  the  town  of  California, 
AVinnebago  county,  at  the  foot  of  the  bluft",  between  the  Wiscon- 
sin and  Baraboo  rivers.  Schoolhouse  district  No.  5  occupies  the 
spot  where  the  old  chief  died.  This  town  contained  over  100 
lodges.  He  was  a  Catholic  and  was  buried  in  their  cemetery,  near 
the  site  of  the  present  courthouse  in  Portage  City."  He  signed 
the  treaties  of  1828,  1829,  1832.  Airs.  Kinzie  described  him  as 
"the  most  noble,  dignified  and  venerable  of  his  own  or,  indeed, 
of  any  other  tribe.  His  fine  Roman  countenance,  rendered  still 
more  noble  by  his  bald  head,  with  one  solitary  tuft  of  long,  silvery 
hair  neatly  tied  falling  back  on  his  shoulders."  Old  Gray  Headed 
Decorah  came  over  to  Portage  from  his  village  during  the  famine 
in  1831  and  reported  his  people  as  starving.  He  was  oflfered 
enough  food  for  his  own  family.  "No,"  he  said,  "if  my  people 
could  not  be  relieved  my  family  and  I  wnll  starve  with  them." 

Chah  Post  Kaw  Kaw,  or  the  Buzzard  Decorah,  was  a  son  of 
Glory  of  the  Morning  and  Sebrevior  De  Carrie,  so  One-Eyed 
Decorah  told  Judge  Gale.  He  settled  at  LaCrosse  in  1787  with  a 
band  of  AVinnebago,  and  was  soon  after  killed  by  his  own  son  in 
a  drunken  row. 

One-Eyed  Decorah,  whose  Indian  name  was  AVadge-hut-ta-kaw, 
or  Big  Canoe,  was  a  son  of  the  Buzzard.     He  died  at  Channel 



(near  the  Tumicll),  ]\Ionroe  County.  Wis.,  in  August.  1864.  at  an 
advanced  age,   as  Grignon   says,   of  iiinet>-t\v().      Ills   village   in 
1832  and  later  was  at  the  nioulli  of  the  Bla<-k  livcr.  or  some  say 
near  tlie  village  of  SaltMii.  on  LaOosse  river,  in  Onalaska  town- 
ship,   LaCrosse   county.      Also    said   by   Rev.    T^runson   to    be   at 
Prairie  LaCrosse  in  1832.    In  1(S2()  he  was  said  by  Gen.  11.  L.  Dots- 
nuin  to  have  his  village  on  lilack  i'i\<M-.     Thomas  P.  Burnett,  in 
1832,  when  he  went  up  the  river  lu  keei»  the  Winnebago  eanoes 
from  Black  Hawk,  says  he  "found  One-Eyed  Decorah  and  Little 
Thunder   at    the   lower  mouth   of  the   Black   river."     One-Eyed 
Decorah  was  born  about  1772,  and  was  fifteen  years  of  age  when 
his  father  settled  at  LaCrosse.    He  aided  in  the  capture  of  Mack- 
inac (July  17,  1812),  and  was  out  with  the  British  in  the  attack 
on  Fort  Stephenson,  August  2,  1813,  and  was  with  IMcKay  in  tlu' 
capture  of  Prairie  Du  Chien;  and  signed  the  treaty  of  1825.    The 
act  for  which  he  became  celebrated  was  the  capture  of  Black 
Hawk  and  the  Prophet  in  1832.     The  daring  warrior,  his  band 
and  followers,  broken,  slain  and  scattered  by  the  murdered,  the 
picturesque  and  rugged  valley  of  the  Lemonweir  river,  and  then 
toward  the  LaCrosse  river,  where  Big  Canoe  was  hunting  near 
Bangor,  l)elow  Sparta,  and  found  Black  Hawk,  who  consented 
to  go  with  him  to  Prairie  Du  Chien,  where  he  delivered  the  cap- 

A  brother  of  One-Eyed  Deeoi-ah  Avas  AVa  Kon  Han  Kaw.  or 
Wa  kon  Decorah,  or  Snake  Skin,  commonly  called  Washington 
Decorah,  the  orator  of  the  AVinuebago.  The  name  is  also  rendered 
AYau  kon  caughaga.  His  likeness  was  painted  by  J.  0.  Lewis  in 
1825.  AYhen  Mr.  Burnett  steamed  up  the  Alississippi  river  on  the 
"Enterprise"  to  secure  the  AYinnebago  eanoes  from  Black  Hawk, 
July  25,  1832,  at  sixty  miles  up  the  river  from  Prairie  du  Chien, 
he  found  AYashington  Decorah  with  thr  pi-iiieipal  part  of  the 
1)and  from  the  AYisconsin  and  Kickapoo  rivers.  The  AVaukon 
had  a  village  on  the  headwaters  of  DeSota  creek,  below  LaCrosse. 
He  died  at  the  Black  Earth  agency  about  18(54.  Anu)ng  those  who 
bear  the  name  and  boast  descent  from  this  famous  line  of  AYinne- 
l)ago  chieftains  there  is  one  who  is  destined  to  become  famous 
in  the  white  man's  finest  art.  She  is  Angel  De  Cora  (this  is  the 
official  spelling),  of  the  reservation  in  Nebraska,  but  practicing 
her  art  in  Ne\v  York  city.  She  studied  art  in  the  art  department 
of  Smith  college  at  Northampton,  Alass.,  and  under  the  famous 
artist,  Howard  Pyle,  who  has  interested  himself  in  her  success. 
She  has  been  since  1906  an  art  instructor  in  Carlisle  Indian 


Four  Legs,  or  Neokautah,  had  his  village  at  the  outlet  of  Lake 
Winnebago,  on  Doty  island,  now  Menasha  and  Neenah.  This 
has  been  the  ancient  home  of  the  Winnebago  since  first  known 
to  the  whites  in  1632.  He  was  known  as  Neokautah  by  the 
Menominee;  but  his  Winnebago  name  was 'Hootschope,  pro- 
nounced Hooshoo.  Hon.  ]\Iorgan  L.  Martin  made  a  journey  up  the 
Fox  river  with  Judge  Doty  from  Green  Bay  to  Prairie  Du  Chien 
to  the  trial  of  Red  Bird  in  1828,  and  describes  this  village:  "On 
Doty  island,  very  near  the  mouth,  on  the  west  channel,  was  the 
village  of  Hootschope,  or  Four  Legs,  the  w^ell-known  Winnebago 
chieftain.  There  were  from  150  to  200  lodges  covered  with  bark 
or  mats."'  Augustin  Grignon  also  mentions  this  village  ''on  Doty 
island,  at  the  mouth  of  Winnebago  lake."  On  August  ]6,  1830, 
Mr.  McCall,  one  of  the  commissioners  to  arrange  the  differences 
between  the  New  York  Indian  and  the  AVinnebago,  met  in  council 
Four  Legs  and  ten  other  chiefs,  at  Four  Legs'  lodge  on  Doty 
island,  and  mentions  "that  the  head  chief  was  seated  on  his  mat, 
cross-legged,  in  all  the  majesty  of  an  Asiatic  prince,"  describing 
Four  Legs  "as  about  forty  years  of  age,  of  middle  stature,  a 
most  interesting  man  in  appearance  and  deportment,  speaks  his 
own  tongue  fluently.  In  short,  he  is  a  great  man."  Mrs.  Kinzie 
mentions  Four  Legs  as  the  "great  chief  of  the  AVinnebago,  whose 
village  was  on  Doty  island,''  in  1830,  and  says:  "It  was  at  the 
entrance  of  Lake  AVinnebago.  a  picturesque  cluster  of  huts  spread 
around  on  a  pretty  green  glade  and  shaded  by  fine,  lofty  trees," 
and  she  furnishes  an  illustration  of  the  village.  She  says  in 
another  place:  "It  was  a  cluster  of  neat  bark  wigwams."  Four 
Legs  died  in  1830,  but  his  village  was  still  occupied  in  1832, 
reported  by  Cutting  Alarsh  as  "occupied  by  a  small  band 
of  the  AVinnebago  tribe."  This  was  the  last  mentioned  of 
this  village.  Its  name  is  preserved  in  the  word  Menasha, 
the  city  which,  with  the  city  of  Neenah,  occupy  its  site. 
Menasha  was  the  name  of  this  most  ancient  Indian 
village  on  the  American  continent.  The  name  was  by  both  Curtis 
Reed  and  Gov.  J.  D.  Doty,  the  founders  of  the  modern  town,  said 
to  mean  the  name  of  the  village  on  the  island,  and  in  Dakatah 
would  be  Alini  ha  ha,  or  Laughing  AVater,  a  possible  reference  to 
the  double  rapids  which  ran  around  their  village.  At  the  council 
held  in  Green  Bay,  August  24,  1830,  Four  Legs  was  head  chief. 
Duck  was  head  orator.  There  was  also  present  Shounk  Schunk 
Siap,  or  Black  AVolf ;  AVheauk  Kaw,  or  Big  Duck,  and  Alonk  Kaw 
Kaw.  For  entertainment  to  amuse  their  visitors  Four  Legs  was 
active.     At  night  a  band  of  AVinnebago  appeared  "painted  all 

38  HISTOID'  OK  .\I().\KM)I':  CUIXTY 

colors,  naki'd  cxccpl  hrcrcli  cloiit.""  Ix'I'orc  tlic  liousc  where 
]\lcC;ill  Iionnlcd  :  ciicoiirM'rcd  liy  drink.  Ili(>-  held  a  \\ai-  dance 
until  1<I  o'clock  '■\vitli  disfiuiiicd  and  distorted  countenances," 
The  head  chief,  Four  Lc^s,  displayetl  jj:reat  activity.  The  report 
of  the  commissioners  of  llic  council  of  Is:?!)  at  Green  Bay  recites 
llial  Foui-  Letrs  and  Black  Wolf  were  llic  (inly  s]>eakei's,  and  that 
they  had  siirned  the  treaty  of  1S22  with  tlic  Xi'w  York  Indians. 
f--choolcrall  mentions  that  Four  Lciis  lc\icl  li'ihute  from  trav- 
elers inuuediately  after  the  war  of  1812.  lie  assuuu'd  to  he  the 
keeper  of  the  Fox  ri\ci-  valley.  Col.  T.  L.  Kinney  alludes  to  this 
custom  of  exactiim  ti-ihulc.  and  relates  that  General  Leaxenwoi-th, 
going  up  stream  with  his  command  in  ISKi,  was  accosted  hy  Fimii- 
Legs  and  nolitied  that  the  lake  was  locked.  The  General  rose 
Avith  his  gun  restin.g  on  his  arm  and  asked  tht^  i7itei'pri4(M'  to 
inform  the  chief  that  he  had  the  key  to  unlock  it.  Four  Legs 
replied,  ■"Lei  him  i)ass."  This  incident  mai'ks  the  last  challenge 
of  the  AViiniehago,  and  it  is  said  that  it  took  place  beneath  the 
Treaty  Elm  that  for  nuiny  years  stood  a  conspicuous  landnuirk  in 
the  county.  The  "Treaty  Ehn,""  or  "Council  Tree,"  beneath 
whose  Avidespi'cad  branches  the  chiefs  of  the  neighboi-ing  tribes 
ai'c  said  to  have  been  wont  1o  gather  in  council,  A\'as  located  on 
Kiverside  pai-k  i)()int  at  the  mouth  of  the  Neenah  (diannel  of  the 
Fox  river  in  the  city  of  Neenah.  It  was  of  immense  size  and 
girth,  tnwering  al)o\e  all  the  surrounding  forest,  and  could  be 
seen  from  poiids  eight  miles  distant.  Such  was  its  prominence 
as  a  landmark  that  it  Avas  for  many  years  used  as  a  guide  by 
sailors  and  steam  ])il()ts  on  the  lake.  It  was  di'stroyed  by  a 
charge  of  dynamite  -lunc  12.  1SS7.  by  the  employees  of  the  gov- 
ernment in  cutting  away  the  point  to  widen  the  channel  to 
increase  the  How  of  water  in  tlood  times. 

As  Foui-  Legs  was  supposed  to  be  foi'ty  years  of  age  in  1830, 
the  yeai-  he  died,  and  he  must  have  been  born  about  1790,  he 
eoidd  have  taken  part  in  the  wai'  of  1S12.  where  he  is  fi-e(puMitly 
found  on  the  side  of  the  Uritish.  .Mrs.  Kin/ie  mentions  the  death 
of  Four  Legs  by  driidving  too  much  suthr  whisky  when  waiting 
at  Foi't  Winnebago  with  the  assend)|ed  Winnebago  for  the 
ai-rival  of  the  silvei-  from  the  go\-eriunent  for  the  paymeid  of 
t  heir  a  luiuil  ies. 

''His  body  was  wra|)ped  in  a  blanket  and  ]»laced  in  a  mule 
coffin  along  with  his  guns,  lonudiawk,  pipes  and  a  (pundity  of 
tobacco. "  lie  was  buried  on  the  most  ele\ated  point  of  the  hill 
opposite  the  fort,  in  the  presence  of  "an  immense  ])rocessiou  of 
his  peo])le."     A  slake  was  placed  at  the  head  of  his  grave  "on 


which  was  painted  in  vermilion  a  series  of  hieroglyphics  descrip- 
tive of  deeds  and  events  of  his  life,"  and  a  small  white  iiag  also 
waved  over  the  grave.  His  wife,  who  survived  him,  was  a  Fox 
woman,  but  spoke  the  Chippewa  language,  which  brought  hei- 
services  into  use  as  an  interpreter,  as  that  was  the  court  or  uni- 
V(^rsal  language  among  all  the  tribes.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a 
big  chief  and  ' '  a  great  and  mighty  warrior. ' '  In  1887  there  were 
two  descendants  living — one  was  Good  Cloud,  a  woman  residing 
at  Tomah.  Slie  has  a  sou  whose  name  was  Good  Year.  One 
descendant  was  AVill  Dandy,  a  boy  who  was  at  school  in  AVitten- 
berg  mission.     He  had  two  cousins  also  living  at  Wittenberg. 

Sau-sa-mau-nee  was  a  younger  brother  of  Four  Legs  and 
fought  with  him  under  the  British  flag  in  the  war  of  1812. 

Wild  Cat,  or  Pe-Sheu,  had  his  village  on  Garlic  Island,  noAV 
Island  park,  a  small  island  on  the  west  margin  of  Lake  Winne- 
bago, seven  miles  south  of  Alenasha  and  the  same  distance  north 
of  Oshkosh.  The  village  was  also  located  across  the  solent  on  the 
mainland.  The  corn  hills  are  still  visible  both  on  the  island  and 
mainland.  Just  when  this  village  was  established  here  cannot  be 
ascertained,  yet  it  is  highly  probable  that  Pe-Sheu  liimself  was 
its  founder  and.  that  he  and  his  tribesmen  came  from  the  })rin- 
cipal  Winnebago  village  on  Doty's  island.  One  of  the  earliest 
descriptions  of  this  village  is  that  of  3Irs.  (Governor)  James  D. 
Doty,  who  records  in  her  journal  under  the  date  of  August,  1823, 
of  a  canoe  .iourney  which  she  made  with  her  Inisband,  who  was 
on  the  way  up  the  i'i\er  to  hold  court  at  Prairie  Du  Chien:  ''AYe 
coasted  along  the  west  shore  of  Lake  AVinnebago  to  Garlic  island, 
on  the  opposite  point  to  wliieh  is  a  AVinnebago  village  of  tine  per- 
manent lodges  and  fine  cornfields."  The  late  Judge  Morgan  L. 
^Martin  made  the  same  journey  in  birch-bark  canoes  with  Judge 
Doty  and  others  in  1828  on  their  way  to  try  Red  Bird,  the  AVin- 
nebago, for  murder.  "Garlic  island  was  the  next  stopping  place. 
There  was  a  AVinnebago  village  there  of  about  the  same  size  as 
that  over  which  Four  Legs  (Doty  island)  presided  (150  to  200 
lodges  covered  with  bark  mats).  The  lodges,  however,  were 
longer  and  neater.  AYe  purchased  supplies  of  vegetables  of  the 
island  villagers."  From  these  descriptions  it  Avould  appear  that 
the  village  occupied  both  the  island  and  mainland,  that  the  wig- 
wams were  well  constructed,  the  fields  of  Indian  maize  of  con- 
siderable extent,  and  the  population  at  that  time  one  of  1,000  or 
more  persons.  Chief  AA^ild  Cat  was  a  large  and  bulky  savage 
with  a  hasty  and  ferocious  temper  which  often  got  him  into  diffi- 
culties.    He   was   probably  born   at    Doty   island   at   some   time 


previous  to  the  Revolution.  Tlie  earliest  knowledge  we  have  of 
this  chieftain  is  from  a  remark  he  once  made  when  he  and  Sarcel, 
a  AViunebago  chief,  had  a  dispute  in  regard  to  their  relative 
bravery.  On  this  occasion  AVild  Cat  is  said  to  have  exclaimed, 
"Don't  you  remember  the  time  we  aided  the  Shawanoes  (English) 
in  attacking  the  fort  that  you  ran  ofT  so  fast  that  you  lost  your 
breech  clout?''  This  remark  had  reference  to  the  Indian  war  of 
1793,  when  the  British  liad  incited  the  western  Indians  to  fre- 
quent depredations  against  the  straggling  white  settlers  in  Ohio 
and  IMichigan.  There  is  a  possibility  also  that  he  may  have  served 
with  Charles  de  Langlade  under  the  British  flag  in  the  War  of  the 
Revolution.  Certain  it  is  that  in  1797  he  was  considered  of  suf- 
ficient importance  to  receive  from  the  royal  otficers  the  medal  of 
their  king.  This  bronze  medal,  given  as  a  memento  of  distin- 
guished favor  by  King  George  III  to  his  savage  ally  in  his  wild- 
■\vood  home  on  the  shore  of  Lake  AVinncbago,  now  reposes  in  the 
museum  of  Lawrence  University  at  Applcton.  It  Avas  deposited 
there  about  the  year  1875  by  Mr.  D.  C.  Church,  of  Vinland,  who 
obtained  it  from  Louis  B.  Porlier,  of  Butte  des  Morts,  a  trader 
and  son  of  Judge  Porlier. 

Mrs.  Kinzie  says  the  AVild  Cat  was  ''our  Indian  Falstatf  in 
all  save  cowardice  and  falsehood."  Being  made  drunk,  he  was 
unable  to  get  to  Fort  Armstrong  at  Rock  Island  in  time  to  object 
to  the  treaty  of  1831,  and  when  he  found  it  granted  the  lands  on 
which  stood  his  village  he  Avept.  It  is  said  that  he  was  found 
dead  against  an  oak  tree  in  the  center  of  the  Avoods.  Avliere  Osli- 
kosh  now  stands.  He  was  at  the  payments  in  Portage  in  1830- 
1831,  and  is  said  to  have  died  soon  after  the  Black  Hawk  AVar, 
which  Avould  make  the  date  of  his  death  about  1833.  He  is 
reported  to  have  gone  under  the  partisan  British  leader  of  the 
AVisconsin  savages.  Col.  Robert  Dickson,  early  in  1812,  to  the  cap- 
ture of  Alackinae.  The  following  spring  he  fought  with  Tecum- 
seh  at  Fort  ^leigs.  and  after  his  defeat  Avas  beaten  oflf  at  Fort 
Stephenson  or  Sandusky.  He  Avas  also  a  part  of  the  AVinnebago 
contingent  under  ^IcKay  in  the  i-apture  of  Prairie  du  Chien.  In 
the  Avinter  of  1814  Dickson,  Avith  his  convoy  of  supplies,  Avas  ice 
bound  until  January  on  Garlic  island  at  Pesheu's  village. 

Black  AVolf.  or  Shouuktshunksiap.  Avas  a  celebrated  character 
in  the  border  days  of  a  century  past.  Airs.  Kinzie  has  left  a  racy 
sketch  of  this  bold  Avarrier,  Black  AVolf.  "Avhose  loAvering,  surly 
face  Avell  described  his  name.  The  fierce  expression  of  coun- 
tenance Avas  greatly  heightened  by  the  masses  of  heavy  black 
hair,  contrarv  to  the  usual  custom  of  the  AA^innebago.  AA'ho  for  the 


most  part  cut  away  a  portion  of  the  hair,  drawing  the  remainder 
back  of  the  head,  clubbed  and  ornamented  with  beads,  ribbons, 
cocks'  feathers,  or  if  entitled,  an  eagle  feather  for  every  scalp 
taken  from  an  enemy." 

On  a  point  of  land  known  as  Black  AVolf  point,  in  tiie  town  of 
Black  AVolf,  AYinnebago  county,  jutting  out  into  Lake  AVinne- 
bago,  at  a  distance  of  seven  miles  south  of  the  city  of  Oshkosh, 
there  was  formerly  located  Black  AVolf 's  AVinnebago  Indian  vil- 
lage. It  is  said  to  have  numbered  not  more  than  forty  huts.  The 
date  of  its  establishment  here  is  not  exactly  known,  but  it  is  sup- 
posed to  have  been  about  the  year  1800  or  slightly  before.  Mrs. 
G.  A.  Randall,  who  formerly  resided  at  Randall's  point,  remem- 
bers to  have  seen  the  Indian  tepees  and  camp  fires  along  the  shore 
of  Black  AA'olf  point  as  late  as  the  year  1846.  Chief  Black  AVolf 
was  a  character  of  some  importance.  He  was  a  large  man  and 
much  respected  by  his  people,  and  was  called  a  war  chief.  In  the 
attacks  on  Mackinac  in  the  AVar  of  1812  he  fought  under  the  lead- 
ership of  Col.  Robert  Dickson.  After  the  war  the  British,  still 
seeking  to  hold  the  AVinnebago  in  their  interest  for  purposes  of 
trade,  called  them  to  Mackinac  to  a  couueil  or  treaty  with  C'ol. 
Robert  McDonald,  a  British  connnissioner.  Black  AVolf  was  one 
of  those  in  attendance  at  this  gathering.  He  also  participated 
with  the  British  and  their  allies  in  the  capture  of  Prairie  du 
Chien  in  the  year  181-1.  He  was  one  of  the  signers  of  the  land 
grant  negotiated  by  Eleazer  AVilliams  in  1821  with  Four  Legs, 
the  AVinnebago  head  chief,  and  others,  by  which  the  New  York 
Indians  were  to  receive  a  strip  of  land  five  miles  in  width  along 
the  lower  Fox,  "from  Grand  Kachalin  rapids  to  AVinnebago  rap- 
ids," in  AA^innebago  county.  He  also  participated  in  the  councils 
held  at  Green  Bay  and  Doty  Island  for  a  similar  purpose  in  1830 
He  is  said  to  have  died  at  Portage  in  the  year  1847.  During  the 
Black  Hawk  AVar,  Black  AVolf  camped  Avith  the  AVinnebago  as- 
sembled at  the  site  of  Portage,  on  both  sides  of  the  AVisconsin 
river.  The  principal  chiefs  in  these  camps  were  Black  AVolf,  his 
son  Dandy,  AA^hite  Eagle,  AVhite  Crow  and  Broken  Arm. 

Dandy,  the  Bean  Brummel  of  the  AVinnebago,  was  a  son  of 
Black  Wolf  and  a  cousin  of  Four  Legs.  "He  wore  fancy  dress 
shirts  of  the  brightest  color,  ornaments  v/ith  rows  of  silver 
brooches,  and  displayed  two  pairs  of  arm  bands.  His  leggins  and 
moccasins  were  of  the  most  elaborate  embroidery  in  ribbons  and 
porcupine  quills.  Numerous  ornaments  were  dangling  from  his 
club  of  black  hair.  A  feather  fan  was  in  one  hand  and  a  mirror 
in  the   other.     His   face   was   brilliantly    colored   and   daubed.'* 


La  Koiulf  says  Dandy,  son  of  lilack  Wolf,  was  also  known  as 
J^itlle  Soldier.  His  village  is  j-rpoi-lcd  by  .Mi'.  W.  If.  Canfiold 
as  being  in  18M9  on  the  Baraboo  rivci-.  five  or  six  miles  above  tbe 
present  city  <d'  Uaiaboo.  Old  Dandy  was  one  of  those  Paqnette 
went  al'trr.  tlicM  scxcnly  years  old,  wIid  was  a  small.  Iliin  man, 
and  till'  only  \\'innfi)a<ro  avIio.  at'lcr  the  l»iTaking  of  tril)al  rela- 
tions in  lS4iS,  was  generally  I'especled  as  eliief  of  Ihe  li'ibe.  He 
went  to  Washington  in  ]82(S  with  War  Eagle  and  others  to  see 
tile  President.  His  camp  was  then  near  the  Dalles,  lie  said  he 
would  not  go  to  Long  I'rairic  and  was  allowed  to  i-eniain.  Jn 
1834  Captain  Sununer  was  sent  hack  lo  Portage  to  hunt  for 
Dandy.  He  was  found  at  the  head  of  l>aral»oo  river  and  made  to 
ride  horseba(d\  with  his  legs  chained  undei-  the  animal  \vith  an 
ox-ehain.  He  d(>manded  to  he  taken  to  Governor  Dodge  at  .Min- 
eral Point.  Dodge  asked  him  what  was  wanted.  Dandy  took  a 
l)ihle  from  his  ])osom  and  asked  the  governor  if  it  was  a  good 
book.  He  answered  it  was  a  good  hook— he  could  never  have  a 
better  in  his  band.  '"Then."  said  Dandy,  "if  a  man  Avould  do  all 
that  Avas  in  that  book  could  any  moi-e  be  required  of  him?"  He 
answered.  "No.""  "AVell.""  said  Dandy,  "look  that  hook  all 
through,  and  if  you  lind  in  it  that  Dandy  ought  to  he  reuu)ved  by 
the  government  to  Turkey  i-ivei-.  then  [  will  go  right  olt' :  hut  if 
you  do  not  find  it  1  will  never  go  there  to  stay."'  The  governor 
informed  him  his  tri(d\  would  not  work.  He  was  then  replaced 
on  the  horse,  his  feet  chained  up  again  and  taken  to  Pi-aii-ie  du 
Chien.  The  chain  blistered  his  feet  and  legs  so  he  Avas  unable  to 
walk  for  thi'ee  W(>eks.  He  Avas  then  ])ut  in  charge  of  a  coi'poral, 
Avho  Avas  obliged  to  carry  l)and\'  on  liis  haid^;  to  a  buggy  to  be 
taken  to  Turkey  rivei'.  Dandy  claindng  he  Avas  unable  to  Avalk. 
The  buggy  Avas  at  the  fort  gate  and  the  eorjioral.  supposing 
Dandy  unable  to  walk,  lelt  him  \'nv  a  moment  to  reenter  the  fort. 
Dandy  .)um|>ed  from  the  buggy  and  ran  into  the  forest,  where 
the  eorpoi'al  c(»uld  not  find  him.  IFe  remained  in  Wisconsin  an<l 
died  on  the  Peten  Well  blutV.  an  isolated  rocky  |)eak  on  tlu'  Wis- 
consin  rix'er.  in  -Inne.   1870.  aged  seventy-seven  years. 

The  ^'ellow  Thunder  "was  a  line  looking  Indian,  tall,  straight 
and  stately.""  His  old  encampment  was  about  five  miles  beloAV 
Kerlin.  on  the  Fox  river,  at  the  Yellow  baidss.  This  Avould  locate 
Ills  village  in  section  •'!!.  neai-  lOureka.  in  Winnebago  county.  In 
1832  at  the  of  the  Plaek  Hawk  War  Col.  Charles  Whittlesey 
Avith  four  othei-s  made  a  saddle  joui'uey  o\ei"  the  TomahaAvk 
trail  along  the  left  Itank  of  tiie  lowei-  Fox  and  right  bank  or  east 
side  of  the  u|i|>er   l'"ox  rivei'.      Before  arriving  at    Fort   Wiiuiebago 

tup:  avixxebago  chiefs  43 

he  passed  two  '\Viiinel)ag'o  villages,  one  ot  whieh  was  that  ot  Yel- 
low Thunder.  He  mentions  crossing  the  Fox  river  in  a  tlat-boat 
and  landing  near  the  spot  where  the  father  of  "Grizzly  Bear/'  a 
Menominee,  is  said  to  have  lived.  Here,  he  says,  commenced  a 
rolling  prairie  that  eontinned  for  fifty  miles  (since  known  as 
Democrat  prairie.)  ""The  trail  passed  two  AVinnebago  villages, 
one  of  which  Avas  called  Yellow  Thunder  from  its  chief."  The 
villagers,  much  to  their  annoyance,  folloAved  the  party  out  of 
their  village  on  horseback.  Hon.  INIorgan  L.  Alartin  mentions 
passing  a  "AVinnebago  village  on  Green  Lake  prairie"  in  1829, 
Avhich  may  have  been  the  village  of  Yellow  Thunder.  In  1828 
Yellow  Thunder  and  his  squaw,  a  daughter  of  AVhite  Crow,  made 
a  journey  to  AVashington  to  interview  the  President,  and  there- 
after his  squaw  was  known  as  AVashington  AVoman.  Yellow 
Thunder  was  a  convert  to  the  Catholic  church  and  became  zealous 
in  its  offices  and  was  called  the  head  war  chief  of  his  tribe.  B.y 
false  pretenses  he  was  induced  witli  others  to  visit  AVashington 
in  1837  and  signed  a  false  treaty,  which  granted  the  government 
all  their  lands  east  of  the  Alississippi  river,  under  Avhich.  three 
years  after,  he  was  one  of  the  tirst  to  sulfer  by  being  forcibly  put 
in  irons  at  Portage  and  removed  to  Yellow  rivin*.  Iowa.  Yellow 
Thunder  soon  returned  and  requested  LaRonde  to  go  with  him  to 
^Mineral  Point  to  enter  a  forty  of  land  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
AA^isconsin  river.  In  reply  to  an  inquiry  if  Indians  could  enter 
lands,  '"Yes,  the  government  has  given  no  orders  to  the  con- 
trary." So  Yellow  Thunder,  the  head  war  chief  of  the  AVinne- 
bago,  entered,  lived  and  died  on  his  forty  of  land.  He  was  again 
forcibly  removed  to  Iowa  with  Black  AVolf,  but  was  allowed  to 
return,  as  he  was  a  land  owner.  Yellow  Thunder  owned  the 
southwest  quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  36,  on  the 
AVisconsin  river,  town  of  Delton,  Sauk  county,  two  log  huts  hav- 
ing been  constructed  for  his  own  use  and  that  of  families  who 
lived  with  him.  About  five  acres  of  land  was  cultivated,  raising* 
corn,  beans  and  potatoes.  During  big  feasts  as  many  as  1,500 
Indians  gathered  in  the  vicinity.  Shortly  before  his  death  he  sold 
his  land  to  Mr.  John  Bennett.  It  is  related  that  when  he  paid  his 
taxes  he  placed  a  kernel  of  corn  in  a  leather  pouch  for  each  dollar 
of  taxes  paid,  and  when  he  sold  the  land  he  demanded  as  numy 
dollars  as  there  were  kernels  of  corn  in  the  old  pouch.  His  sum- 
mer village  was  sixteen  miles  up  the  I'ive]'  fi-om  Portage,  in  1840, 
where  Dandy  and  Little  Duck  also  camped.  YelloAv  Thunder  died 
in  1874;  said  to  have  been  childless,  and  was  l)uried  on  a  sandy 
knoll.  X^ear  by  are  the  graves  of  AA^ashington  AVoman  and  several 


other  Indians.  She  was  Iniried  hitting  up,  facing  the  east.  A 
painting  of  Yellow  Thunder  hangs  in  the  rooms  of  the  "Wisconsin 
Historical  Society,  and  an  unpublished  manuscript  giving  ''per- 
sonal reminiscences,"  by  ]\Irs.  A.  C.  Flanders,  is  deposited  in  tlie 
public  library  at  Portage. 

'    CHAPTER  lY. 


(Compiled  from  "Story  of  the  Black  Hawk  War,"  l)y  U.  G. 
Thwaites,  in  Wisconsin  Historical  Collection. — Editor.) 
When  Wisconsin  was  still  a  part  of  Michigan  territory  and 
known  as  "Michiganter, "  long  before  the  idea  of  a  separate  terri- 
tory was  thought  of,  when  it  was  an  almost  trackless  wilderness  in 
1832,  occurred  the  historic  Black  Hawk  War;  few  events  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  Northwest  were  as  far  reaching  in  consequences  as  this 
tragic  struggle  and  perhaps  none  caused  more  bitter  controversies, 
was  the  subject  of  more  incorrect  notions  as  to  the  causes,  inci- 
dents, and  the  relative  merits  of  the  chief  participants.  The  south- 
ern portion  of  this  county,  it  is  believed,  was  a  part  of  the  ter- 
ritory traversed  by  Black  Hawk  in  his  final  retreat  from  the 
Mississippi  with  pitiful  remnant  of  his  band,  making  his  escape 
into  the  Dells  of  Wisconsin,  where  he  was  finally  captured. 

On  November  3,  1840,  the  United  States  government  concluded 
a  treaty  w'ith  the  Sac  and  Fox  Indians,  by  wdiich,  for  the  paltrj^ 
sum  of  $1,000,  the  Indian  confederacy  ceded  fifty  million  acres 
of  land  comprising  in  general  terms  the  present  state  of  Missouri 
and  the  territory  lying  between  the  Wisconsin  river  on  the  north, 
the  Fox  river  of  the  Illinois  on  the  east,  the  Illinois  river  on  the 
southeast  and  the  Mississippi  on  the  west ;  in  this  treaty  was  a 
clause  wdiich  became  one  of  the  chief  causes  of  Black  Hawk  War, 
which  provided  that  the  Indians  need  not  vacate  the  lands,  stipu- 
lating that  "as  long  as  the  lands  which  are  now  ceded  to  the 
ITnited  States  remain  their  property" — that  is  to  say  public  land 
— "the  Indians  belonging  to  said  tribes  shall  enjoy  the  privilege 
of  living  and  hunting  upon  them." 

Within  the  limits  of  this  territory,  situated  on  the  Rock  river 
three  miles  from  its  mouth  and  the  same  distance  south  of  Rock 
Island  was  the  chief  village  and  seat  of  power  of  the  Sacs,  con- 
taining a  population  of  about  five  hundred  families  and  one  of 
the  largest  Indian  villages  on  the  continent. 

The  principal  character  in  this  village  was  Black  Sparrow 
Hawk,  or  as  commonly  styled  Black  Hawk,  born  in  1767:  he  was 



not  an  luM'editai'v  oi-  an  elected  eliiel'.  but  was  hy  coiiinion  consent 
the  leader  of  tlie  villaj^e.  Altliough  not  endowed  witli  superior 
moral  or  intellectual  (|iialities  the  foree  of  cii'cuiiistances  made 
liim  a  national  eelel)rity  in  his  own  day  and  a  eonsj)icuous  figure 
in  western  liistoi-y  foi-  all  time.  He  was  a  restless,  aml)itious  sav- 
age, jiossessed  of  some  of  the  (lualities  of  leadiM'ship  l)ut  without 
the  eapaeity  to  attain  the  highest  honoi-s  in  the  Sac  and  Kox  con- 
federacy, lie  was  jealous  of  othei"  chiefs,  quai'relsonie  in  council. 
eontinuall.v  sought  excuses  to  differ  with  them  on  ([uestions  of 
policy  and  aii-ayed  his  lollowing  against  them,  was  a  good  deal 
of  a  denuigogue  and  ai-oused  1he  passion  and  ])rejmlices  of  his 
peoph^  ])\  iiii|)assionetl  ai)peals.  He  was  doulitless  sincere  in  his 
opinions  and  honest  in  his  nu)tives.  He  was  easily  influenced  by 
the  Bi-itish.militai-y  and  connnei-cial  agents,  who  were  continually 
engaged  previous  to  the  war  of  1812,  in  cultivating  a  spirit  of 
hostility  l)etween  the  Noi'thwestern  tribes  and  the  Americans,  was 
led  by  them  to  consider  himself  under  the  especial  protection  of 
the  ''I^ritish  Father"'  at  Maiden.  Too  conflding  a  disposition. 
he  was  readil.v  duped  by  those  who.  whitt'  or  red,  were  interested 
in  deceiving  him. 

l^lack  Hawk  was  about  five  feet,  foui-  or  fiv(^  inches  in  heiglit. 
rather  si)are  as  to  flesh ;  his  souu-what  i)inched  features  ex- 
aggerated the  prominence  of  his  cheek  Ixines;  a  full  mouth  inclined 
to  be  somewhat  o])en  when  at  rest,  a  pi-onounced  Roman  nose, 
fine  "piercing"  eyes,  often  beaming  with  a  kindly  and  alwa.vs 
with  a  thoughtful  expression,  no  eyebrows,  a  high  full  foi'ehead. 
liead  well  thrown  back,  with  a  pose  of  (piiet  dignit.x .  haii-  plucked 
out  with  the  exception  of  a  seal])  lock  in  which,  on  ceremonial 
occasions  was  fastened  a  bunch  of  eagle  feathers;  such  is  a  pen 
jiortrait  of  this  ce]el)iity. 

He,  with  two  hundred  of  his  followi'i's.  who  became  known  as 
the  "British  baiul"  served  wilh  Tecuniseh  and  the  liritish  in  Ihe 
war  of  1812.  After  burying  the  hatchet.  Black  Hawk  settled 
down  to  the  customary  routine  of  savage  life  makiuLi-  fre(iuent 
trips  to  iMalden  foi*  i)r()visions,  arms  and  ammunition,  and  by 
flattery  of  the  British  agents  his  hatred  against  Americans  was 
increased,  but  it  is  not  at  all  surprising  that  he  hated  the  Ameri- 
cans, his  life  was  continually  being  disturbed  l)y  them  and  a  cruel 
and  causeless  beating  which  some  white  settlers  gave  him  in  the 
winter  of  1822  and  182:5  was  an  insult  which  he  treasured  up 
against  the  entire  American  people. 

In  the  sunnner  of  1823,  squatters,  coveting  the  rich  fields 
cultivateil   bv   the   P>i-itish    band   neai-   their   villasre   1)egan   to  take 


possession  of  them ;  outrages  were  committed  of  the  most  flagrant 
nature,  Indian  cornfields  were  fenced  in  hy  intruders,  squaws 
and  children  were  whipped  for  venturing  beyonds  the  ])Ounds 
thus  established,  lodges  were  burned  over  the  heads  of  the  occu- 
pants ;  a  reign  of  terror-  ensued  in  which  frequent  remonstrances 
of  Black  Hawk  to  the  white  autliorities  were  in  vain.  It  was 
all  a  plain  violation  of  the  treaty  rights  of  the  Indians  and  grew 
from  year  to  year.  When  the  Indians  returned  each  spring  from 
their  winter's  hunt  they  found  their  village  more  of  a  wreck 
than  when  they  had  left  it  in  the  fall.  Black  Hawk  was  advised 
by  Keokuk  the  chief  of  the  confederacy  to  retreat  across  the  Miss- 
issippi, but  Black  Hawk  was  stubborn,  appealed  to  his  people,  to 
their  love  of  home  and  veneration  for  the  graves  of  their  kindred, 
for  here  was  located  their  cemetery,  and  his  people  stood  by  him. 
He  them  made  the  claim  that  the  representatives  of  the  Sac  and 
Fox  tribes  who  negotiated  the  treaty  of  1804,  had  not  consented 
that  the  land  upon  which  Black  Hawk's  village  stood  should  be 
the  property  of  the  United  States.  In  this  he  was  of  course  not 
borne  out  by  the  facts  but  persisted  in  tliat  understanding,  and 
was  advised  by  the  mischief  making  British  agents  that  if  it  was 
true  that  the  government  had  not  1)0ught  the  site  of  his  village 
to  hold  fast  to  it  and  the  United  States  woidd  not  venture  to 
remove  him   by  force. 

In  this  he  was  also  encouraged  by  White  Cloud,  the  Winnebago 
prophet,  who  was  a  shrewd,  craft}"  Indian,  half  Winnebago  and 
half  Sac,  possessing  much  influence  over  both  nations  from  his 
assumption  of  sacred  talents  and  was  the  head  of  a  Winnebago 
village  some  thirty-five  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Rock  river  ,- 
he  hated  the  whites,  seemed  devoid  of  humane  sentiments  and 
seemed  to  enjoy  sowing  the  seeds  of  discord,  a  remarkable  man 
physically  and  mentally,  a  fine  orator  and  strong  in  the  councils. 

In  the  spring  of  1830,  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  returned  from 
an  unsuccessful  hunt  to  find  their  town  almost  completely  shat- 
tered, many  of  the  graves  plowed  over,  and  the  whites  more 
abusive  than  ever;  during  the  winter,  the  scpiatters  who  had  for 
seven  years  been  illegally  on  the  land  preempted  a  few  quarter 
sections  at  the  mouth  of  the  Rock,  so  selected  as  to  cover  the  vil- 
lage site  and  the  Sac  cornfields.  This  was  clearly  a  trick  to  accord 
with  the  letter  but  violated  the  spirit  of  the  treaty  of  1804;  there 
was  still  fifty  miles  of  practically  unoccupied  territory  to  the 
east  of  the  village  and  no  necessity  for  disturbing  the  Sacs  for 
many  years  to  come. 

When  in  the  spring  of  1831,   Hawk  again  returned  after  a 



profitles;s  limit,  Ik-  was  fiereely  warned  auav  by  tlu-  whites;  lie,  in  a 
dignified  inannci-.  notilicd  the  settlers  that  it'  they  did  not  them- 
selves remove  that  he  should  use  foree  to  eviet  thciu.  meaning 
physical  force.  This  was  construed  1)\-  the  whites  to  he  a  threat 
against  their  lives  and  petitions  and  messages  were  sent  to  Gov. 
Jolui  ]\cynolds  of  Illinois,  in  terms  so  exaggerated  that  they  would 
he  amusing  were  it  not  that  they  were  the  prelude  to  one  of  the 
darkest  tragedies  of  our  western  border.  The  governor  issued  an 
inflammatory  ])roclamation.  calling  for  volunteers  to  "repel  the 
invasion  of  the  ]^ritisli  l)and";  these  sixteen  hundred  strong  and 
mounted,  with  ten  companies  of  regulars  under  Gen.  Edmund  P. 
<iaines,  made  a  demonstration  before  Black  Hawk's  village  on 
the  25th  of  .lime. 

During  the  night,  the  Indians,  in  the  face  of  such  a  superior 
foree  quietly  withdrew  to  the  west  bank  of  the  ^Mississippi.  On 
the  thirtieth  they  signed  a  treaty  of  capitulation  and  peace,  with 
Governor  Reynolds  and  General  Gaines,  solemnly  agreeing  never 
to  return  to  the  east  side  of  the  river  without  express  permission 
of  the  United  States  govei-nment. 

The  rest  of  the  summer  was  spent  by  the  evicted  savages  in 
misery,  it  was  too  late  to  raise  another  crop  of  corn  and  beans 
and  they  suffered  for  the  necessaries  of  life ;  another  difificulty 
arose;  the  previous  year  (1830)  a  party  of  ]\Ienomonee  and  Sioux 
had  murdered  some  of  Black  Hawk's  band  and  a  few  weeks  after 
their  removal  Black  Hawk  headed  a  large  war  ]>ai't\'  which  as- 
cended the  river  and  in  retaliation  massacred  all  but  one  of  a 
party  of  twenty-eight  ^lenomonees  camped  near  Fort  Crawford. 
Complaint  was  made  to  Gen.  Joseph  Street,  Indian  agent  at  the 
post  who  demanded  that  the  murderers  be  delivered  to  him  for 
trial,  under  existing  treaty  provisions,  but  as  none  of  the 
Menomonees  who  had  imii'dered  his  peoph^  had  been  given  up, 
Black  Hawk  declined  to  accede,  there])y  rebelling  against  the 
authority  of  the  Ignited  States. 

Neapope,  who  was  second  in  command  in  the  British  band 
who  had  gone  upon  a  visit  to  ^Maiden  prior  to  the  eviction, 
returned  in  the  fall  and  reported  to  his  chief  proffers  of  aid  from 
the  liritish,  the  AVinnebagoes,  Ottawas,  Chippewas  and  Pottawat- 
omies  in  regaining  their  village.  AVhite  Cloud  advised  Black 
Hawk  to  proceed  to  the  j)i'ophet's  town  the  following  spring  and 
raise  a  crop  of  corn  and  that  by  fall  the  allies  would  be  ready  to 
join  the  Sac  leader  in  a  general  movement  against  the  whites  in 
the  valley  of  the  Rock;  relying  upon  tiiese  promises  Black  Hawk 
spent  the  winter  with   his  hiind  on  tlie  deserted  site  of  old  P^ort 


IMadison  on  the  west  side  of  the  river.  On  the  sixth  of  April,  1832, 
Black  Hawk  with  al)ont  five  hundred  warriors,  their  squaws  and 
children,  with  all  their  lielongings  crossed  the  INIississippi  a  little 
below  the  mouth  of  the  Rock  and  invaded  Illinois.  The  results 
of  the  negotiations  with  the  Winnebagoes  and  other  tribes  during 
the  winter  had  not  been  satisfactory,  but  White  Cloud,  the  prophet 
met  him  and  gave  him  assurance  of  success  and  the  misguided  Sac 
proceeded  confidently  on  his  march,  arrived  at  the  prophet's 
town  with  four  hundred  and  fifty  of  his  braves,  well  mounted, 
while  the  others,  with  women,  children  and  equipage,  remained 
with  the  canoes ;  the  intention  being  to  raise  a  crop  of  corn  im- 
mediately above  the  prophet's  town  and  prepare  for  war  in  the 
fall.  Immediately  upon  crossing  the  river  Black  Hawk  sent  mes- 
sengers to  the  Pottawatomies  to  meet  him  in  council,  but  this 
tribe  was  much  divided;  Shaubena,  a  chief  of  much  ability,  very 
friendly  to  the  whites  succeeded  in  persuading  a  majority  of  the 
braves  to  at  least  remain  neutral ;  but  the  hotheads  under  Big 
Foot  and  a  despicable  half  breed  British  agent,  Mike  Girty,  were 
fierce  for  war.  Shaubena  after  quieting  his  followers  set  out 
immediately  on  a  tour  of  the  settlements  in  the  Illinois  and  Rock 
river  valleys  warning  the  pioneers  of  the  approaching  war,  even 
extending  liis  mission  as  far  as  Chicago.  Gen.  Henry  Atkinson, 
who  had  arrived  at  Fort  Armstrong  early  in  the  spring,  with  a 
half  comj^any  of  regulars,  to  enforce  the  demand  for  the  delivery 
of  the  Sac  murderers,  learned  of  the  invasion  on  the  13th  of  April, 
and  at  once  notified  Governor  Reynolds  that  his  own  force  was  too 
small  and  that  a  large  force  of  militia  was  essential.  Governor 
Reynolds  at  once  issued  another  fiery  proclamation  for  mounted 
volunteers.  The  news  spread  like  wild  fire ;  some  settlers  fled, 
never  to  return ;  the  majority,  however,  which  did  not  join  the 
state  troops  went  to  the  larger  settlements  where  rude  stockade 
forts  were  built,  the  inhabitants  forming  themselves  into  garrisons, 
with  officers  and  some  degree  of  military  discipline. 

The  spring  was  backward  and  General  Atkinson  was  greatly 
hampered  in  collecting  troops,  stores,  boats  and  camp  equipage ; 
during  his  preparations  he  took  occasion  to  assure  himself  of  the 
peaceful  attitude  of  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  not  members  of  the  British 
band.  He  also  sent  two  messages  to  Black  Hawk  ordering  him 
to  at  once  withdraw  to  the  west  bank  of  the  river  on  the  peril  of 
being  driven  there  by  force  of  arms,  to  liotli  of  which  the  Sac 
leader  sent  defiant  answers. 

The  volunteers  collected  at  Beardstown  and  were  organized  into 
four  regiments  under  the   command   of   Col.   John   Thomas,   Col. 



Jat'ol)  Kr.w  Col.  Aliralumi  1>.  Dcwitt  and  ( 'ol.  Saiiiurl  .M.  Thompson, 
a  scout  l)attalion  under  ^laj.  James  1).  Henry  and  two  ''odd" 
l)attalions  uiidii-  Majoi's  Thomas  James  and  Thomas  Long.  The 
entire  foree,  some  sixteen  hundred  sti-on<r.  all  horsemen  except 
three  liuiidiTd  wlio  had  been  enlisted  as  infanti'.v.  by  mistake,  was 
placi'd  undci-  command  of  Ui'lj^'.  (icn.  Saiiiucl  Whiteside,  who  had 
some  )-('putation  as  an  Indian  tighter.  Accomi)anied  by  (iovernor 
Reynolds  the  brigade  proceeded  to  Fort  Armstrong  and  the  vol- 
unteei's  Were  at  once  sworn  into  the  I'liitcd  States  service  by  (len- 
eral  Atkinson;  the  governor,  who  i-emaiiicd  with  ins  troops  was 
recognized  and  })aid  as  a  major  general,  while  Lieut.  Robert 
Anderson  (later  of  Foi-t  Sumter  fame)  was  detailed  from  the 
regulars  as  ins])ector  of  the   Illinois  militia. 

On  the  ninth  of  May  a  .start  was  made.  AVhitesiih-.  with  the 
mounted  troops,  following  Black  Hawk's  ti-ail  up  the  east  bank  of 
the  Rock.  (Jeneral  Atkinson  followed  in  boats  with  cannon,  provi- 
sions and  the  bulk  of  the  baguagc.  AVith  him  were  :^00  volunteer 
and  400  regular  infanti*y.  the  latter  gathered  from  Forts  (,'raw- 
ford  and  Leavenwoi-th  and  under  the  command  of  Col.  Zacharv 
Taylor,  afterwai'ds  ])resident  of  the  Ignited  States.  The  trav- 
eling was  bad  for  both  divisions:  heavy  rains  had  made  the  river 
turbulent,  the  men  frequently  wading  breast  deep  for  liours 
together  pushing  the  ^Nfackinaw  boats  against  the  rapid  currents 
and  lifting  them  ovei-  the  ra])ids:  while  ahtng  the  trail  through  the 
swamps  baggage  wagons  were  often  miicd  and  the  cavalry  were 
ol)liged  to  (1(^  i-ough  service  in  hauling  freight  thi-ough  and  over 
the  black  muck  and  tangled  roots. 

Whiteside  aiM'ived  at  the  ])i'opliet"s  town,  tinding  it  deserted, 
with  a  fresh  trail  up  the  rivei'.  so  he  pushed  on  i-apidly  as  pos- 
sible to  Dixon's,  airiving  there  Ma\'  12.  Here  he  found  two  inde- 
pendent battalions.  ;^40  men  all  told,  undei'  .Ma.jni-s  Isiah  Slillman 
and  David  Baile\" :  these  troops  were  not  of  the  i-egulai-  levy,  but 
Were  well  sui)jdie(l  with  provisions  and  aiiiiiiunition  in  which 
Whiteside  was  deficient,  and  l)eing  imi)atient  and  anxious  to  do 
something  brilliant,  they  obtained  AVhiteside's  i)ermission  to  go 
forward  as  a  scouting  party  and  set  out  on  the  morning  of  the 
L"?th  uiuler  Stillman.  ai-riving  late  in  the  aftei-noon  of  the  14th 
three  miles  south  of  the  mouth  of  Sycamore  creek,  where  they  went 
into  eamp  in  a  strong  posit i(ui.  being  in  a  grove  surroumled  by 
clear  i)i-aii-ie.  and  under  ordinary  conditions  of  warfare  could 
have  repulsed   ten   times  their  numbei'. 

lilack  Hawk  stayed  a  week  at  the  Prophet's  town,  holding  fruit- 
less councils  with  the  \vil\    and  \ai'illating  Winneba<roes:  learning 


positively  that  he  had  l)een  deceived,  lie  pushed  on  to  keep  his 
engagement  for  a  eoiineil  at  Sycamore  creek  with  the  Pottawato- 
mies,  faint  at  heart  though  vaguely  hoping  for  ])etter  things  from 
this  tribe.  He  went  into  camp  with  his  principal  men  in  a  large 
grove  near  the  mouth  of  Sycamore  creek,  met  the  chiefs  of  the 
tribe  and  found  that  tlii-ough  the  influence  of  Shaubena  it  was 
impossible  for  him  to  gain  the  support  of  more  than  about  one 
hundred  of  the  hot-headed  element.  Black  Hawk  stated  in  after 
years  that  he  had  at  tliis  time  resolved  to  retui-n  at  once  to  the 
west  of  the  ^Mississippi  should  he  be  again  summoned  to  do  so  by 
(leneral  Atkinson  and  never  more  disturb  the  peace  of  the  white 
settlements.  As  a  parting  courtesy  to  his  guests,  however,  he 
was  making  arrangements  to  give  them  a  dog  feast  on  the  evening 
of  IMay  ]4  wlien  the  summons  came  in  a  manner  little  anticipated 
l)y  liim. 

Tlie  white-hating  faction  of  the  Pottawatomies  were  camped 
on  the  Kishwaukee  river  seven  miles  north  of  Black  Hawk  and 
with  them  the  majority  of  his  own  party;  Black  Hawk  says  in  his 
autobiography,  that  not  more  than  forty  of  his  braves  were  with 
lum  upon  the  council  ground ;  towards  evening,  in  tlie  midst  of 
liis  feast  preparations,  he  was  informed  that  a  party  of  white 
horsemen  were  going  into  camp  three  miles  down  the  rock :  it  was 
Still  man's  force,  l)ut  the  chief  thought  it  was  a  small  party  headed 
by  Atkinson,  being  unaware  of  the  size  of  the  force  placed  in  the 
field  against  him,  and  sent  three  of  ins  young  men  witli  white 
flags  to  parley  with  them  and  convey  his  oft'er  to  meet  White 
Beaver  (Atkinson)  in  council.  The  rangers,  who  regarded  the 
expedition  as  a  big  frolic,  were  engaged  in  preparing  their  camp 
when  the  truce  bearers  appeared  on  the  prairie  a  mile  away.  A 
mob  of  troopers  rushed  out  at  them,  some  with  saddles  and  some 
without,  and  ran  the  visitors  into  camp  amidst  a  ]iul)l»ul>  of  yells 
and  imprecations.  Black  Hawk  had  sent  five  other  braves  to  fol- 
low the  flagmen  at  a  safe  distance  and  watch  developments.  This 
second  party  was  sighted  by  about  twenty  horsemen  and  were  said 
to  have  been  partially  intoxicated,  hot  chase  was  given  to  the  spies 
and  two  of  them  were  killed,  the  other  three  galloped  back  to  their 
grove  and  reported  to  their  chief  that  not  only  two  of  their  num- 
l)er,  l)ut  the  three  flag  bearers  as  well  had  been  cruelly  slain;  this 
flagrant  disregard  of  the  rules  of  war  caused  tlic  l)lood  of  tlie  old 
Sac  to  boil  with  indignation,  tearing  to  shreds  a  flag  of  truce 
which  he  had  himself  been  preparing  to  carry  to  the  white  camp, 
he  fiercely  harangued  his  thirty-five  braves  and  bade  them  avenge  • 
the  lilond  of  their  liretliren  nt  anv  risk. 


Tlu'  neutral  Pottawatomics  at  oik-c  w  itlitli-cw  to  tlicif  village 
whik'  Black  Hawk  and  his  Sacs,  securely  mounted,  sallied  forth  to 
meet  the  enemy.  The  entire  white  force  was  soon  seen  I'ushing 
towai'ds  them  pell  iiicll.  in  a  confused  mass.  The  Sacs  withdrew 
hehind  a  fringe  of  hushes,  their  leader  hurriedly  l)ade  them  to 
.stand  firm;  on  catching  sight  of  this  gi-im  array  the  whites  paused, 
1)ut  l)efore  they  had  a  chance  to  turn,  Black  Hawk  sounded  tlu; 
war  whoop  and  the  savages  dashed  forward  and  fired.  The  Sac 
ehief  tells  us  that  he  thought  the  charge  was  suicidal  when  he 
ordered  it.  hut  enraged  1)\-  the  treachery  of  the  whites  he  and  all 
with  him  were  ready  to  die  to  secure  revenge.  On  the  first  fire  of 
the  Indians  the  whites  fled  in  great  consternation,  without  firing  a 
shot,  pursued  hy  this  little  l)and  of  savages  until  nightfall  ended 
the  chase.  But  nightfall  did  not  end  the  rout;  the  volunteers, 
haunted  l)y  fear  dashed  through  their  own  impregnahle  camp, 
leaving  everything  hehind  them,  plunged  madly  through  creeks 
and  swamps  till  they  reached  Dixon's,  twenty-five  miles  away, 
where  they  straggled  in  for  the  next  twenty-four  houi's;  many 
did  not  stop  there,  hut  continued  until  they  reached  their  own 
homes,  fifty  or  more  miles  farther  on,  and  reported  that  Black 
Hawk  with  two  thousand  bloodthirsty  warriors  was  sweeping 
northern  Illinois  with  destruction.  The  white  loss  in  all  this  ill- 
starred  scrimmage  was  eleven  kilh'd.  while  the  Indians  lost  two 
spies  and  one  of  the  flag  bearers,  the  others  escaping.  The  flight 
of  Stillman's  corps  was  wholly  inexcusable;  Stillman  undoubtedly 
tried  to  rally  his  men,  but  the  lack  of  discipline  and  experience, 
coupled  with  a  lack  of  confidence,  wrought  havoc.  It  was  a  treach- 
erous thing  to  treat  the  bearers  of  flags  of  truce  as  they  did,  some- 
thing which  even  savages  rarely  disi-egard,  and  l)ut  for  this  wanton 
act  the  Black  Hawk  War  would  have  been  a  bloodless  demonstra- 
tion. Unfortunately  for  oui-  own  good  name,  this  violation  of  the 
rules  of  war  was  repeated  more  than  once  dui'ing  this  war. 

This  easy  victory  elated  Black  Hawk  and  gavt-  him  a  poor 
opinion  of  the  valor  of  the  opposing  forces;  almost  wholly  destitute 
of  provisions  and  ammunition,  the  capture  of  Stilhnan's  stores 
was  a  rich  prize.  He  recognized  that  war  was  inevitable  and  sent 
scouts  to  watch  the  enemy  while  he  hurriedly  withdi'ew  the  women 
and  children  to  the  head  waters  of  Hock  river  in  ^Michigan  terri- 
tory (now  Wisconsin),  to  which  he  was  guided  by  friendly  Winne- 
bagoes.  Here  he  reci'uitcd  ])ai-ti('s  of  Winnebagoes  and  Pottawat- 
omies  and  descended  into  northern  Illinois,  prepared  for  border 
•  warfare. 

Stillman's  di't'eat    inaugurated  a   reign   of  terror   in   the  terri- 


tory  between  the  Illinois  and  Wisconsin  rivers ;  the  name  of  Black 
Hawk  became  ronpled  the  country  over  with  stories  of  savage  cun- 
ning and  cruelty,  his  name  serving  as  a  household  bugaboo.  Shau- 
bena  again  sounded  the  alarm  and  settlers  again  left  their  fields 
and  hurried  to  the  forts. 

"Whiteside,  on  ]\Iay  15tii,  the  day  of  the  battle,  with  one  thou- 
sand four  hundred  men,  proceeded  to  the  scene  and  buried  the 
dead.  On  the  19th  Atkinson  and  the  entire  army  moved  up 
the  Rock  river,  leaving  Stillman's  corps  at  Dixon  to  care  for  the 
wounded  and  guard  supplies.  They  added  to  their  record  of 
infamy  by  deserting  their  post  and  going  home.  Atkinson  hastily 
returned ;  Whiteside  being  left  to  follow  Black  Hawk ;  his  men 
grew  weary  of  soldiering,  declaring  that  the  Indians  were  in  the 
unexplored  and  impenetrable  swamps  to  the  north,  which  were  in 
jMichigan  territory,  and  farther,  that  they  could  not  be  compelled 
to  serve  out  of  the  state ;  after  two  or  three  days  of  fruitless 
skirmishing,  upon  approaching  the  state  line,  a  consultation  of 
officers  w^as  held  at  which  it  was  determined  to  abandon  the  search, 
the  troops  were  marched  back  to  Ottawa,  where  they  were  mus- 
tered out  on  the  27th  and  28th  of  ]\Iay.  On  their  way  to  Ottawa 
the  militiamen  stopped  at  the  Davis  farm  on  Indian  creek,  where 
a  terrible  massacre  of  whites  had  occurred  a  few  days  before  and 
saw  the  mutilated  corpses  of  fifteen  men,  women  and  children. 
This  revolting  spectacle,  instead  of  nerving  the  troops  to  renewed 
action  in  defense  of  their  homes,  appears  to  have  still  further  dis- 
heartened them. 

And  so  the  first  campaign  of  the  war  ended  as  it  had  begun, 
with  an  exhibition  of  cowardice  on  the  part  of  the  Illinois  militia. 


Governor  Reynolds  was  active  and  at  once  arranged  for  a  levy 
of  "at  least  two  thousand"  men  to  serve  through  the  war  to  ren- 
dezvous at  Beardstown  June  10 ;  the  general  government  ordered 
1,000  regulars  under  General  Winfield  Scott  to  proceed  from  the 
seaboard  to  the  seat  of  war,  future  operations  against  the  enemy 
to  be  under  the  command  of  General  Scott.  At  General  Atkin- 
son's earnest  appeal,  300  mounted  rangers  under  Col.  Henry  Frye 
agreed  to  remain  in  the  field  to  protect  the  northern  line  of  Illinois 
settlements  until  the  new  levy  could  be  mobilized. 

Black  Hawk  divided  his  force  into  war  parties,  himself  leading 
the  largest,  about  two  hundred,  assisted  by  small  parties  of  Winne- 
bagoes  and  about  one  hundred  Pottawatomies  under  Mike  Girty, 


doscondrd  tlic  UNx-k  riv<  r  iVom  lijikr  Kdslikoiion^  aiid  iluriny:  the 
iri'fiiuhir  wjirfiii-c  wincli  now  hi-okc  out  in  mn'tlicrn  Illinois  and 
what  is  now  soullin-n  Wisconsin,  sonic  two  Iimm(|!'<'<1  whites  and 
nearly  as  many  Jndians  lost  thcii-  lives,  the  panic  among  settlers 
was  widc-spirad  and  great  suffering  ensued.  .Many  incidents  of 
this  boi'dcr  warfare  arc  of  histoi-ic  intei-es1.  and  have  liecn  the 
cause  of  much  discussion.  hn1  owing  to  the  \ast  amount  of  such 
iiewspapci-  discussion  and  tiocumeutary  colhH-tions.  only  an  inci- 
dent or  two  will  l)e  alluded  to  here. 

( )n  tile  e\-eniug  of  .June  14tli  a  party  of  eleven  Sacs  killed  live 
white  men  at  Spalford's  fai-m  in  what  is  now  LaFayette  county. 
WLsconsiu.  Col.  Henry  Dotlge.  with  twenty-nine  mc^n.  followed 
and  the  next  day  overtook  tlu'  savages  in  a  neighboring  swamj).  A 
battle  ensued  lasting  but  a  short  tiuu',  the  eleven  Jndians  were 
killed  and  scalped,  the  w  hitcs  hisiug  tlu-ec  killed  and  one  wounded. 
No  incident  in  the  entire  war  has  been  so  thoi-oughly  discussetl 
and  (|uarreled  ovei-  as  this  bhioily  skirmish. 

On  dune  24th  l^lack  Hawk's  own  party  made  a  desperate 
attack  on  Apple  River  fort,  fourteen  miles  east  of  (ialcMia.  III.. 
which  sustained  a  heavy  siege  for  upwards  of  an  houi-.  the  liltle 
garrison  displaying  r<'mai-kfdile  \igoi-.  the  women  and  gii-ls  mould- 
ing bullets,  loading  guns  and  generally  |)roving  themselves  boi-- 
der  heroines.  The  red  men  retired  with  small  loss,  setting  tire  to 
neighboring  cabins  and  fields.  The  ne.xt  day  the  same  wai-  party 
attacked  IMajor  Dement 's  si)y  battallion  at  Kellogg 's  gi'ove.  six- 
teen miles  to  the  east;  the  Indians  were  routed  ujion  (Jeneral  Posey 
bi-inging  reinforcements,  losing  al)0Ut  fifteen  killed  while  the  whites 
lost  hut  five. 

The  people  of  what  is  now  llie  lead  iidniug  disti'ici  of  south- 
western Wisconsin  became  alai-mcd  foi-  fear  that  the  troops  cen- 
tered on  Kock  )'ivci-  would  drive  the  enemy  across  the  Illinois 
hoi'der  npon  them;  tlx'  news  of  RIack  Hawk's  invasion  in  May 
had  i-eached  them  and  i>i'epa rations  for  wcu-e  at  once 
Ix'gun  ;  ('ol.  7Ieni-y  Dodge,  one  of  the  ]>ioncers  of  the  lead  region, 
held  a  commission  as  chief  of  the  .Michigan  unlit  ia  west  of  Lake 
^Michigan,  and  assumed  direction  of  the  uulitary  oi)crations  north 
of  the  Illinois  line.  With  a  company  of  twenty -seven  hastily 
e(|ui]ipe(l  rangers  he  made  a  trii)  to  Dixcm  to  reeonnoiter  the  coun- 
try and  to  solicit  aid  from  (lovci'uor  Reynolds,  in  which  he  was 
not  sueeessful.  and  returned  to  the  nnnes  bearing  the  news  of  Still- 
num's  defeat.  Aftei-  arranging  to  recruit  three  additional  com- 
panies he  went  with  fifty  men  to  Whitt>  Crow's  Winnebago  vil- 
lage, at  the  hciid  of  Fourth  lake  some  four  ndlcs  northwest  of  the 


site  of  Madison,  for  the  purpose  of  holding  eoimcil  with  a  view 
to  keeping  them  quiet  during  the  present  crisis ;  he  received  pro- 
fuse assurances  of  their  fidelity  to  the  American  cause,  but  he 
seems  to  have  placed  small  reliance  upon  their  sincerity. 

Upon  returning  Dodge  started  for  headquarters  at  Fort 
Union  with  200  mounted  rangers,  gathered  from  the  mines  and 
fields,  a  free  and  easy  set  of  dare  devils  having  an  intense  hatred 
of  the  Indian  race ;  they  were  disciplined  to  some  extent,  but  in 
their  march  through  the  country  paid'  l)ut  little  attention  to 
regulations.  On  the  3d  of  June  they  arrived  at  Blue  ^Mounds 
just  in  time  to  receive  the  Hall  girls  brought  in  hy  White  Crow. 
Crow's  manner  being  offensive.  Dodge  had  him  and  his  compan- 
ions put  into  the  guard  house  as  hostages  for  the  good  behavior  of 
the  Fourth  lake  band.  Dodge  being  joined  by  a  small  party  of 
Hlinois  rangers  under  Capt.  J.  W.  Stephenson,  proceeded  to 
Ottawa  to  confer  with  General  Atkinson.  After  remaining  a  few 
days,  the  rangers  returned  to  the  lead  mines  to  complete  the 
defenses  there. 

In  less  than  three  weeks  after  Stillman's  defeat,  Reynolds  and 
Atkinson  had  recruited  3,200  troops,  divided  into  three  brigades, 
under  Generals  Alexander  Posey,  M.  K.  Alexander  and  James  D. 
Henry,  and  in  addition  were  Fry's  rangers,  half  of  whom  con- 
tinued their  service  to  protect  the  settlements  and  stores  on  Rock 
river.  AVith  these.  Dodge's  Michigan  rangers  and  the  regular 
infantry  the  entire  army  numbered  about  4,000  effective  men. 

An  advance  party  of  Posey's  brigade  was  sent  out  to  disperse 
Black  Hawk's  war  party  and  it  was  this  force  which  had  the 
skirmish  at  Kellogg 's  grove,  previously  alluded  to.  Aleantime 
Alexander  and  Henry's  brigades  arrived  at  Dixon's.  When  news 
came  of  the  Indian  defeat  at  Kellogg 's,  Alexander  Avas  dispatched 
in  haste  to  Plum  river  to  intercept  the  enemy's  crossing  the  Alis- 
sissippi  at  that  point;  Atkinson,  witli  Henry's  and  the  regulars, 
remained  at  Dixon  to  await  developments,  and  on  learning  that 
Black  Hawk's  main  camp  was  still  at  Lake  Koshkonong,  pushed 
on  up  the  Rock  with  400  regulars  and  2,100  volunteers,  being 
joined  by  a  party  of  seventy-five  friendly  PottaAvattomies,  who 
seemed  eager  to  join  in  the  scrimmage. 

On  June  30th  the  army  crossed  the  Illinois- Wisconsin  boundary 
about  a  mile  east  of  the  site  of  Beloit.  Sac  signs  Avere  fresh,  for 
Black  Hawk,  after  his  defeat  at  Kellogg 's.  had  fled  directly  to  his 
stronghold,  and  Atkinson's  men  Avere  following  a  Avarm  trail. 
Camps  were  invariably  made  in  the  timber  Avith  breastAVorks  to 
protect  against  night  attacks,  the  rear  guard  of  the  savages  proAvl- 


HISTORY  OF  moxrop:  county 

ing  around  in  tlic  dark  and  ])eing  frpqnontly  fired  on  l).v  sentries. 
On  .)uly  2d  the  army  arrived  at  Lake  Koslikonong,  found  hastily 
ch'serted  Indian  eanips;  scouts  made  a  tour  of  the  lake,  but  found 
nothing  of  importanee  except  a  few  stragglers.  A  few  captured 
Winnebagoes  gave  vague  testimony  and  one  of  tiiem  was  shot  and 
scalped  for  his  impertinence.  Fruitless  scouting  continued  for 
several  days. 

On  July  4  Alexander's  brigade  arrived,  and  on  the  sixth  Posey 
reported  with  Dodge's  squadron.  On  June  28th,  while  Dodge  was 
at  Fort  Hamilton,  Posey  arrived  with  orders  from  Atkinson  to 
join  forces  and  jirocoed  to  the  )iiain  army  on  the  Koshkonong. 
Dodge  now  had  about  three  hundred  men,  including  a  party  of 
twenty  ^lenomonies,  and  eight  or  ten  white  and  half-l)reed  scouts 
under  Col.  William  S.  Hamilton,  son  of  the  famous  Alexander. 
Proceeding  by  the  way  of  Four  Lakes,  White  Crow  and  a  party  of 
thirty  Winnebagoes  offered  to  guide  Posey  and  Dodge  to  Black 
Hawk's  caiiii).  After  advancing  through  almost  impenetrable 
swamps  for  several  days,  a  messenger  arrived  from  (Jeneral 
Atkinson  with  orders  to  join  the  main  body  on  Bark  river,  as  the 
enemy  was  believed  to  1)e  in  that  vicinity.  This  order  provoked 
Dodge,  but  pi'oved  to  be  singularly  opportune,  l^lack  Hawk's 
camp  occupied  a  position  excellent  for  defense  at  the  summit  of  a 
steep  de(divity  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Rock,  where  the  river  was 
difficult  of  passage.  White  Crow's  solicitude  as  a  guide  was 
undoubtedly  caused  by  his  desire  to  lead  the  troops  into  a  trap, 
whcrt-  they  would  be  badly  whipped  if  not  annihilated. 

While  White  Crow,  with  treachery  had  been  endeavoring  to 
entrap  the  Irfl  wing  of  the  army,  other  AVinnebago  had  informed 
Atkinson  that  Jilack  Hawk  was  encamped  on  an  island  in  the 
Whitewater  river,  a  few  miles  to  the  east.  In  i-onsequence  there 
was  a  useless  wild  goose  chase  through  the  broad  morasses  and 
treacherous  sink  holes  of  that  region.  Because  of  this  false  infor- 
mation, Atkinson  sent  the  messenger  to  Posey  just  in  time  to  save 
that  force,  though  he  did  not  then  know  it. 

The  army,  as  finally  formed,  was  Alexander's  brigade  and 
Dodge's  scjuadron  left  wing,  on  west  side  of  Rock:  regulars  \Hider 
Tayloi-  ;ind  llciii-y's  brigade  were  right  wing,  commanded  by 
Atkinson  in  i)erson.  and  marched  on  the  cast  bank:  Posey's  ])i-igade, 
also  on  the  west  liaid-:  was  the  center. 

On  July  lOth  Henry's  and  Alexander's  l)rigailes  and  Dodge's 
squadron  were  sent  to  Fort  Winnebago,  eighty  miles  to  the  north- 
west for  much  needed  provisions;  the  Second  regiment  of  Posey's 
brigade  was  sent  to  Dixon ;  with  the  rest  of  the  troops  Posey  was 


ordered  to  Fort  Hamilton  to  guard  the  mining  country ;  Atkinson 
himself  fell  back  to  Lake  Koshkonong  and  biiilt  a  fort  a  few  miles 
up  the  Bark  river  on  the  eastern  limit  of  what  is  now  the  city  of 
Fort  Atkinson. 

Arriving  at  Fort  Winnebago,  the  troops  found  a  number  of 
Winnebago,  all  full  of  advice;  and  also  a  famous  half  breed  scout. 
Pierre  Paquette.  He  informed  Henry  and  Dodge  of  the  true  loca- 
tion of  Black  Hawk's  stronghold  with  information  as  to  its  char- 
acter, and  with  twelve  Winnebago  was  engaged  to  guide  the  troops 
to  it.  While  at  the  fort  a  stampede  of  the  horses  occurred  and 
something  like  tifty  were  lost.  Henry  and  Dodge  determined  to 
return  by  way  of  Hustisford  rapids  and  there  engage  Black  Hawk 
if  possible.  Alexander's  men  refused  to  go  on  this  perilous  expe- 
dition and  the  General  weakly  yielded  to  their  demand  to  obey 
Atkinson's  order  and  return  to  camp.  Henry  was  made  of  differ- 
ent stuff  and  refused  to  return,  and  the  same  day  started  with 
twelve  days'  rations  with  their  guides.  The  ranks  had  been 
thinned  by  one  cause  and  another  so  that  in  Henry's  brigade  there 
were  now  but  600  effective  men  and  Dodge  had  about  150. 

On  July  18th  the  troops  found  the  Winnebago  village  at  which 
Black  Hawk  had  been  Cjuartered,  but  the  enemy  had  tied ;  the 
Winnebago  insisted  that  Black  Hawk  was  then  at  Cranberry  lake, 
a  half  day's  march  up  the  river,  and  the  white  commanders 
resolved  to  proceed  the  following  day.  At  2  :00  p.  m.  of  the  day 
of  arrival  Adjutants  ]\Ierriam  of  Henry's  and  AVoodbridge  of 
Dodge's  started  south  to  carry  the  information  to  Atkinson's  camp 
thirty-five  miles  down  the  river.  Little  Thunder,  a  Winnebago 
chief,  accompanied  them  as  guide.  When  about  twenty  miles 
out,  halfway  between  the  present  sites  of  Watertown  and  Jeffer- 
son, they  suddenly  struck  a  broad  trail  leading  west.  Little 
Thunder  became  greatly  excited  but  could  not  make  the  officers 
understand  him,  so  he  turned  his  horse  and  dashed  back  to  Henry's 
camp,  the  officers  being  obliged  to  follow,  and  there  Little  Thunder 
informed  his  people  that  the  trail  of  Black  Hawk  in  his  tlight  to 
the  J\lississippi  had  been  discovered  and  to  warn  them  that  further 
dissembling  was  useless. 

The  news  was  received  with  joy  by  the  troops,  sinking  spirits 
revived,  all  incumbrances  were  left  behind,  and  on  the  following 
morning  the  chase  was  begun ;  the  Chicago  and  Northwestern  rail- 
way between  Jefferson  Junction  and  ^Madison  follows  very  closely 
Black  Hawk's  trail  from  Rock  river  to  Four  lakes;  it  was  a  tough 
country,  the  men  getting  into  sink  holes ;  the  temperature  following 
a  rainstorm,  fell,  making  progress  difficult,  but  straggling  Winne- 


])ago  informed  tlic  troops  tluit  Black  Ilawk  was  l)iit  two  miles 
ahead  and  llicx'  jxislicd  on  with  fiiipty  stomadis  and  wet  clothes. 
By  sunset  .liil\'  2(ltli.  \\\r  second  day.  Iliey  reaelied  the  lakes,  ^oinj^ 
into  ram[)  near  \\ir  noitheast  exli'cmity  of  Third  lake.  That  same 
night  Black  Hawk  was  camped,  stronuly  and)ushed.  seven  or  eight 
miles  beyond,  near  tlie  present   \  illage  of  Pheasant  l^j-ancli. 

At  daylii-eak  of  the  21st  the  tfoops  wci-e  up  and  after  lording 
the  Catfish  river  swept  across  the  isthmus  l)etween  Third  and 
Fourth  lakes  in  regular  line  (>\'  hattle.  Ewing  scouts  in  front;  the 
line  of  mari-h  was  along  Thii'il  hike  shoi-e  ti)  wliere  Fauerhach's 
hi'ewery  now  stands,  thence  due  Avest  to  Foui'th  lake,  the  shores  of 
which  were  skirted  through  the  ])i'esent  site  of  the  University, 
across  the  swamps  and  lulls  to  the  Fiieasant  l)rancli.  and  then  due 
northwest  to  the  AVisconsiu  river:  the  advance  was  rapid,  forty 
horses  gave  out  dui-ing  the  da\-.  When  a  horse  dropped  the  trooper 
Irudged  on  afoot,  throwing  away  camp  kettle  and  ineund)ranees. 
It  was  3:00  o'clock  in  the  aftei-uoon  hefore  the  enemy's  rear 
guard,  twenty  braves  under  Neapope.  was  overtaken.  Several 
slvirmishes  ensued  hut  the  weakness  of  Neapope's  force  being  dis- 
covered they  were  easily  dispei-sed  hy  the  white  advance  guard. 
At  about  4:30  at  a  point  about  twenty-five  miles  northwest  of  the 
site  of  Madison.  Neapope's  hand,  reinforced  hy  a  scoi-e  of  braves 
under  Black  Hawk,  made  a  bold  stand  to  cover  the  flight  of  the 
main  body  down  the  Iduffs  and  across  the  stream.  The  troops  dis- 
mounted and  advanced  on  foot.  The  savages  made  a  heav.x'  chai'ge. 
yelling  like  madmen,  endeavoring  to  flank  the  whites,  liut  were 
repulsed.  The  Sacs  now  dropped  in  the  grass,  which  was  nearly 
six  feet  high,  and  after  an  hour  of  hot  tiring  with  few  casualties 
on  either  side.  Dodge.  Ewing  and  Jones  cluii-ged  the  enemy  with 
bayonets,  driving  them  up  a  rising  piece  of  gi'ound  at  the  top  of 
which  the  second  rank  ol  savages  were  found.  It  was  raining  softly 
and  it  was  found  difficult  to  keep  the  muskets  dry,  but  a  brisk  fi)'e 
was  kept  up  until  dusk,  and  the  jiursuit  was  abandoned  for  the 
night.  This  battle  on  the  i)art  of  the  Sacs  was  conducted  )>y  Black 
Hawk  himself,  who  sat  on  a  white  pony  on  a  neighboi-ing  knoll, 
giving  his   braves  orders   with    stentorian    voice. 

After  dusk  a  large  party  of  fugitives,  composed  nuiinly  of 
women,  children  and  ohl  men,  were  placed  on  a  large  raft  and  in 
canoes  begged  from  the  Winnebago  and  sent  down  th(>  rivei'  with 
the  hoj)e  that  the  soldiers  at  Fori  ("I'awl'oi'd.  irnarding  the  mouth 
of  the  Wisconsin,  wouhl  allow  thesi'  noncombatants  to  cross  the 
Mississipj)!  river  in  peace.  But  tiiis  confidence  was  misplaced. 
Lieutenant    Hitnei-  with  a  snudl  detachment  of  regulars  was  sent 


out  by  Indian  Agent  Joseph  ^l.  Street  to  intercept  these  forlorn 
find  nearly  starved  wretches,  and  a  short  distance  ahove  the  fort 
Kitner  tired  on  tlieni,  killing  fifteen  ni(>n  and  capturing  tlurty-two 
women  and  children  and  four  men.  Nearly  as  many  were  drowned 
during  the  onslaught,  while  of  the  rest,  who  escaped  to  the  woods, 
all  but  a  half  score  perished  with  hunger  or  were  massacred  by  a 
party  of  ]\Ienomonies  from  Green  Bay,  allies  under  Colonel 

About  an  lioui"  and  a  half  before  dawn  of  the  22nd,  the  day  of 
the  battle  of  Wisconsin  Heights,  a  loud,  shrill  voice  was  heard 
speaking  in  an  unknown  tongue,  which  caused  great  consternation 
in  the  white  camp  as  the  troops  feared  it  was  the  savage  leader 
giving  orders  for  an  attack.  It  was  Neapope,  who,  believing  that 
Paquette  and  the  Winnebago  were  still  witli  tlie  whites,  although 
they  had  returned,  spoke  in  tiic  Winnebago  tongue,  a  speech  of 
conciliation  to  the  victors,  saying  in  efiPect  that  if  they  were  allowed 
to  cross  the  ^Mississijipi  in  peace  they  wovdd  never  more  do  harm, 
l)ut  th(^  plea  fell  on  unwitting  ears  for  no  one  in  the  white  camp 
understood  it  and  thus  failed  a  second  attempt  of  Black  Hawk's 
band  to  close  the  war.  As  for  Neapope,  finding  that  his  mission 
had  failed,  he  fled  to  the  AVinnebago.  leaving  his  half  dozen  com- 
panions to  return  to  Black  Hawk  with  the  discouraging  news,  now 
encamped  in  a  ravine  north  of  the  Wisconsin. 

On  the  morning  of  the  22nd  it  was  found  that  the  enemy  had 
escaped  and  being  poorly  supplied  witli  provisions  for  a  long- 
chase  in  an  unknown  country  beyond  the  Wisconsin  river,  prepar- 
ations were  made  to  march  to  Blue  Alound  for  provisions.  Arriv- 
ing there  on  the  2;]rd  they  were  joined  by  Atkinson  and  Alexander. 
Atkinson  assumed  command,  distj-il)uted  rations  and  ordered  the 
pursuit  resumed.  On  the  27th  and  28tli  the  Wisconsin  was  crossed 
on  rafts  at  Helena.  Posey  now  jnined  and  all  the  l)rigades  were 
together  again.  At  noon  the  28th  the  advance  began  with  450 
regulars  under  (leneral  Brady  in  front.  Dodge,  Pcsey  and  Alex- 
ander following  in  the  order  named,  Henry  bringing  up  the  rear. 
It  appears  that  much  jealousy  was  apparent  on  Atkinson's  part 
from  the  fact  that  the  volunteers  liad  won  the  glory  so  far  in  the 
campaign.  After  a  march  of  a  few  miles  the  trail  of  the  fugitives 
toward  the  ^Mississippi  was  discovered.  The  country  between  the 
Wisconsin  and  the  great  river  was  I'ugged  and  hard  to  get  over, 
the  Winnebago  guides  were  unfamiliar  with  it.  and  progress  was 
slow.  However  the  fact  that  they  were  noticeal)ly  gaining  on  the 
redskins  spurred  the  troops.  The  pathway  was  strewn  with  dead 
Sacs  who  had  perished  of  wounds  and  starvation,  and  there  were 

60  lll.STOKV  UF  .M0XK01-:  (  UlNTV 

frequent  evidences  tliat  the  fleeing  wretches  were  eating  the  bark 
of  trees  and  the  sparse  horse  tiesli  of  tlicir  fagged-out  ponies,  to 
sustain  life. 

On  August  1st  IMack  Hawk  and  his  sadly  depleted  hand 
reached  the  Mississippi  at  a  point  two  miles  below  the  mouth  of 
the  Bad  Axe,  in  A'ernon  eounty.  about  forty  miles  north  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Wisconsin.  Here  he  tried  to  cross.  There  were, 
however,  but  two  oi-  three  canoes  to  l)e  had  and  the  work  was 
slow.  One  large  raft  laden  with  wonu^n  and  children  was  sent 
down  the  east  side  of  the  river  towards  Prairie  du  Chien.  but  on 
the  way  it  capsized  and  nearly  all  its  occupants  Avere  drowned. 

In  the  middle  of  the  afternoon  the  steamer  "Warrior"  of 
Prairie  du  Chien  appeared  having  on  })oard  Lieutenants  Kings- 
bury and  Ilobnes  with  fifteen  regulars,  who  had  been  up  the  river 
to  warn  the  Sioux  chiefs  at  Wabasha  that  the  Sacs  were  headed 
in  that  direction.  As  the  steamer  neared  the  shore  Black  Hawk 
appeared  on  the  bank  with  a  white  flag  and  called  out  to  the  Cap- 
tain in  the  Winnebago  tongue  to  send  a  ])oat  ashore  as  the  Sacs 
wished  to  give  themselves  up.  A  Winnebago  stationed  in  the  bow 
interpreted  the  request  but  the  Captain,  affecting  to  believe  that 
it  was  an  ambush,  ordered  Black  Hawk  to  come  aboard  in  his  own 
craft.  This  he  could  not  do  as  he  had  no  boat  or  canoe,  and  his 
reply  to  that  effect  was  met  in  a  few  moments  with  three  quick 
rounds  of  canister  shot  whicli  went  plowing  through  the  little 
group  of  Indians  on  shore  witli  deadly  effect.  A  fierce  fire  of 
musketry  ensued  in  wliich  twenty-three  Indians  were  killed  and 
but  one  white  man  wounded.  The  "Warrioi"'"  now  being  out  of 
wood  returned  to  Prairie  du  Chien  for  the  night,  the  soldiers  being 
highly  elated  at  tlieir  share  in  the  campaign. 

During  the  night  a  few  more  Indians  ci-ossed  the  river  but 
Black  Hawk,  seeing  that  nU  was  lost  to  him.  gathered  a  party  of 
ten  wai-riors,  anu)ng  whom  was  the  prophet,  and  witli  about  thirt\- 
five  s(}uaws  and  childivn  headed  east  for  a  rocky  hitling  place  in 
the  Dells  of  Wisconsin.  The  next  day  the  heart  of  the  old  man 
smote  him  foi-  having  deserted  his  people  and  he  returned  in  time 
to  witness  from  a  neighboring  bluff  the  conclusion  of  the  battle  of 
Bad  Axe  that  struck  the  death  ])low  to  the  British  band.  W^ith 
a  howl  of  rage  he  turned  and  disappeared  in  the  forest. 

The  aged  chief  had  left  excellent  instructions  to  his  people  in 
the  event  of  the  arrival  of  the  white  army.  Twenty  picked  Sacs 
were  on  the  high  bluffs  east  of  the  river  as  rear  guard.  Atkin.son's 
men  on  tlie  ;iflernoon  of  August  2nd  encountered  these  Sacs.     The 



density  of  the  timber  obstructing  the  view  it  was  supposed  that 
Black  Hawk's  main  force  was  overtaken.  The  army  spread  itself 
for  the  attack,  Alexander  and  Posey  forming  the  right,  Henry  the 
left,  and  Dodge  and  the  regulars  the  center.  The  savage  decoys 
retreated  up  the  river  away  from  the  main  position  of  the  savage 
force  and  drew  the  troops  after  them  as  the  white  center  and  right 
wing  followed  quickly,  leaving  the  left  wing — with  the  exception 
of  one  of  its  regiments  detailed  to  cover  the  rear — without  orders. 
Some  of  E wing's  scouts  accidentally  discovered  that  the  main  trail 
of  the  enemy  was  farther  down  the  river  than  where  the  decoys 
were  leading  the  army;  thereupon  Henry  with  his  entire  force 
descended  the  bluff  and  after  a  gallant  charge  on  foot  found  him- 
self in  the  midst  of  the  main  body  of  300  warriors.  A  desperate 
conflict  ensued,  the  bucks  being  driven  from  tree  to  tree  at  the 
point  of  the  bayonet,  while  women  and  children  plunged  madly 
into  the  river,  many  to  drown.  The  conflict  raged  fiercely.  Fully 
a  half  hour  after  Henry  made  the  descent  Atkinson,  hearing  the 
din  of  battle  in  his  rear,  came  hastening  to  the  scene  with  the 
center  and  right  wing  driving  in  the  decoys  and  stragglers,  thus 
completing  the  corral.  The  carnage  now  proceeded  more  fiercely 
than  ever.  The  "Warrior"  reappeared  and  aided  the  attack  with 
canister.  A  wild  dash  was  made  for  the  river;  some  of  the  fugi- 
tives succeeded  in  swimming  to  the  west  bank,  but  most  of  them 
were  picked  off  l)y  sharp-shooters  as  if  they  were  rats  instead  of 
human  beings,  showing  absolutely  no  mercy  toward  women  and 
children.  This  massacre  lasted  for  about  three  hours.  The  Indians 
lost  150  killed  outright,  while  as  many  more  of  both  sexes  and  all 
ages  were  drowned — some  fifty  l^eing  taken  prisoners,  mostly 
women.  About  300  of  the  band  crossed  the  river  successfully 
before  and  during  the  struggle.  The  whites  lost  seventeen  killed 
and  twelve  wounded. 

Those  who  had  crossed  the  river  were  cruelly  set  upon  by  a 
band  of  Sioux  under  Chief  Wabasha,  and  one-half  of  these  help- 
less, half-starved  noncombatants  were  cruelly  slaughtered,  while 
many  of  the  others  died  of  exhaustion  and  wounds  before  they 
reached  their  friends  of  Keokuk's  band. 

The  rest  is  soon  told.  The  army  returned  to  Prairie  du  Chien, 
General  Scott  assumed  command  and  mustered  out  the  volunteers 
the  following  day.  Cholera  among  his  troops  had  detained  him 
first  at  Detroit  and  then  at  Chicago,  nearly  one-fourth  of  his  1,000 
regulars  having  died  of  the  pestilence.  Independent  of  this  the 
American  loss  in  the  war,  including  volunteers  and  settlers  killed 


in  tlic  inv}?iilai'  skiriuishcs  and  in  massacres,  was  not  ovit  2r)(). 
'I'lu'  (iiiaiicial  cost  to  tlie  nation  and  1(»  tlic  state  of  Illinois  aggre- 
gated nearly  $2,()()( ).()()(). 

On  August  22nd.  ('Iiactai-  and  One-Eyed  Decorah,  two  AVinnc- 
bago  l)raves.  delivered  Jilaek  Hawk  and  the  Prophet  into  the  liands 
of  Agent  Sti-ect  at  Pi-aii-ic  du  ("liicn.  They  hail  fuund  them  at  tiie 
AVisconsin  river  (hdls  ahoxc  Kilhoiirn  ('iiy.  ( )ii  the  21st  of  Sep- 
tend)er  a  ti'eat\'  of  peace  was  signed  and  P>hiek  Hawk.  Ihe  Prophet 
and  Neapope.  who  had  heen  eaptui-ed  hiti'i-,  wci-e  kept  as  hostages 
for  the  good  behavior  of  the  rest  of  the  British  ])and. 

They  were  kept  tlii-ongh  the  winter  at  -lefit'erson  l^arraeks.  and 
in  April.  1S:{;I.  were  taken  to  AVashington.  They  remained  pris- 
oners in  Korti'ess  Monroe  nntil  disehai'ged.  -Iinie  4tli.  After 
visiting  the  ])rineipal  eities  of  the  east,  whei'e  I5hiek  Hawk  was 
much  lionized,  tlic  pai'tx  retni-iied  to  Fort  Armstrt)ng  much  im- 
])ressed  with  the  power  and  i-esonrees  of  the  white  nmn.  Here 
]^laek  Hawk's  pi-ide  was  completely  crushed,  he  being  i)laced  \nider 
the  guardianshi])  of  his  hated  I'ival.  Keokuk.  This  was  considennl 
an  irreparahle  insnit  to  the  fallen  chief,  which  he  nurseil  with  much 
bitterness  to  the  end  of  his  days. 

Black  Hawk  at  the  age  of  seventy-om^  \-ears  finally  passed  away 
on  the  ;5d  of  October,  1838,  at  his  home  on  a  snuill  reservation  set 
apart  foi-  him  in  Davis  county.  Towa.  on  tiie  l)es  Moines  river. 

In  July  of  the  following  yeai*  his  l)ody  was  stolen  by  an  Illi- 
nois physician,  ("omplaint  being  made  by  Bla(d<  Hawk's  family 
(Jovernor  Lucas,  of  !o\\a.  caused  the  skeleton  to  be  delivered  to 
him  at  Burlington  in  the  spring  of  1840.  The  seat  of  government 
being  moved  to  Iowa  City  later  in  the  year,  the  box  containing 
the  remains  was  dejiosited  in  a  hiw  office  in  the  latter  town, 
where  it  remained  until  the  night  ol'  -lanuai'v  l(i.  1S.'):I.  A\hen  the 
building  was  destroyed  hy   lire. 

l-'orbearaiice  and  honorable  dealing  on  the  part  of  the  whites 
could  easily  have  ])re\ented  the  Bhndv  J  lawk'  war.  Scpuitters 
were  not  ])i'e\"ented  from  encroaidnng  upon  the  ])oss(\ssions  of  his 
l)eople,  and  at  ^ycann»re  creek  he  ■would  ha\'e  consented  to  remove 
his  ])and  |)eaceai)ly  aci'oss  the  i-i\fi-  had  the  oi'dinary  rules  of 
war  in  i-especting  a  tlasr  of  truce  been  observed  by  the  white  nu'ii. 
In  fad.  the  c(mrse  of  the  Americans  during  this  sti'Uggle  was 
marked  by  eruelly  and  disregard  I'ov  tlu'  I'ules  of  waiMare  which 
was  more  than  savage;  women,  children  and  old  men  w  ei-e  ruth- 
lessly murdei'ed.  and  they  caused  the  remnant  of  the  liaiid  which 
had  crossed  the  i'i\er  to  l)e  neai'l.x'  all  massaci'ed  by  the  Sioux. 
A   black  record   but    mie   which   must    be  written. 


With  the  lapse  of  time,  the  jiassing  away  of  so  many  of  the 
pioneers  and  the  laek  of  records  in  the  various  communities 
renders  it  difficult  to  attempt  to  detail  the  ditferent  points  in  the 
county  at  which  the  early  settlements  were  made,  in  anything 
like  chronological  order.  It  is  certain,  however,  that  the  tirst 
settlement  in  the  county  ivas  near  what  is  now  known  as  Oil 
City  in  the  town  of  Sheldon,  and  Esau  Johnson,  wlio  located  on 
the  Kickapoo  in  that  town  on  the  1st  day  of  October,  1842,  was 
the  first  "white  man  who  nuide  his  home  in  the  county  of  Monroe. 

He  built  a  little  cabin  a])Out  two  miles  above  Oil  City  and 
moved  into  it  with  his  family.  His  own  Mords  probably  best 
describe  the  manner  and  reason  for  his  stopping  at  that  place 
and  in  an  interview  given  many  years  ago  he  said:  "In  the  year 
1842  I  came  with  my  family  down  the  AVisconsin  river  on  a  log 
raft  to  the  mouth  of  the  Kickapoo,  and  went  to  what  was  then 
known  as  Haney's  in  Richland  county.  We  stayed  there  and 
worked  on  his  land  until  the  fall  of  the  same  year,  when  I  took 
an  ax  and  some  provisions  and  started  on  a  prospecting  trip  up 
the  Kickapoo  river  until- 1  came  to  the  mouth  of  Moore's  creek, 
Avhich  is  in  Monroe  county.  Impressed  with  the  locality  I  deter- 
mined to  return  and  bring  my  family  up.  Not  Avishing  to  walk 
back  to  the  farm  I  holhiwed  out  a  tree,  made  myself  a  couple  of 
paddles  and  sailed  down  in  my  improvised  boat.  I  reached  the 
farm  the  next  day  and  soon  had  the  boat  in  good  condition  for 
moving  my  family  and  what  few  household  goods  I  had  up  to 
our  new  home.  I  finally  left  the  'Haney'  farm  September  10, 
1842,  and  hired  two  brothers  named  Clark  to  help  me  move. 
They  agreed  for  a  consideration  to  stay  with  me  until  I  had  my 
house,  built.  On  the  13th  day  of  October  we  reached  the  location 
I  had  fixed  up  and  we  arranged  a  timbered  shelter  for  my  family 
Tuitil  we  could  cut  logs  for  a  house.  Three  of  us  got  to  work 
and  we  soon  had  the  work  under  way.  On  the  6th  of  October, 
just  five   days   after  landing,  myself  and  my  family  moved  in. 



This  I  ])ositiv('ly  assert  was  llic  liisl  house  and  I  and  my  family 
the  first  white  people  to  make  a  permanent  settlement  in  INIonroe 
eoiinty.  The  two  Clarks  stayed  Avitli  me  unlil  llw  m-xt  day,  wiien 
they  took  a  ])oat  and  returned  to  Ilaney's/" 

IMr.  Johnson  also  states  that  on  the  lOtli  day  ol'  Orloher  Jie 
started  for  tlie  mouth  of  the  Kiekapoo  river  to  get  four  head  of 
oxen  which  iie  had  left  there,  and  I'lnin  thei-e  lie  went  to  Prairie 
du  Chien,  where  he  got  a  load  of  provisions  and  hired  two  men  to 
return  and  work  for  him.  In  this  trij)  Mr.  Johnson  claims  to  have 
been  the  first  to  travel  the  present  road  between  Oil  City  and 
Praii'ie  du  Chien.  Tliere  were  no  otlun-  settlers  except  I\li'.  John- 
son and  his  family  up  until  IS-IT,  and  in  the  spring  of  that  year 
Sylvester  Bacon  and  AVilliam  Clark  joined  him  and  worked  for 
him  until  the  spring  df  184*J.  Soon  after  this  in  that  same  year 
Thonuis  Lewis  and  Thompson  Ilazen  arrived  and  located  at  a 
point  about  a  half  mile  from  the  Johnson  home  and  went  into 
the  lumbering  business.  This  they  continued  to  handle  until 
]\ray,  1847,  when  the  business  was  sold  to  A.  J.  ^Martin ;  Lewis 
leaving  the  county  and  going  down  to  Grant  county  and  Hazen 
moved  to  a  point  about  five  miles  south  of  Cashton.  where  he 
opened  a  tavern  and  located  on  a  farm. 

The  first  white  child  born  in  IMonroe  county  was  a  son  of 
Esau  Johnson,  Avho  first  saw  the  light  in  September,  184(3,  and  the 
photo  of  this  child  noA\-  hangs  in  the  office  of  the  county  clerk  of 
iMonroe  county,  at  the  court  house  in  the  city  of  Sparta. 

AVith  the  opening  oL*  the  state  road  between  Hudson  and 
Prairie  du  Chien,  wdiicli  passed  through  the  place  where  Sparta 
now  is,  and  tlu^  laying  out  of  the  road  between  Portage  and 
LaCrosse,  came  the  opportunity  for  new  settlers,  which  was  taken 
advantage  of  during  the  years  1849-50-51.  Probably  the  next 
point  at  whicli  any  settlement  was  made  prioi*  to  1850  Avas  that 
of  Frank  Petit,  who  came  to  this  county  in  1849.  which  is 
authenticated  by  several  records,  and  settled  at  a  place  near 
Sparta,  w-hich  is  now  knoAvn  as  "Castle  Rock,"'  and  lie  after- 
w^ards  came  to  the  place  where  Sparta  now  stands  and  was  its 
first  settler.  In  1850  Cliarles  Clute  came  with  his  family  and 
went  to  work  for  Esau  Johnson  at  the  sawmill  of  the  latter  on 
the  Kiekapoo  river.  Clute  afterwards  took  up  land  in  the  north- 
ern part  of  the  county.  In  1851  E.  E.  Shaw.  AVilliam  Petit, 
Nelson  Turrier  and  a  man  by  the  name  of  ]\Ietzler,  settled  in  the 
coujitv,  and  in  July  of  the  same  vear  R.  S.  Kinsrman  and  his  two 
brothers,  twins  named  Rosalbo  and  Alvarbo,  came  to  the  county 


from  Ashtabula,  Ohio,  and  settled  witli  E.  E.  Shaw  aud  Turrier 
in  the  Leon  valley. 

From  that  time  until  the  organization  of  the  county  settle- 
ments at  different  points  were  quite  frequent,  notably  that  at 
Leon  in  1851  by  E.  E.  Shaw  and  companions ;  in  the  town  of 
Jetferson  in  1854  by  Thompson  Hazen  who,  as  has  been  before 
mentioned,  opened  a  hotel  known  as  " Hazen 's  Corner;"  the 
settlement  of  the  towns  which  followed  the  organization  of  the 
county  in  1851:  are  treated  in  separate  articles  subsequently  in 
this  work. 

The  pioneers  who  settled  in  the  early  day  have  given  many 
lessons  of  industry  and  frugality,  coupled  with  trials,  hardships 
and  endurance  which  so  strikingly  demonstrates  to  us  the  cour- 
age and  determination  of  the  men  of  that  early  time.  The  first 
important  thing  that  the  settler  did  was  to  build  himself  a  house 
and  perhaps  until  that  was  finished  to  live  in  his  immigrant 
wagon  or  some  rudely  improvised  shelter.  Of  course,  the  house 
was  of  logs  and  very  primitive  in  design,  but  after  it  was  built, 
erected  by  his  own  hands,  it  became  a  home,  and  in  most  cases 
he  was  content  with  it.  The  ingenuity  Vfiih  which  the  occupants 
of  these  log  cabins  constructed  what  they  called  furniture  is 
sometimes  quite  interesting  and,  of  course,  any  such  manufac- 
tured articles,  if  any  existed  during  the  early  50 's,  were  imported 
from  a  distance ;  tables  and  chairs  were  made  of  split  logs,  the 
bedstead  very  often  of  poles  placed  over  forked  sticks  driven  in 
the  ground ;  and  many  devices  were  invented  in  the  way  of  fire- 
places for  heating  and  cooking  purposes. 

As  soon  as  the  clearing  of  land  was  under  way  the  first  crop 
was  raised,  which  usually  consisted  of  a  few  vegetables,  sufficient 
for  the  needs  of  the  family ;  meat  was  supplied  by  the  rifle  of  the 
pioneer ;  it  was  plentiful  and  helped  to  swell  the  limited  supply 
of  provisions.  INIills  for  the  grinding  of  corn  were  usually  at  a 
long  distance,  and  sometimes  the  expedient  of  grinding  corn  in 
a  coffee  mill  had  to  be  resorted  to,  and  many  other  methods 
devised  to  make  cornmeal  flour.  But  with  the  advent  of  more 
settlers  neighborhoods  became  established,  then  a  school  would 
spring  up  and  here  and  there  a  church.  The  old  Indian  trails 
became  w^ell-traveled  highways  and  the  wilderness  was  hewn  into 
a  semblance  of  ciA'ilization,  creating  the  foundation  of  what  is 
today  one  of  the  great  counties  of  the  great  state  of  Wisconsin. 



In  the  year  1849  a  state  road  was  opened  between  Prairie  du 
Cliien  and  Hudson,  which  Avere  at  that  time  trading  points,  pass- 
ing throngli  tlie  phu-e  where  Sparta  now  is  and  going  around  by 
the  way  of  Bhu-k  llivcv  Falls  and  Clear  Water,  which  afterwards 
became  Eau  Claire.  A  little  later  on  a  road  Avas  opened  between 
Portage  and  LaCrosse,  following  an  old  Indian  trail,  affording 
a  way  of  travel  to  the  settlements  of  western  AVisconsin,  which 
before  that  time  Avere  only  reached  by  way  of  the  rivei-s.  At  that 
time  there  Avas  no  ]iost  office  nearer  than  Prairie  du  Chien,  but 
Avith  the  opening  of  tlu^  higlnvays  ])ost  offices  Avere  established  at 
Hlaek  Kiver  Falls,  LaCrosse  and  scA'eral  other  points.  About 
that  time  the  diAision  of  AA-estern  Wisconsin  into  counties  began 
to  take  place;  CraAvford  county.  Avhich  c()in])rised  tlie  AAhole  of 
AA'estern  Wisconsin.  AA'as  set  off  with  Pi-airie  du  ('hien  as  the 
county  seat,  and  out  of  this  territory  Avere  carved,  at  ditferent 
times,  other  counties,  by  the  vai'ious  acts  of  the  legislature. 

Originally,  in  1841)  LaCiosse  county  comprised  all  the  terri- 
tory included  in  its  present  limits  and  that  of  ^Moni'oe.  Jackson. 
Trempeleau  aiul  Buffalo  counties:  settlements  being  i-;i])id  in  the 
next  few  years  and  the  inluibitants  somcAA-hat  "croAvded"*  as  they 
thought,  in  185^.  upon  ap|)lication  to  the  legislatiu-e.  Jackson 
county  was  set  off.  and  in  isr)4  'ricmpeleaii.  Buffalo  and  Monroe 
counties  Avere  established  ;ind  detached  from  LaCrosse  county. 
Like  all  movenuMits  looking  toAvards  progress  there  Avas  opposi- 
tion to  the  organization  of  Alonroe  county  right  iuM'e  at  home,  but 
neA'ertheless  in  ]\Iai-ch.  18r)4.  a  bill  ci-eating  the  county  of  .Monroe 
passed  the  legislature,  Avas  approved  1)\-  the  (Jovernor  .March 
21st.  published  Alarcli  24th.  thereby  becoming  a  law.  and  .Monroe 
county  Avas  placed  upon  the  ma|).  Why  it  Avas  luuued  "Alonroe" 
is  not  knoAvn.  but  that  its  subsetjuent  histoi-y  justified  its  bearing 
the  name  of  that  sturdy  patriot.  James  Alonro(\  the  fifth  presi- 
dent of  the  T'nited  States,  no  one  can  doubt. 

While  this  bill  Avas  pending  in  the  legislature  there  Avas  a 
liA'ely  struggle  betAveen  the  residents  of  Leon  and  Sparta  as  to 


]\IAKIX(!  A  ("OTNTY  G7 

which  place  sliould  be  named  as  the  county  seat.  Tlie  argnnient.i 
of  the  Spartans  prevailed,  however,  and  the  hill  creating  the 
county  named  Sparta  as  the  county  seat.  This  ;ic1  prescribed 
that  all  that  portion  of  the  county  of  LaCrosse  situated  and 
being  in  range  one  east,  and  ranges  one,  two,  three  and  four  west 
of  township  fifteen,  sixteen,  seventeen  and  eighteen  be  set  oflf  and 
organized  into  a  separate  county,  to  be  known  and  designated  by 
the  name  of  the  county  of  ^Eonroe. 

It  further  provided  that  an  election  shouki  be  held  in  the 
county  of  Monroe  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  the  following  April,  and 
the  polls  should  be  opened  in  all  precincts  established  on  or 
before  the  first  Tuesday  of  April ;  that  the  vote  should  be  can- 
vassed and  returns  made  thereof  to  the  clerk  of  the  board  of 
supervisors  of  the  town  of  Leon,  who  should  canvass  the  same 
as  prescribed  by  law  for  the  canvass  of  votes  for  county  officers. 
and  should  issue  certificates  to  such  persons  as  received  the 
greatest  number  of  votes  for  the  ofifices  respectively  for  the  town 
and  county  officers.  That  there  should  be  elected  at  such  election 
a  county  judge,  who  sliould  hold  his  office  until  the  first  day  of 
January  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  fifty-eight,  and 
until  his  successor  was  elected  and  ciualified.  There  should  also 
be  elected  three  town  supervisors,  one  to  be  designated  as  chair- 
man of  the  board,  who  should  also  be  the  board  of  county  super- 
visors. That  at  such  election  should  also  be  elected  a  sherifif, 
a  clerk  of  the  court,  clerk  of  the  board  of  county  supervisors,  a 
register  of  deeds,  surveyor  and  coroner  and  all  other  county 
officers  required  for  the  due  organization  of  the  county  for 
county  and  judicial  purposes.  It  also  provided  that  the  county 
of  ]Monroe  should  consist  of  one  town  and  the  Ijoai'd  of  super- 
visors should  be  the  l)oai'd  of  county  supervisors,  and  that  the 
said  board  of  county  supervisors  should  have  to  divide  the  county 
into  three  or  more  towns  at  any  regular  meeting  of  the  board, 
and  also  provided  that  the  county  seat  should  be  located  at  the 
village  of  Sparta,  in  the  town  of  Leon.  All  writs,  processes,  ap- 
peals, suits,  indictments,  recognizances  and  othei*  pi'oceediugs 
whatsoever  then  pending  or  thereafter  commenced,  or  pending 
before  the  Monday  next  after  the  first  Tuesday  of  April  next,  in 
the  county  or  circuit  court  of  the  county  of  LaCrosse,  should  be 
prosecuted  to  the  final  judgment,  order  or  decree,  might  be  car- 
ried into  eflt'ect  and  enforced  in  like  manner  as  if  the  counties  of 
LaCrosse  and  Monroe  were  constituted  one  county ;  and  all 
executions,  writs,  processes  or  other  proceedings  may  be  directed 


aud  carried  into  execution  and  effect  as  such  court  shall  direct 
any  law  on  the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

At  the  election  held  in  April  pursuant  to  this  act,  seventy 
votes  were  cast  for  the  entire  county,  and  K.  J.  Casselnian,  Loyd 
Angle  and  Peter  DeCoursey  were  elected  as  the  town  board  of 
the  town  of  Leon,  and  thereby  becaiiif  the  first  county  board  of 
supervisors  of  the  county  of  jNIonroe.  .Vt  that  election  the  follow- 
ing county  officers  were  elected:  A.  H.  Blake,  county  judge;  Ed. 
AValrath,  sheriff;  AVilber  Fisk,  register  of  deeds;  John  Barker, 
clerk  of  the  court;  Samuel  Hoyt,  county  treasurer:  A.  H.  Cornell, 
district  attorney;  E.  E.  Shaw,  clerk  of  the  board  of  supervisors. 
AVilber  Fisk  loft  the  county  soon  after  the  election  and  E.  S. 
Blake  filled  the  vacancy  in  the  ofifice  of  the  register  of  deeds  until 
the  appointment  of  R.  S.  Kingman,  wliich  occurred  in  January. 

The  county  board  held  its  first  meeting  on  the  lltli  day  of 
April,  1854.  at  which  R.  J.  Casselman  and  Loyd  Angle  were 
present,  and  without  doing  anything  the  board  adjourned  to  the 
14th  day  of  April,  and  on  the  14tli  the  board  convened  pursuant 
to  the  adjournment  Avith  R.  J.  Casselman  and  Loyd  Angle  i)res- 
ent.  The  first  item  of  business  wliidi  was  ever  transacted  by  a 
county  board  of  Alonroe  county  was  done  at  that  meeting.  The 
board  very  solemnly  proceeded  to  pass  the  resolution  to  pay  the 
exorbitant  price  of  .^12. 50  to  John  Foster  for  the  use  of  the  hall 
in  the  "Globe  HoteF'  and  for  fuel  for  the  same  for  one  year  in 
accordance  with  the  agreement  on  file  in  the  ofifice  of  the  clerk. 
At  its  next  meeting,  held  on  the  2d  day  of  May,  1854,  Fredrick 
A.  Childs  of  Sparta  was  appointed  county  surveyor  until  a  sur- 
veyor should  be  duly  elected  and  qualified :  there  appearing  to 
be  little  use  for  a  coroner  none  was  elected  or  appointed  at  that 

Under  the  law  as  it  then  existed  the  county  board  consisted 
of  the  chairman  of  the  board  of  supervisors  of  each  town,  and 
this  prevailed  up  to  the  year  1861,  when  by  chapter  129  of  the 
laws  of  that  year  the  entire  system  was  changed  and  the  board 
was  made  to  consist  of  three  electors;  each  county  was  divided 
into  assembly  districts,  or  if  there  were  not  three  assembly  dis- 
tricts, then  into  supervisor  districts,  and  one  supervisor  elected 
for  each  district,  and  this  system  continued  until  1870,  when  the 
legislature  in  its  wisdom  repealed  the  chapter  129  of  the  laws 
of  1861  and  the  original  system  was  again  adopted,  which  has 
ever  since  been  in  existence.  The  county  board,  made  up  as  a 
rule  of  the  most  representative  men  in  the  county,  and  consists 


at  the  present  writing  of  thirty-six  members.  As  the  interests 
of  towns,  cities  and  villages  in  the  equalization  of  taxes  and  other 
matters  have  been  important,  the  board  has  consisted  in  the  past, 
and  does  at  the  present  time,  of  strong  and  representative  men, 
and  during  the  past  fifty-seven  years  it  has  had  as  members  at 
dilferent  times  most  all  the  men  who  have  been  distinguished  in 
their  various  communities  in  the  county.  The  roster  of  several 
hundred  names  contains  those  of  men  who  have  done  things  in  the 
upbuilding  of  the  great  agricultural,  commercial,  dairy  and  fruit 
growing  prosperity  and  wealth  of  the  county. 

The  first  estate  which  came  into  the  county  court  was  that  of 
one  H.  B.  Hanshall,  and  the  first  record  in  that  court  w^as  on  the 
2nd  day  of  April,  1856,  when  the  bond  of  the  administratrix  in 
the  said  estate  was  approved  and  recorded  by  George  Gale,  who 
was  then  county  judge. 

The  first  term  of  the  circuit  court  was  held  at  the  village  of 
Sparta  beginning  on  the  18th  day  of  September,  1854,  the  Hon. 
Hiram  Knowlton,  judge  of  the  sixth  judicial  circuit,  presiding, 
and  sad  to  relate  the  first  case  which  came  before  his  honor  was 
a  divorce  case  in  which  Ellen  Pendelbery  was  plaintiff  and  Abra- 
ham Pendelbery  was  defendant.  The  charge  was  for  desertion 
for  more  than  one  year,  to  which  the  defendant  made  no  defense 
and  a  decree  of  divorce  was  entered  on  that  day  by  the  court 
giving  the  care  and  custody  of  the  minor  children  to  the  wife. 
The  action  was  brought  by  Denison  and  Lyndes,  attorneys  for 
the  plaintiff.  At  that  time  it  appeared  that  the  district  attorney, 
who  had  been  elected,  had  left  the  county  and  the  court  on  the 
18tli  of  September  appointed  James  I.  Lyndes  to  act  as  district 
attorney  for  tliat  term.  Upon  motion  of  Mr.  Lyndes,  Ellworth 
Lathrop,  James  Edswell  and  Carlton  E.  Rice  were  admitted  as 
attorneys  and  counsellers  at  the  law"  and  solicitors  in  chancery. 

The  first  jury  case  was  that  of  Samuel  Hoyt  vs.  AVilliam  AVal- 
bridge  for  trespass.  A.  Holdes  was  attorney  for  the  plaintiff  and 
Denison  and  Lyndes  represented  the  defendant.  The  first  jury 
ever  empanelled  in  the  county  was  drawn  and  consisted  of  the 
following  citizens:  J.  C.  Bean,  John  DeLaney,  A.  H.  Blake,  R.  S. 
Kingman.  Riley  Roberts,  Hiram  Anderson,  B.  B.  Jones,  AVilliam 
Winters,  S.  Walrath,  A.  Fisk.  William  Kerrigan  and  J.  F.  Rath- 
bun.  Only  one  of  this  number  is  still  living,  J.  F.  Rathl)un,  who 
now  resides  at  the  city  of  Tomah.  The  plaintiff'  was  successful 
and  was  awarded  $50  damages. 

The  first  county  board  practiced  economj^  during  the  year, 
and  at  the  meeting  on  March  26,  1855,  the  clerk's  report  shows 


a  total  of  orders  diawn  on  tin-  t-ounty  treasurer  of  $295.87:  i»ut 
soon  the  expenses  began  to  multiply  rapidly  wlien  the  business 
affairs  of  the  eounty  were  fairly  lauiicluMl.  Salaries,  court  ex- 
penses, olifiec  r<'Mls  \'nr  llic  vai'ious  otiticcrs.  Ices  of  various  kinds 
provided  by  law  all  fomhiiied  to  rapidly  increase  the  tax  rate. 
AVith  the  growth  of  the  eounty  business  the  board  found  it  neces- 
sary to  have  a  court  house  and  jail.  .1.  1).  Daimnon  having  made 
a  plat  of  his  first  division  to  the  village  of  Sparta,  offered  to 
donate  block  four  for  a  location  for  the  county  buildings,  and  as 
a  court  house  s(juai-e.  This  was  accepted  by  the  county  board 
^larch  H,  IS.")."),  and  at  the  meeting  held  on  the  .Ith  of  June  of  the 
same  year  the  l)oard  voted  an  appi-opriation  of  not  to  exceed 
^(iOO.nO  for  a  county  building.  H.  .1.  ("asselman,  John  Foster  and 
11.  ]M.  Sanford  were  api)oiuted  a  l)uilding  committee  to  draft 
plans,  to  receive  bids  and  to  cause  the  building  to  be  erected  as 
soon  as  possible.  It  was  completed  for  occupancy  in  1856,  being 
a  frame  building  containing  the  court  room  or  hall,  and  part  of 
the  building  Avas  partitioned  off  foi-  a  jail.  It  stood  in  th"  middle 
of  block  four  of  Dammon's  addition,  being  the  one  in  whieh  [he 
house  now  owned  by  Lee  Canfield  is  situated.  Soon  after  its  com- 
pletion the  building  was  leased  to  the  school  district  for  school 
jmrposes.  when  not  in  use  for  holding  court;  and  on  Sundays  it 
was  used  by  the  Methodists  as  a  church.  There  were  no  otiHces 
in  the  building,  however,  nnd  the  nect'ssity  of  renting  offices  by 
the  county  board  continued  for  sevei'al  years.  Mr.  Dannnon  in 
1862  commenced  an  action  against  the  county  to  recover  posses- 
sion of  the  court  house  site,  claiming  lliat  the  jiritvisions  of  the 
deed  had  been  violated  as  tlie  building  was  l)eing  used  for  school 
purposes  and  foi-  chuicli  purposes  ])rincipall\ .  A  special  session 
of  the  county  board  was  called  Sept(  niber  4.  ISti:!.  a1  which  it 
Mas  voted  to  pay  the  costs  of  the  suit  and  settle  the  same  by  con- 
veying 111"'  i)i'o]ierty  back  to  ^Ii-.  Dammnn.  which  was  subse- 
quently  (lone. 

The  block  where  the  preseul  coui'1  house  stands,  whicii  had 
l»een  dedicated  as  a  jiark  l)y  AVilliam  Pcttit  in  isr)2,  was  selected 
as  the  site  foi'  the  county  buildings,  ami  pui'snani  1o  a  resolution 
of  the  bo;ir<l  a1  the  Xovendier  session  in  ISii:!.  the  court  house 
and  sheriff's  dwelling  were  erected  in  ISd.")  at  a  cost  of  j|<22,r)0(). 
This  building  Mas  considered  (piile  ample  a1  ihe  tinu'  and  served 
the  ])ui'])oses  \ery  Avell  until  the  growth  in  population  and  in  the 
county's  business  made  it  necessary  to  erect  more  modern  build- 
ings. A  modern  l)i-i(dv  jail  M'as  built  in  1<S!)()  jiursuant  to  a  reso- 
lution of  th(^  (M»nnty  board,  costing  about  $17,000.  and  in  1894  the 


board  passed  an  ordinance  providing  for  tlic  building  of  a  new 
c'onrt  bouse,  wbicli  was  erected  in  1895-96.  It  is  a  tbree-story 
stone  building,  with  plain  but  bandsome  exterior  of  red  sandstone, 
having  good  court  rooms,  a  county  board  room,  commodious 
offices  for  all  the  county  officers,  with  ample  vault  room  in  all  the 
offices  where  records  are  kept  for  a  long  time  in  the  future.  It 
is  heated  by  steam,  electric  lighted  and  has  all  the  modern  con- 
veniences with  steel  furniture  in  all  the  vaults. 

In  1871  the  county  being  then  divided  into  three  districts  for 
the  care  of  the  poor,  the  necessity  of  establishing  a  county  insti- 
tution where  paupers  could  be  cared  for  became  apparent.  At  a 
session  of  the  board  in  February  that  year  a  resolution  was 
passed  to  purchase  a  farm  for  the  purpose  and  a  committee  con- 
sisting of  James  Thomson,  J.  Caney,  D.  Homes,  AV.  AVoodard  and 
J.  B.  Marsden,  were  appointed  to  carry  it  out.  The  committee 
reported  at  the  November  session  the  purchase  of  the  farm  of 
David  Cole  of  200  acres,  situated  in  the  town  of  Adrian,  for  the 
sum  of  $5,000.  This  continued  to  be  used  as  tlu^  poor  farm  until 
1899,  but  it  being  some  distance  from  the  county  seat  and  the 
buildings  being  too  small  for  the  growing  pauper  population 
the  county  board  authorized  its  sale,  and  in  1899  it  was  disposed 
of  and  another  farm  purchased  just  north  of  the  city  of  Sparta, 
in  the  town  of  Sparta.  In  1900  a  brick  home  for  the  poor  with 
modern  conveniences  was  built  upon  this  farm,  costing  about 

About  this  time  there  was  considerable  agitation  with  regard 
to  building  a  county  insane  asylum,  which  finally  culminated  in 
1901,  when  the  county  board  decided  to  turn  the  poor  house  into 
a  county  insane  asylum,  which  was  done,  and  subsequently  in 
1902  a  poor  house  was  erected  on  another  part  of  the  farm.  In 
1909  the  county  board  purchased  the  farm  of  Grant  Rogers  of 
120  acres,  which  was  adjacent  to  the  farm  owned  by  the  county. 
Subsequently  and  in  compliance  Avith  the  requirements  of  the 
state  board  of  control  a  separate  building  was  erected  in  which 
was  installed  a  modern  steam  heating  plant.  A  large  steel  water 
tank,  giving  heavy  pressure,  was  then  erected  which  supplies  the 
buildings  with  water  and  affords  ample  tire  protection.  So  that 
at  the  present  time  this  county  owns  a  tine  farm  of  280  acres 
■svithin  a  mile  of  the  city  limits  of  Sparta.  Avliich  is  equipped  with 
modern  conveniences,  a  home  for  the  poor  capable  of  housing  in 
comfort  thirty  inmates,  and  with  the  heating  plant  and  water 
system  makes  a  most  complete  equipment,  representing  an  invest- 
ment of  about  $70,000,  all  of  Avliich  is  fully  paid,  and  at  the  time 


of  this  publication  the  county  is  free  from  debt,  a  situation  which 
reflects  much  credit  upon  the  men  who  have  in  the  past  served 
on  the  county  board  and  brought  to  bear  upon  the  county's  busi- 
ness all  the  careful  thought  and  business  acumen  Avhich  they 
applied  to  their  own  business. 

Not  only  has  the  county  been  rortuiiatc  in  the  building  up  of 
its  own  institutions,  but  through,  the  efforts  of  some  of  its  citizens, 
backed  up  by  natural  advantages,  one  state  and  one  government 
institution  has  been  esta])lished  within  its  borders — the  state 
public  school  for  dependent  children,  now  located  at  Sparta,  and 
the  government  hidian  school,  located  near  Tomah.  In  each 
instance  there  was  »  lively  contest  between  several  cities  of  the 
stat('  for  the  location  of  those  institutions;  the  competition  was 
keen,  l)ut  against  great  odds  in  the  many  advantageous  offers 
from  other  places  our  citizens  were  victorious  and  landed  the 
prizes.  The  state  school  being  established  at  Sparta  by  an  act 
of  the  legislature  known  as  chapter  377,  laws  of  1885,  and  now 
consists  of  a  central  or  administration  building,  with  several  de- 
tached cottages,  and  a  hospital,  a  heating  plant  and  baking  plant, 
all  situated  on  a  farm  of  165  acres,  part  of  which  lies  within  the 
limits  of  the  city  of  Sparta. 

The  Indian  school,  established  by  the  government  at  Tomah, 
situated  on  a  farm  donated  by  the  citizens  of  Tomah  and  l.ving 
about  two  miles  north  of  that  city,  consisting  of  several  large 
buildings,  including  the  administration  building,  superintend- 
ent's residence,  dormitories  for  boys  and  girls,  a  heating  plant, 
hospital  and  several  farm  l)uildings.  In  this  institution  Indian 
boys  and  girls  are  given  education  in  tlie  common  branches  and 
in  addition  to  that  girls  are  taught  needle  Avork  and  domestic. 
Science,  and  the  boys  are  instnicted  in  farming,  carpenter  work 
and  other  useful  occupations. 

"When  the  first  settlers  located  in  the  valleys  of  the  county 
there  were  but  a  few  thousand  people  in  the  whole  state  of  AYis- 
eonsin,  and  at  the  estal)lishment  of  the  count.v  government  in 
1854  there  were  not  more  than  700  people  in  the  entire  county. 
The  stream  of  immigration  came  rapidly,  however,  and  in  I860 
the  county  luid  grown  to  a  population  of  8,000,  and  from  that 
time  forth  it  rapidly  increased  so  that  in  1870  it  was  16,550;  in 
1880  it  was  21,607;  in  1890  it  was  23,211;  in  1900,  28,103;  and  in 
1910,  28,888,  so  that  the  growth  has  been  well  distributed  over  the 
past  years,  has  been  normal  and  kept  pace  with  the  development 
of  its  resources.  Its  farming  population  is  above  the  average  in 
methods  and  intelligence  as  the  wonderful  increase  in  the  dairy 


interests  and  the  great  progress  made  in  the  raising  of  small 
fruits  will  testify,  each  of  which  subjects  is  treated  in  another 
chapter.  Its  people  as  a  rule  are  progressive  in  the  matter  of 
education  and  at  the  present  time  its  school  system  is  of  the  best ; 
and  several  of  the  towns  in  the  county  have  taken  the  initiative 
in  that  most  important  subject — the  building  of  good  roads. 
Especially  is  this  true  of  the  town  of  Sparta  and  through  the 
enterprise  of  the  officers  of  this  town  several  miles  of  macadam 
highway  have  been  constructed  and  the  town  has  become  well 
and  favorably  mentioned  throughout  the  state  as  one  which  has 
been  a  pioneer  in  this  movement. 

The  year  1911  has  seen  awakenings  in  some  parts  of  the 
county  with  regard  to  the  fact  that  its  resources  are  as  yet 
nowhere  near  fully  developed,  and  through  the  experiments 
made  by  some  of  its  progressive  farmers  and  through  the  efforts 
of  the  Sparta  Fruit  Growers'  Association  a  strong  impetus  has 
been  given  to  the  development  of  fruit  lands  not  only  for  berries, 
but  for  the  raising  of  apples.  Experimental  orchards,  notably 
the  one  grown  by  Fred  JMuehlencanip  in  the  town  of  Ridgeville, 
and  that  of  J.  AV.  Leverieh,  in  the  town  of  Angelo,  liave  demon- 
strated beyond  a  question  that  a  large  portion  of  the  ridge  and 
valley  lands  are  adapted  to  the  raising  of  fall  and  winter  apples 
and  also  several  varieties  of  grapes.  The  prospects  of  the  people 
of  the  county  for  the  future  seems  doubly  assured  as  the  interests 
are  varied,  comprising  cranberry  culture,  dairy  interests,  the 
raising  of  small  fruits  and  bush  l)erries,  diversified  farming  and 
the  prospects  of  the  development  in  the  years  to  come  of  the 
apple  and  the  grape  industries.  With  fertile  ridge  lands  and  its 
well  watered  valleys  INIonroe  county  gives  promise  of  becoming 
one  of  the  garden  spots  of  the  state  of  Wisconsin. 

In  the  official  life  of  the  county  there  have  been  many  lively 
contests  for  the  various  offices,  especially  for  those  positions 
which  until  a  few  years  ago  paid  fees.  P^or  many  years  the  sher- 
iff's office  was  a  storm  center  of  many  political  battles  when  the 
fees  in  one  term  of  office  were  extremely  large,  which  condition, 
however,  the  county  board  subsequently  remedied  by  putting 
this  office  on  a  salary,  as  has  been  done  with  all  the  county  offices ; 
certainly  a  good  business  move  much  to  the  advantage  of  the  tax- 
payers financially  and  with  no  detriment  to  the  service  rendered. 
The  office  of  sheriff"  has  been  held  by  many  well-known  cliarac- 
ters,  among  whom  may  be  mentioned  the  names  of  Edward  AVal- 
rath,  one  of  the  pioneer  settlers ;  C.  AV.  McMillan,  George  B. 
Robinson,  N.  P.  Lee,  E.  Bartels,  E.  R.  Jones,  A.  J.  Carnahan,  Leo 


Vieth  and  many  others,  a  complete  list  of  which  is  ^iven  ;i1  the 
conclusion  of  tliis  chapter.  Perhaps  tlic  most  remarkahle  record 
in  this  otilict'  is  tliat  of  ('.  ^V.  McMillan.  Avho  appears  to  have  held 
it  at  dit^iTcnt  times  for  Mvc  tei-ms,  and  at  other  times  he  served 
as  deputy  slieriflf'  and  untU-i-  sheritt'.  which  is  a  tril)ute  to  the 
popularity  and  political  acumen  of  Mi-.  Mc^Iillan  in  his  day. 

The  ottice  of  llie  connty  treasiirei-.  county  clerk  and  (dei-k  of 
the  court  have  been  iiuu-li  s()u<ili1  after  and  held  by  many  men 
prominent  in  llie  affaii-s  of  the  comity.  The  otitiee  of  the  county 
judge  has  lieen  occupied  by  such  men  as  Col.  George  Graham,  of 
Tomah;  C.  ^1.  Masters,  of  Spai-ta  :  S.  AV.  Button,  of  Sparta,  and 
the  present  incund)ent.  Col.  H.  11  McCoy,  who  has  the  iionor  of 
heing  elected  for  that  office  for  four  terms,  beginning  in  18i)8. 
The  jurisdiction  of  this  coiu't  in  this  county  has  never  been 
enlarged  to  iiKdude  civil  and  criminal  nuitters,  as  has  heen  the 
case  in  some  counties  in  this  state,  but  it  consists  of  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  estates  of  deceased  persons,  with  authorit}^  to 
sentence  officers  wlio  plead  guilty  of  certain  ofl:*enses.  the  exam- 
ination and  coiinnitmeut  of  insane  per.sons,  and  the  appointment 
of  guardians  of  iinnors  and  those  who  aiT  incapable  of  managing 
their  own  atifairs.  and  the  connuitment  to  state  institutions  in 
such  cases  as  are  provided  by  law.  By  a  law  passed  by  the  legis- 
lature in  1010  and  ]i)ll  this  court  may  hold  terms  at  Tonudi  as 
well  as  at  the  county  seat,  and  the  third  Tuesday  of  each  month 
has  been  designated  as  the  term  day  at  Tomah  when  all  matters 
may  be  heard. 

There  has  been  l)rought  to  the  offi<M^  of  disti-ict  attorney  the 
service  of  many  al)le  lawyers  in  the  county,  beginning  with  that 
of  T^.  A\'.  (ii'a\('s.  who  served  oiu'  term.  l)eginning  in  18(il,  and 
afterwai'ds  became  w(dl  known  as  a  brilliant  and  resourceful 
ti'ial  lawyer.  It  was  also  held  l)y  Komanzo  Bunn,  who  became 
judge  of  tlic  Cnited  States  court  for  the  Avestern  district  of  Wis- 
consin; by  .1.  M.  Moriow.  whose  name  even  now  is  so  well  known 
throughout  the  state  of  AVisconsin  and  Avho  served  as  circuit  court 
judge  of  tbe  si.xth  judicial  cirmil.  .Mr.  .Moi'iow  held  the  otlice 
of  district  atloi-ney  for  four  terms  at  different  times.  David  K. 
•  loiM'S  sei'vcd  foui-  teinis  as  district  attorney  and  latei-  was 
appointed  by  President  ^I(d\inley  as  I'nite  I  States  district  attor- 
ney for  the  western  distiMd  oi'  Wisconsin,  which  otTfice  he  held 
at  the  time  of  his  <leat  li. 

The  otlfiee  of  the  register  of  deetls  was  and  now  is  hotly  con- 
tc^sti'd    foi-.   and   has  been  In-ld  b\-  such   nuMi  as  R.  J.  Kingman, 


A.  H.  Coiidit.  AV.  (r.  AVillinms,  Jjiuk^s  R.  Lyon  and  others  prom- 
inent in  county  affairs. 

The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  all  the  eounty  officers  from 
1854  to  11)11,  giving:  the  years  in  which  they  wcmt  into  office  and 
the  length  of  time  each  served : 


A.  li.  Blake.  1854-r)8 ;  AV.  AV.  -Jaekson,  1858-62;  G.  E.  Pratt, 
1862-66;  George  Graham,  1866-68;  L.  B.  Noyes,  1868-70;  T.  D. 
Steele,  1870-78;  C.  M.  Masters,  1878-86;  AY.  M.  Graham,  1886-90; 
S.  AY.  Button,  1890-98;  R.  B.  AlcCoy.  1898  to  now. 


E.  AA^alrath,  1854-57;  John  Foster,  1857-59;  C.  AA\  Mc:\Iillan, 
1859-61;  J.  H.  Allen,  1861-63;  J.  A.  Gilman,  1863-65;  C.  AY.  Mc- 
Millan. 1865-67:  G.  A.  Fisk,  1867-69;  D.  B.  Bon.  1869-71  ;  L.  John- 
son, 1871-73;  George  B.  Robinson,  1873-75;  C.  AV.  AIcAIillan, 
1875-77;  N.  P.  Lee,  1877-79;  C.  AV.  McMillan,  1879-81;  E.  Bartels, 
1881-83;  C.  AV.  McMillan,  1883-85;  E.  R.  Jones,  1885-87;  C.  T. 
Angle,  1887-89;  E.  R.  Jones,  1889-91;  James  O 'Conner,  1891-93; 
D.  AY.  Fulmer,  1893-95;  Henry  Coome,  1895-97;  L.  H.  Couger, 
1897-99;  A.  J.  Carnahan,  1899-01  ;  Leo  Vieth.  1901-03;  AV.  B.  Cas- 
sels,  1903-05;  H.  E.  Falk,  1905-07;  Charles  MilUn-d,  1907-09; 
George  Henry,   1909-11;   C.   AV.   AIcFadden,   1911—. 


Samuel  Iloyt,  1855-59 ;  A.  A.  Rendall.  1859-61 ;  L.  S.  Fisher. 
1861-63 ;  G.  H.  Ledyard,  1863-73 ;  Francis  Avery,  1873-81 ;  AY.  F. 
Lee,  1881-85;  H.  H.  Cremer,  1885-87;  C.  G.  Ileitman,  1887-91; 
C.  D.  Hall,  1891-93;  George  P.  Stevens,  1893-97;  J.  A.  Mosher, 
1897-01  ;  AY.  A.  Jones,  1901-05;  A.  L.  Fowhnader.  190.5-09;  E.  F. 
Babcock,  1909—. 


L.  S.  Fisher,  1857-59;  A.  F.  Childs,  1859-61;  S.  Aldrich, 
1861-63;  T.  I).  Steele,  1863-67;  S.  D.  Hollester,  1867-69;  James 
Lowry.  1869-71;  S.  D.  Hollester,  1871-75;  AV.  P.  Palmer,  1875-77 
J.  E.  Perry,  1877-79;  IL  H.  Cremer,  1879-81  ;  0.  i\  Berg.  1881-83 
T.  L.  Alartin,  1883-87;  J.  P.  Rice,  1887-91  ;  H.  H.  Cremer,  1891-93 
C.  E.  Heitman,  1893-95;  G.  Heitman,  1895-99;  C.  Sutherland 
1899-03;  C.  B.  Drowabzky,  1903-07;  T.  R.  Talbot,  1907—. 



John  Banker,  1854-57;  G.  B.  lloldm.  1857-59;  Cyrus  Centis, 
1859-61;  E.  Nutting,  1861-6:^:  L.  H.  Noyes,  1863-65;  S.  H.  Stearns, 
1865-71  ;  Jacob  Roid,  1871-7:5;  S.  II.  Stearns,  1878-77;  Joel  Brown. 
1877-79:  S.  II.  Stearns,  1879-81  ;  J.  E.  Perry,  1881-8:};  D.  G.  AVil- 
liams,  188:^85;  M.  J.  MeOmber,  1885-87;  I.  R.  Bryan.  1887-91; 
H.  Euckhansin,  1891-95;  Henry  Graf,  1895-99;  G.  F.  Lilli(\ 
1899-0;i;  Ole  Jaekson,  190:3-11;  0.  II.  Doxrud,  1911—. 


AVilbur,  1855-57;  R.  S.  Kingman.  1857-59;  A.  11.  Condit. 
1859-61  ;  P.  Rawson,  1861-6:3;  :\r.  A.  Thayer,  186:3-69;  J.  M.  Tan, 
1869-7:3;  J.  W.  Cunan,  187:3-77;  AV.  G.  AVilliams.  1877-81;  J.  R. 
Lyon,  1881-8:3;  J.  B.  Adams,  188:3-85;  AV.  H.  Jaekson.  1885-89; 
c"  A.  Erickson,  1889-91  ;  J.  P.  Rice,  1891-9:3 ;  H.  M.  Sowle,  189:3-95; 
John  A.  Sholts,  1895-99;  C.  II.  Stevens.  1899-0:3;  T.  C.  Longwell. 
190:3-07;  D.  F.  Davis,  1907-11  ;  AV.  A.  Holden,  1911—. 


A.  B.  Cornell,  1854-59;  L.  W.  Graves,  1859-61;  C.  E.  Riee, 
1861-6:};  Romanzo  Bunn,  186:3-67;  G.  E.  Prott,  1867-69;  G.  A. 
Rieliardson,  1869-71;  J.  AI.  :\Iorrow,  1871-77;  A.  E.  Bleekman, 
1877-79;  J.  AI.  Morrow.  1879-85;  D.  F.  Jones,  1885-91;  R.  A. 
Richards,  1891-9:3;  D.  F.  Jones,  189:3-95;  George  Graham,  1895-97; 
B.  H.  Ilackett.  1897-99;  H.  C.  Altizer.  1899-01;  B.  H.  Ilackett, 
1901  (died  before  taking  office);  Howard  Teasdale,  1901-05; 
AV.  B.  Naylor.  .Ii..  1905-09;  T.  P.  Abel.  1909—. 


Al.  H.  Gage,  1862-69;  C.  AV.  Kellogg,  1869-71;  A.  E.  Howard, 
1871-7:3;  N.  H.  Holden,  187:3-75;  A.  E.  HoAvard,  1875-77;  N.  H. 
Holden.  1877-81;  A.  F.  Brandt.  1881-87;  J.  P.  Galiger,  1887-93; 
T.  Al.  Bowler,  189.3-95;  A.  A.  Thomp.son,  1895-01;  G.  IT.  Robert- 
son, 1901-05:  AI.  .M.  Haney.  1905—. 


Isaac  Tliuiup.soii.  1854-57;  F.  A.  Cliilds.  1857-59:  A.  1).  liigalls. 
1859-61;  L.  E.  Amidon,  1861-63;  L.  S.  Ingalls,  186:3-65;  AVebster 
Kenyon,  1865-67;  O.  R.  Dahl,  1867-69;  C.  C.  Aliller,  1869-71; 
G.  Spurier,  1871-73;  A.  S.  Ingalls,  187:3-79;  A.  B.  Holden.  1879-81; 
AV.  Krnyon.  1881-83;  E.  Neuman,  1883-85:  AV.  Kenyon.  1885-86; 



A.  B.  Holden,  1886-88;  AV.  Kenyon,  1888-96;  II.  Laurer,  1896-98; 
Alex.  McCaskey,  1898-1900;  Fred  Holden,  1900-19—;  G.  Sehni- 
der, ;  F.  Holden,  . 


C.  P.  ^leClure,  1859-61 ;  C.  W.  McMillan,  1861-71 ;  David  Ben, 
1871-71;  George  B.  Robinson,  1875-77;  C.  W.  McMillan,  1877-79; 
D.  J.  Enderby,  1879-81;  C.  W.  McMillan,  1881-88;  James  0 'Con- 
ner, 1883-87;^  E.  R.  Jones,  1887-89;  C.  Fangle,  1889-91;  O.  H. 
Doxrud,  1891-92;  James  0 'Conner,  1892-95;  D.  W.  Fullmer, 
1895-97 ;  H.  Coome,  1897-99 ;  L.  H.  Conger,  1899-01 ;  A.  J.  Carna- 
han,  1901-03;  Leo  Vieth,  1903-05;  W.  B.  Cassels,  1905-07;  H.  G. 
Falk,  1907-09;  George  Henry,  1909—. 


Monroe  county  since  its  organization  has  at  diiferent  times 
))een  in  a  number  of  different  senatorial  districts,  and  this  county 
has  furnished  the  following  senators: 

John  A.  Chandler,  of  Sparta,  in  the  sessions  of  1865  and  1866; 
DeWitt  C.  AYilson,  of  Sparta,  in  the  session  of  1868 ;  Adelbert  E. 
Bleekman,  of  Tomah,  in  the  sessions  of  1871  and  1875 ;  Charles  K. 
Erwin,  of  Tomah,  in  the  sessions  of  1882,  1883,  1885  and  1887; 
H.  W.  Barker,  of  Sparta,  elected  in  1907  for  a  teiTxi  of  four  years ; 
Howard  Teasdale,  elected  in  1910;  now  holding  the  office. 


For  a  number  of  years  the  county  of  Monroe  was  a  part  of 
the  assembly  district  comprised  of  LaCrosse  and  Monroe  counties, 
so  that  it  was  not  until  al)Out  1861  that  a  member  came  from 
this  county.  A  few  years  later  the  county  w^as  divided  into  two 
assembly  districts,  and  afterwards  into  only  one,  which  is  the 
situation  at  the  present  time. 

A  list  is  here  given  beginning  with  the  year  in  which  a  mem- 
ber appeared  from  Monroe  county,  and  after  each  name  will  be 
found  the  year  of  the  session  or  sessions  at  which  each  member 
served : 

James  H.  Allen,  Sparta,  session  of  1873 ;  AVilliam  J.  Austin, 
Leon,  session  of  1881 ;  AA'illiam  Y.  Baker,  Oakdale,  session  of 
1878 ;  AYilliam  A.  Barber,  AVarrens,  session  of  1882 ;  Jesse  Ben- 
nett, Sparta,  session  of  1869 ;  Chauncey  Blakeslee,  Sparta,  session 
of  1877 ;  Adelbert  E.  Bleekman,  Tomah,  session  of  1873 :  AVilliam 
H.  Blyton,   Sparta,   sessions    of    1883-85-89;    Robert    Campbell, 


(ileiidale,  session  of  1880:  David  I).  <'heney,  Sparta,  session  of 
]871;  1).  AV.  Cliciicy.  Spai-ta.  session  of  1891  :  An)ert  T.  Colburn, 
Cataract,  session  of  1876;  James  D.  Condit,  Sparta,  sessions  of 
1  ,s:)8-78-79 :  TTan-y  Doxtader.  Toniali,  session  of  1877;  Lewis  S. 
Fisher,  Sparta,  session  of  1887;  ^liles  LeKoy  Ilineiiian.  Toniah. 
session  of  1887;  .1.  H.  Hinckley.  Toniah.  session  of  iScSiJ;  CharU^s 
A.  Hunt.  Alelvina,  sessions  of  1868-70;  William  W.  Jackson, 
Tomah,  .sessions  of  1868-7.') ;  Fredrick  P.  Johnson.  Ontario,  session 
of  1899;  Steven  B.  Johnson.  Tomah.  session  of  1867;  David  F. 
Jones,  Sparta,  session  of  1897;  Evan  K.  Jones,  Sparta,  session  of 
1901:  John  K.  Jones,  Leon,  sessions  of  1907-09;  James  H.  Lyon. 
Glendale,  session  of  1889;  Thomas  L.  [Martin.  AViltou,  session  of 
1895;  Thomas  ^McCanl,  Tomah,  session  of  1874;  John  J.  [McKay. 
Sj>arta.  session  of  I860:  Joseph  [M.  [Morrow,  Sparta,  session  of 
1862;  John  O'Brien,  AVilton.  session  of  1881;  Charles  E.  Qnitrs:. 
Tomah,  session  of  1893;  Carlton  E.  Rice,  Sparta,  session  of  l.Sii4; 
Jolm  F.  Kichards,  Tomah,  session  of  1872;  Eli  0.  Rudd,  Rudd's 
[Mills,  session  of  1872;  George  P.  Stevens,  Tomah,  sessions  of 
1903-05;  Joseph  .M.  Tair.  Tunnel  City,  session  of  1865;  [Mason  A. 
Thayer,  Sparta,  session  of  1882 ;  James  Tormey,  Tomah,  session 
of  1891  ;  George  R.  Vineent.  Tomah.  session  of  1891  :  Levi  Wal- 
lace, Oil  City,  session  of  1885;  P^li  AVaste.  Sparta,  sessions  of 
1874-75-80:  Charles  D.  AVells,  Tomah.  session  of  1876:  DeAVitt  C. 
Wilson.  Sparta,  session  of  1866. 


Among  the  natural  curiosities  to  be  found  in  Monroe  county 
there  is,  situated  near  Sparta,  an  enormous  bhitf  which  is  about 
600  feet  high,  liaving  on  its  summit  a  large  circular  rock,  and 
from  its  resemblance  of  an  ancient  castle  it  has  received  the  name 
of  Castle  Rock.  It  is  about  five  miles  northeast  from  the  city  and 
surrounded  by  a  range  of  l)luft"s.  and  is  plainly  visilde  for  a  long 
distance  along  the  St.  Paul  railway  when  approaching  Sparta 
from  the  east.  For  a  great  many  years  it  has  been  a  resort  for 
picnic  parties  and  travelers  and  a  curiosity  even  fo  those  Avho 
reside  near  it.  The  top  can  now  be  reached  by  means  of  a  ladder 
and  a  view  from  its  summit  unfolds  a  ])eautiful  picture  such  as 
only  AYisconsin  can  produce,  and  on  a  clear  day  even  the  hills  of 
Minnesota  are  plainly  visible.  Around  this  beauty  spot  has  been 
drawn  a  delightful  romantic  legend  from  the  pen  of  D.  jMcBride. 
Esq..  now  deceased,  foi-merly  one  of  the  editors  of  the  Sparta 
Herald,  which  runs  as  follows : 

"Some  200  years  ago  a  roving  band  of  Senecas  made  a  raid 
upon  the  land  of  the  Dakotas,  while  the  latter  were  on  the  war- 
path, in  pursuit  of  the  Cheyennes,  and  captured  Yah-ha-rah 
(Silent  AVater),  daughter  of  Keneau-ton-aken  (AVar  Eagle).  A 
terrible  storm  having  struck  down  the  Seneca  chief  and  tlu^  ma- 
jority of  his  followers  soon  after  the  raid,  his  brother,  Po-ga-mie, 
took  the  captive  girl  to  the  French  missionary  station,  at  the 
point  now  known  as  ]\Iackinaw,  where  she  was  ransomed  by  the 
missionaries  and  put  under  the  charge  of  the  'sisters'  until  such 
a  time  as  she  could  l)e  returned  to  her  relatives.  At  this  place 
Silent  Water  made  the  acquaintance  of  a  young  Frenchman  l)y 
the  name  of  LeClere,  who  had  been  banished  from  his  native 
land  for  killing  a  person  of  rank  in  a  duel.  The  two  lonely  ones 
became  sympathizers,  and  a  tender  affection  sprang  up  between 
them,  which  was  soon  interrupted  by  the  appearance  of  AVar 
Eagle,  who  had,  after  some  months,  succeeded  in  finding  the 
Avhereabouts  of  his  child  and  had  come  to  take  her  home.  LeClere 
was  lonely  after  Silent  AVater  had  gone,  and  he  resolved  to  seek 


80  lUSTUliV  UK  .M()M{(JK  (.OLXTY 

liis  l(i\f  ill  till'  1.111(1  dl'  the  Dakotas.     Taking  an  interpreter  with 
him  lie  stalled  out  on  his  journey,  and  after  many  stirring  adven- 
tures reached  the  camp  o\'  War  Eagle.     He  Jiow  found  that  the 
old  chief  had  betrothed  liis   daughter  to  a  favorite,  ]\Iame-tah, 
■who  looked  on  LaClere  Avith  distrust  and  jealousy.    F'inding  that 
their  love  was  hopeless  if  they    remained    in    the    land    of    the 
Dakotas,  the  young  lovers  planned  an  elopement.     Tliey  left  the 
lodges  Avhile   War  Eagle  was  on  the  war-path,  hut  were  closely 
followed  by   Mam-e-tali.    who    led    I  hem    a   Jiard    eluise,    until    he 
was  finally  slain  by  the  arrows  of  Silent  AVater.     In  their  wander- 
ings, for  they  were  journeying  towards  the  missionary  station, 
the  young  lovers  discovered  the  bluff,  now  known  as  Castle  Kock, 
the  beauty  of  Avhich  so  charmed  Silent  Water  that  she  begged 
LeClere  to  make  a  lodge  there  for  the  season,  at  least,  and  iie 
reluctantly  complied.     The  rock  ))ecame  their  castle,  and  on  its 
very  summit  w^as  their  wigwam  erected.     Autumn  was  beginning 
to  brighten  'the  oak  leaves  with  a   ruddier  hue,  and  the  lovers 
had   concluded  that  they  would  shortly   continue  their  journey 
towards  the  missionary  station  Avhen  an  incident  occurred  tliat 
dashed  all  of  their  hopes  from  them.    Wai-  Eagle,  who  had  spent 
the  intervening  time  in  searching  for  his  child,  came  suddenly 
upon  them,  just  as  they  were    preparing    for    their    departure. 
Silent  AYater  discovered  him  and  his  followers  sitting  at  the  base 
of  the  rock  one  morning  upon  arising  from  lier  eouch.     The  chief 
and  his  men  were  in  counsel,  and  when  the  counsel  was  ended 
the  former  advanced  close  to  the  rock  and  ])ade  liis  child,  whom 
he  could  not  see,  to  come  down,  declaring  at  the  same  time  that 
he  intended  to  kill  LeClere  and  to  take  her  home.     The  lovers 
resolved  at  once  to  die  together  if  either  nnist  die:  but  they  also 
concluded  to  sell  their  lives  dearly,  and  they  made  instant  ])i-ep- 
aration  to  defend  their  fortress.    The  siege  lasted  for  several  days 
— in  fact,  until  all  the  arrows  and  ammunition  of  tln^  Ix^sieged 
ones   had    been   used,    then,    clasped    in    each    others   arms,    they 
awaited  the  end.     War  Eagle,  on  finding  himself  no  longer  o])- 
posed,  boldly  ascended  the  rock  and  aimed  an  arrow  at  the  breast 
of  LeClere,  Avhich  was  anticipated  by  Silent   Watei".  who  sprang 
forward   in  time  to  receive  a  death  wound,  thus  for  a  nioment 
saving  her  lover's  life.     P'xasperated  by  her  death  LeClere  smote 
"War  Eagle  Avith  his  weapon,  and  having  rendered  the  old  chief 
senseless,  hurried  the  body  from  the  eminence.     A  moment  later 
the  Frenchman  yielded  up  liis  sjiii-it  at  the  hands  of  War  Eagle's 

"The  rude  storms  of  200  years,"  says  the  romance,  "have 


torn  and  crumbled  the  stately  form  and  graceful  battlements 
into  small  rocks  and  sandy  debris  at  the  base  of  the  rock.  Its 
beautiful  flowering  shrubbery  and  noble  crown  of  evergreens 
have  long  since  disappeared.  Naught  but  the  scraggy  stubs  and 
roots  of  the  tall  red  cedars  that  once  adorned  the  lofty  summit 
are  left  to  tell  the  sad  and  melancholy  tale  of  the  fearful  tragedy 
at  Castle  Rock." 



Rnnuiiig  tlirough  the  county  of  IMoiiroe  are  two  good  systems 
of  railroads  which  Jiave  brought  not  a  little  to  the  development 
of  the  resources  and  interests  of  tliis  county,  as  well  as  of  the 
state  of  AVisconsin,  and  a  brief  outline  of  the  history  of  these  two 
great  lines  deserves  a  place  in  this  work.  For  after  all  that  may 
be  said  it  is  i)Iain  to  i)e  seen  from  the  records  of  the  past  that  the 
real  development  of  the  county  began  Avith  the  establishment  of 
the  railroad  system  affording,  of  course,  a  rapid  and  cheap 
method  of  transportation  when  othci-wise  food,  clothing  and  sup- 
plies of  all  kinds  and  public  travel  wci'e  accomplished  by  means 
of  the  old-fashioned  stages  and  frcnght-hauling  lines,  with  teams. 

Tile  LaCrosse  and  ^Milwaukee  Railroad  Company  was  incor- 
porated by  an  act  of  the  legislature,  approved  on  the  2nd  day  of 
April,  18r)2.  Its  first  president  Avas  Byron  Kilborn.  a  man  who 
played  such  a  prominent  part  in  the  development  of  the  city  of 
^Milwaukee  and  of  ihe  state.  In  1854  stock  subscriptions  were 
obtained,  and  ;i  survey  having  been  made  the  general  line  of  the 
road  was  established  on  Avhat  is  ]>ractically  the  same  route  now 
used  by  the  Chicago.  Milwaukee  and  St.  Paul  railway  between 
^Milwaukee  jind  LaCrosse.  Previous  to  this,  liowevei-.  in  1851,  the 
^Milwaukee  and  Koiid  dii  Lac  Kailroad  Comi)aiiy  was  incorporated 
and  in  185o  the  conii)aiiy  received  its  eiuirtei"  under  liie  name  of 
Alilwaukee,  Fond  d\i  Lac  and  Green  l^ay  railroad.  By  an  act 
of  Ihe  legislature.  ;ij)i)i'oved  .lune  27.  185.'i  these  iwo  railroads 
were  allowed  and  autiioi-i/.ed  1o  coiisolid;ite.  which  ihey  did.  niid 
began  the  building  of  Ihe  road  towards  Fond  dii  L;ic  later  on  in 
1854.  The  Milwaukee,  Fond  du  Lac  and  Green  liay  railroad  was 
consolidaleil  with  the  LaCrosse  and  ^Milwaukee  company,  assum- 
ing the  latter  nanu>  and  proceeded  Avith  the  eonsti-uction  of  the 
road  already  commenced,  by  turning  it  in  tlie  direction  of 

in  183G  congress  donated  a  large  grant  of  land  to  the  state  to 


KxilLROADS  83 

assist  in  railroad  purposes,  and  the  western  part  of  this  was  con- 
ferred by  the  state  to  the  LaCrosse  and  INIilwaukee  company 
after  the  consolidation,  and  on  March  14,  1857.  the  road  was  com- 
pleted as  far  as  Portage,  ninety-eight  miles  from  ^Milwaukee  and 
just  about  one-half  way  to  what  is  now  the  city  of  LaCrosse. 
The  times  were  hard  during  the  year  1857-58  and  the  railroad,  in 
common  with  other  l)usiness  interests,  suffered  very  much  and 
there  were  a  numlier  of  changes  in  its  officers.  Tlic  cud  of  the 
year  1857  found  this  little  railroad  with  a  debt  of  .^8,263,660.91, 
while  the  entire  stock  issue  of  the  road  amounted  to  $7,687,540.26. 
The  annual  report  of  that  year  is  truly  a  story  of  financial  em- 
barrassment and  business  difficulties.  The  report  set  out  as  fully 
as  the  officials  dared  to  but  in  a  much  guarded  manner  the  dis- 
astrous results  of  the  acts  of  the  legislature  and  other  official 
corruption  by  which  the  land  grant  of  the  previous  year  was 
obtained.  On  the  27th  day  of  September,  1857,  the  road  passed 
into  the  hands  of  Selah  Chamberlain,  avIio  had  been  the  original 
contractor  and  builder  of  a  portion  of  it.  He  leased  it  from  the 
LaCrosse  and  jMilwaukee  company  and  continued  with  the  con- 
struction of  the  road,  and  the  whole  line  was  opened  up  from 
INIilwaukee  to  LaCrosse  on  the  first  day  of  October,  1858. 

In  1860  Chamberlain  surrendered  the  lease  to  ^Messrs.  Broson 
&  Sutter,  the  trustees  of  the  second  mortgage  holders  at  this  time. 
An  order  was  made  by  the  United  States  District  Court  appoint- 
ing Col.  Hans  Crocker  as  receiver  of  the  western  division  of  the 
road  from  Portage  to  LaCrosse.  He  was  also  subsetpiently  ap- 
pointed receiver  of  the  eastern  division  from  Portage  to  INIilwau- 
kee, and  after  taking  possession  of  the  entire  road  he  operated 
it  until  the  12th  day  of  June.  1863,  when  by  an  order  of  the  court 
he  surrendered  tlie  western  division  to  the  INIilwaukee  and  St. 
Paul  Railroad  Company  as  purchaser,  and  turned  over  the  eastern 
division  of  the  same  company  to  operate  under  him  as  receiver, 
in  which  capacity  he  continued  to  act  until  January  9,  1866, 
when  the  entire  road  went  into  the  possession  of  the  Milwaukee 
and  St.  Paul  Railroad  Company.  Previous  to  this  the  Chicago 
and  St.  Paul  Railroad  Company  had  l)een  organized  and  started 
to  build  a  line  between  Chicago,  INIilwaukee  and  St.  Paul,  and  on 
the  first  day  of  January,  1872,  the  Milwaukee  and  St.  Paul  com- 
pany formally  purchased  the  Chicago  and  St.  Paul  railroad.  This 
was  made  by  giving  the  bonds  of  the  St.  Paul  company  for  about 
$4,000,000  in  gold,  payable  in  London  in  1902,  bearing  7  per  cent 
interest.  The  road  between  Milwaukee  and  Chicago  was  not  com- 
pleted until  1872,  and  in  the  following  year  was  transferred  to 


the  ]\Iihva\ikoo  and  St.  Paul  company  and  a  route  410  miles  lon^ 
between  ^lihvaukee  and  St.  Paul  then  completed.  The  road  con- 
tinued to  operate  under  the  name  of  Milwaukee  aiul  St.  Paul 
railroad  until  Febnuiry.  1S74,  when  hy  an  act  of  1he  legislature 
the  name  was  changed  to  the  Chicago.  ^lilwaukee  and  St.  Paul 
Railway  Company,  which  name  it  has  borne  ever  since. 

In  1874  the  legislature  passed  wliat  Avas  known  as  the  "Pot- 
ter" law,  wliich  limited  the  rates  foi-  passengers  and  freight 
traffic,  and  this  provided  for  a  l)oard  of  railroad  commissioners. 
This  law  Avent  into  effect  ^lay  1.  1874.  and  George  II.  Paid.  John 
W.  TToyt  and  Joseph  Hosborn  were  appointed  railroad  commis- 
sioners. At  about  this  time  there  was  considerable  feeling  on  the 
part  of  the  people  against  the  railroad  company  on  account  of 
the  fact  that  the  7-ailroads  regarded  the  "Potter''  law  as  uncon- 
stitutional and  refused  to  reduce  their  charges  for  the  passage 
and  freight  traffic  until  compelled  to  do  so  by  a  decision  of  the 
supreme  court  of  the  state. 

In  1876,  however,  the  "Potter"  law  was  repealed  and  a  law 
passed  establishing  the  maximum  prices  for  freights,  and  since 
that  time  there  has  been  considerable  legislation  Avhich  has 
resulted  in  the  present  law  giving  supervision  of  railroads  to  the 
jurisdiction  of  a  railroad  commission  appointed  by  the  governor. 

The  Chicago,  .Milwaukee  and  St.  Paul  railway  has  completed 
the  line  to  the  coast,  beginning  at  Mobridge.  South  Dakota, 
where  it  joins  on  to  the  end  of  the  old  line  under  tlie  lunne  of 
Chicago,  ^Milwaukee  and  Puget  Sound  raihvay.  While  llu'  two 
systems  are  i)ractically  one  lliey  are  i-un  under  sepai'ate  manage- 
ment, and  through  this  county  tliei-e  now  passes  daily  two  of  the 
finest  passenger  trains,  perhaps,  in  the  world,  the  '" Olympian" 
and  the  "Columbian,"  fitted  wilh  every  convenience  known  for 
the  comfort  of  a  tvn\eler. 


In  the  year  187.S  the  Chicago  and  Northwestern  Railroad  Com- 
pany eonstrueled  its  line  through  this  county.  This  eompany 
was  first  organized  as  tlie  Illinois  and  Wisconsin  Railway  Com- 
pany and  was  to  lun  the  line  from  Chicago  to  the  Wisconsin 
state  line.  It  was  consolidated,  iiowever.  with  the  Rock  Rivei; 
Valley  Union  railroad,  which  was  to  run  from  the  state  line  to 
Fond  du  Lac  and  thus  to  form  what  was  afterwards  designated 
the  St.  Paul  and  Fond  du  Lac  Air  Line  Railway  Company. 

In  1859  the  road  Avas  sold  to  a  syndicate  of  capitalists  and 
was  reorganized  under  the  present    Chicago   and   Northwestern 


Railway  Company.  Subsequently  the  Dixon,  Rockford  and 
Kenosha  and  the  Galena  and  Chicago  railroads  became  consoli- 
dated with  and  a  part  of  the  Northwestern  in  June,  1864,  and  in 
October  that  same  year  it  absorbed  the  Peninsular  railway,  and 
in  1869  the  Detroit  and  INIadison  railway,  and  in  1871  tlie  Baraboo 
Air  Line,  running  from  ^Madison,  and  in  due  course  the  North- 
western absorbed  the  Winona  and  St.  Peter  running  from  AVinona 
to  New  Ulm,  Minnesota,  and  thence  extended  to  Lake  Kanipeska, 
Dakota,  320  miles  from  the  Mississippi  river.  The  line  was  built 
from  iNIadison  to  Elroy,  where  it  formed  connections  with  the 
West  Wisconsin  railroad,  and  this  and  the  other  line  formed  the 
shortest  route  from  Chicago  to  St.  Paul,  only  lacking  a  short 
length  to  fill  the  gap  between  AVinona  and  Elroy,  but  while  this 
Avas  not  a  \'ery  great  distance  and  the  difficulties  encountered  in 
constructing  this  line  were  tremendous.  There  was  in  existence 
a  company  called  the  LaCrosse,  Trempeleau  and  Prescott  Railway 
Company  which  contemplated  building  a  railroad  from  AVinona, 
running  southwest  into  Alonroe  county.  The  Northwestern  com- 
pany purchased  this  road  from  AA^inona  junction,  finished  the 
track  to  Sparta,  Alonroe  county,  and  opened  the  whole  line  for 
regular  traffic  with  a  grand  excursion  on  the  25th  of  September, 
1873.  The  line  from  Aladison  to  Sparta  passes  through  one  of  the 
most  picturesque  portions  of  AVisconsin,  and  nowhere  in  the 
state  can  more  beautiful  scenery  be  found.  Passing  through 
Aladison,  the  lake  country,  it  skirts  the  shores  of  Devil's  lake, 
goes  by  the  dells  of  the  Baraboo  river,  and  runs  into  the  beautiful 
hill  country  between  Elroy  and  Sparta.  But  this  beautiful  hill 
country  was  the  means  of  a  vast  exi^enditure  of  money,  perhaps 
greater  than  any  other  present  road  in  the  middle  west.  Among 
the  difficulties  met  with  were  the  numerous  springs  of  water,  and 
many  devices  had  to  be  resorted  to  in  order  to  continue  the  work 
and  take  care  of  the  tlow.  It  became  necessary  to  make  three 
long  tunnels  between  Kendall  and  Sparta,  the  longest  of  which, 
"No.  3,"  is  situated  in  the  town  of  Ridgeville  and  is  3,800  feet 
in  length  and  cost  nearly  $1,000,000  to  construct.  The  other  two, 
"No.  1"  and  "No.  2."  between  Norwalk  and  AVilton,  and  AVil- 
ton  to  Kendall,  are  al)out  1,700  feet  in  length. 

This  great  company  has  grown  to  be  one  of  the  important 
railroads  of  the  country,  and  a  map  of  its  lines  shows  tlu^  vast 
territory  reached  by  its  various  ramifications;  and  the  traffic 
has  demanded  not  only  the  building  of  direct  routes,  but  great 
hauling  capacity  for  freights  to  and  from  the  far  west,  so  that 
in  order  to  avoid  the  heavy  grades  between  Elroy  and  Sparta  the 



Xurlliwcslfni  (•uiui)aiiy  cMUSftl  to  in'  iiicr>r[)()i'ati'(.l  in  J!»l()  what 
is  known  as  the  "^lihvaukoe,  Spai-1a  and  Northwestern  Railway 
Company."  wliieh  lias  eonslnicted  an  aii-  liuf  in  tlir  slioi-t  space 
of  one  year  from  ^Milwaukee  to  Sjiaila.  passin^r  through  llic  east- 
ern and  central  portion  of  llic  count.w  ])iei-('inu-  tlic  range  of  hills 
at  Tunnel  City,  near  the  tunnel  of  the  St.  I'aul  (•omi)any,  and 
crossing  the  tracks  of  the  St.  Paul  a  few  miles  east  of  the  city  of 
Spar^a.  At  the  time  this  work  will  !)(>  dis1ril)ut('d  trains  Avill  he 
in  opei'ation  on  this  road. 


Closely  connected  with  the  history  of  the  village,  now  the  city 
of  Tomah,  was  the  construction  of  Avhat  was  known  as  the  West 
AVisconsin  railroad,  from  Tomah  to  Black  River  Falls.  There 
Avas  considerable  agitation  with  regard  to  the  building  of  this 
road  among  the  citizens  of  both  places,  and  in  view  of  the  advan- 
tages for  transportation  purposes,  the  two  communities  sub- 
scribed for  a  large  amount  of  stock  in  order  that  the  road  might 
be  built. 

Accordingly  the  movement  was  set  on  foot  to  take  advantage 
of  national  aid  by  the  granting  of  lands  in  this  state  to  assist 
in  the  construction  of  railroads.  An  act  of  Congress  passed  the 
5th  day  of  jMay,  1864,  among  other  things  made  a  special  grant  of 
certain  lands  in  this  state  for  the  construction  of  a  railroad  from 
Tomah,  in  the  county  of  ]\lonroe,  to  the  St.  Croix  river  or  lake 
between  townships  twenty-five  and  thirty-one.  and  from  thence 
to  Lake  Superior  and  Bayfield.  To  digress  a  moment,  the  con- 
struction of  this  road  as  contemplated,  if  it  had  been  completed 
clear  through  to  Bayfield  and  in  operation  today,  undoubtedly 
would  have  had  a  great  influence  upon  the  past  history  of  not 
only  the  city  of  Tomah,  but  the  city  of  Black  River  Falls,  for  it 
would  run  through  a  rich  country. 

On  March  20,  1865.  the  legislature  of  this  state  by  a  joint 
resolution  accepted  the  grant  as  provided  in  this  act  of  congress. 
Previous  to  this  a  railroad  company  had  been  incorporated  by  an 
act  of  the  legislature,  approved  April  1,  1863,  and  was  originally 
known  as  the  "Tomah  and  St.  Croix  Railway  Company."  It  was 
granted  the  right  to  build  a  road  from  Tomah  in  the  county  of 
Monroe,  or  on  the  right  of  way  of  the  ^Milwaukee  and  LaCrosse 
Railway  Company,  or  any  other  railroad  running  out  of  Tomah 
by  way  of  Black  River  Falls,  and  from  there  by  the  most  feasible 
route  to  such  point  on  Lake  St.  Croix,  between  townships  twenty- 
five  and  thirty-one,  as  the  directors  should  determine.  Tliis  act 
was  called  "an  act  of  incorporators,  the  Tomah  and  Lake  St. 
Croix  Railroad  Company,"  and  to  repeal  and  annul  a  portion  of 



the  grant  of  laud  heretofore  made  to  tlie  LaCrosse  and  ^lihvau- 
kee  Railroad  Company. 

Th(^  list  of  the  incorporators  of  tliis  railroad  here  given  con- 
tains Ihe  names  of  a  numher  of  men  who  afterwards  attained 
l)i'ominence  in  the  state  of  Wisconsin.  Here  tliey  are:  William 
AVilson  and  William  Carson,  of  Dnnn  county;  Joseph  Th()ri)e  and 
1\.  F.  Wilson,  of  Fau  Claire  county;  Andrew  S.  Greg  and  H.  S. 
Allen,  of  Chippewa  county;  A.  Gaylord,  of  Polk  ((ninty  ;  N.  S. 
Dunbar  and  Charles  H.  Cox,  of  Pierce  e(»iiiil\  ;  11.  L.  lluiiii)lii'ey, 
of  St.  Croix  ;  Miles  D.  Pvindle,  of  Pepin  county:  George  .M.  (iil- 
key,  of  Hutfalo  county;  R.  C.  Field,  of  Trenii)eleau ;  Carl  C.  Pope 
and  AVilliam  T.  Price,  of  Jackson  county;  Rich'ard  Dewhurst.  of 
Clark  county,  and  C.  D.  Spaulding.  of  Monroe  county. 

Afterwards,  and  on  the  6th  day  of  April,  186(i,  the  name  of 
the  company  was  changed  to  that  of  the  West  AVisconsin  Rail- 
way Compan.y,  and  the  construction  of  the  road  Avas  commenceil. 
The  lirst  strip  of  it  between  Tomah  and   P>lack  River  Falls  was 
built  in  the  suiiinier  of  1868.  and  train  service  was  started  regu- 
larly l)etween  Tomah  and  Black  Hiver  Falls,  wliieli  continued  up 
until  Novend)er,   1873,  at  Avhicli   time  ti-onble  ai-ose  between  the 
company  and  the  town  of  Tomah  irom  tin    tact  that  the  company 
claimed  that  the  town  had  not  kei)t   its  conti'act  with  regard  to 
the  sul)scription  of  stock,  and  threatened  to  tear  up  the  line  from 
"Warren's  ]\Iills  to  Tomah  and  thus  cut  the  village  ott'  from  Jack- 
son county.     This  threat  Avas  finally  put   into  execution  and  the 
iMiiiipany  sent  a  crew  oi'  men  doAvn  to  that  end  of  the  line,  and  on 
the  last  Sunday  of  November.  1872,  they  tore  u\)  the  track  betwiHMi 
Tomah  and  AVarren's  ]\lills.    It  was  only  accomplished  after  strong 
resistance  l)y  the  citizens  of  the  village  and  the  excitement   ran 
liigh  at  the  time.     During  the  same  year,  1872,  the  company  con- 
structed   a    track    tlu'ough    Warren's   Alills   to    Fli-oy,    nuiking   a 
junction  at   the  latter  ])lace  with  the  Chicago  anil  Northwestern 
Railway  Company,  and  by  this  means,  as  Avell  as  by  the  tearing 
up   of   the   track    from    Tomah    to    Warren's    Mills,   gi-eat 
was  inflicted  upon  the  business  interests  of  Tomah  and  the  citi- 
zens were  vei-y  indignant   and  did  not   pi'opose  to  tamel\-  submit 
to    such    high-handed    lu'ocedure.      .Vccoi'dingly.    on    the    2!)th    of 
January,   187o,  a    bill   was   introduced    in   the   legislature  by  the 
Hon.   A.   E.   Bleekman.   then   the   membei-   of  the   assem])ly   from 
Alonroe   county,   entitled   "a    bill   i-e(piiring   the   "West   "Wisconsin 
iiailroad  Company  to  relay,  maintain  and  operate  its  road  from 
Tonudi   to  "Warren's   Alills   in     .Monroe    county."     The   bill   Avas 
referred   to  the  judiciary   committee,    Avhich    reported    it    back 


again  with  amendments  and  recommended  its  passage,  and  after 
a  warm  fight  in  tlie  h'gislature  it  passed  both  houses  and  was 
approved  by  the  governor  February  18,  1873.  The  company, 
however,  defied  this  act  of  the  legislature,  refused  to  comply 
with  it  in  any  manner,  under  the  claim  that,  the  act  was  uneon- 
stitutional.  and  thus  began,  perhaps,  the  first  chapter  in  the 
history  of  railroad  legislation  in  the  state  of  Wisconsin  regarding 
the  acts  of  such  corporations. 

The  fact  that  the  company  failed  to  comply  witJi  tins  law 
compelled  the  citizens  of  Tomali  to  go  to  the  courts,  and  accord- 
ingly upon  an  application  made  to  the  supreme  court  and  on  the 
29th  day  of  August,  1873,  leave  was  granted  to  commence  action 
against  the  company,  and  the  attorney-general  instituted  pro- 
ceedings in  file  nature  of  quo  warranto,  to  have  declared  for- 
feited the  defendant's  charter,  and  asked  that  the  company  be 
dissolved  under  the  act  of  February  13,  1873,  above  mentioned. 
The  company  in  its  answer  to  this  writ  claimed  that  the  act  Avas 
unconstitutional  and  nugatory,  and  demurred  to  the  complaint 
on  the  following  grounds :  First,  that  the  court  had  not  juris- 
diction of  the  subject  matter.  Second,  that  the  complaint  did  not 
state  facts  sufficient  to  entitle  the  plaintiff  to  the  relief  demanded 
herein,  or  to  any  relief. 

This  action  was  brought  to  hearing  upon  th(»  demurrer  at  the 
January,  1874.  term  of  the  supreme  court,  and  the  demurrer  was 
overruled.  The  defendant  company  then  answered  and  the 
village  in  turn  demurrcHl  to  the  answer  set  up  by  the  company 
on  the  ground  that  it  did  not  state  facts  sufficient  to  constitute  a 
defense.  AYhen  the  matter  came  up  for  hearing  the  court  held 
that  the  company,  in  discontinuing  the  road  and  taking  up  the 
track  from  Warren's  Alills  to  Tomah,  violated  the  provisions  of 
its  charter  and  its  duty  to  the  state  under  its  charter;  and  that 
the  railroad  company  Avas  required  by  chapter  thirty-one  of  the 
laws  of  1873,  being  the  act  of  February  13th,  to  relay  and  operate 
that  part  of  the  road  which  it  had  originally  received  a  charter 
to  ])uild,  and  was  bound  to  maintain  it ;  namely,  that  portion  of 
the  line  which  they  hnd,  as  has  been  stated,  torn  up  between 
Tomah  and  AVarren's  Alills.  The  court  entered  an  order,  sus- 
tained the  demurrer  to  the  company's  answer  with  leave  to  the 
company  to  amend  !>>'  the  first  day  of  the  next  term. 

This  decision  of  the  court  was  a  body  blow  to  the  claim  of 
the  company,  and  in  order  to  save  further  litigation  a  proposition 
Avas  made  to  the  village  of  Tomah  to  settle  the  case  by  a  payment 
of  a  sum  of  money.     A  meeting  of  the  citizens  Avas  called  and 


the  matter  eonsidered,  and  after  one  oi-  two  stormy  sessions  the 
proposition  of  the  company  lo  i);i\'  $l(),0()(i  in  consideration  of  the 
droi)pin!y:  of  ;ill  litigations  Avas  tinally  aeeepted,  and  this  ended 
tile  matter.  By  an  act  of  tiie  legislature  Fel)ruary  i:].  1876,  the 
act  of  February  13,  1878,  Avas  repealed  and  the  building  of  the 
line  from  AVarren's  ]\Iills  to  Elroy  whs  legalized.  The  UKMuber 
of  the  assembly  from  Tomab  ;it  Hiis  lime  was  ("liarles  D.  Wells. 
Portions  of  tlie  old  road  betl  fruiu  Tomali  to  AVarren's  IMills  may 
still  be  seen,  mute  monuments  of  those  stirring  times  which  lead 
not  only  to  ])hysical  violence,  but  costly  litigation  on  tlie  part  of 
this  little  community  to  maintain  its  rights  against  a  corporation. 



BY  L.  B.  SQUIER. 

The  beginning  of  newspaper  work  in  ]\Ionroe  county  dates 
from  some  time  in  the  year  1854,  when  L.  P.  Rising  l)egan  the 
publication  of  a  small  paper  called  the  ^Monroe  Citizen.  ]\lr. 
Rising  came  from  Cattaragus  County,  New  York,  bringing  Avith 
him  a  knowledge  of  the  printer's  trade  and  a  small  printing  out- 
fit. He  settled  near  the  western  line  of  the  county,  about  two 
miles  from  Sparta.  Here  he  cultivated  a  small  farm  and  also  got 
out  a  paper  about  8x12  inches  in  size,  which  he  printed  on  a  press 
of  his  own  construction.  Nominally  it  was  issued  at  Sparta  and 
the  subscription  price  was  $1.00  per  year.  It  did  not  appear  with 
regularity,  but  at  intervals,  according  to  the  opportunities  of  the 
eccentric  farmer-editor.  The  period  of  existence  of  the  Citizen 
was  limited  to  about  two  years. 


This  was  the  first  regular  newspaper  in  Monroe  county ;  was 
published  under  different  names  at  ditt'erent  periods  in  its  his- 
tory. The  Sparta  Watchman  was  established  at  Sparta  in  the 
spring  of  1855  by  Milton  ^Montgomery  and  J.  1).  Condit.  This 
was  prior  to  tlu^  entrance  of  any  railroads  into  the  county  and 
the  printing  outfit  obtained  at  Beaver  Dam  was  brought  to  Sparta 
by  wagon.  After  pid)lishing  the  paper  one  year  IMontgomery  and 
Condit  sold  it  to  Lucius  ]\1.  Rose,  who  had  been  connected  with 
the  Watertown  Chronicle.  ]\Ir.  Rose  changed  the  name  of  the 
paper  to  Monroe  Freeman,  and  i)ublished  it  until  the  spring  of 
1858.  Avhen  it  was  purchased  by  David  IMcBride,  who  had 
previously  published  the  ]\Iauston  Star.  He  changed  tlie  name 
to  the  Sparta  Herald,  which  the  paper  has  retained  to  the  pres- 
ent time  with  the  exception  of  the  two  years  1867-1 860.  In  the 
spring  of  1867  the  paper  passed  into  Democratic  control  and  was 
called   the    Sparta   Democrat.     It   was   edited   by   William   Jay 


92  lllSTOKY  OK  MOXKOE  (Ol  NTV 

\\'!ii|i|)l('.  wlio  jil'tcrward  wciil  lo  Wii;oiui  mikI  pulilislicd  llic 
Winona  Democrat.  In  18()!>  llic  pajjer  again  cjiuk*  into  tlic  pos- 
session of  D.  .McRride,  Avho  associated  with  him  in  Ihc  hnsiness 
his  son,  \V.  .McBride.  They  rechristened  the  paper  S|)arta  Her- 
ald, and  from  that  time  to  the  present  it  has  l)e('ii  stnrdily  Ke- 
pnl)lican  in  politics.  In  1884,  after  the  death  of  I).  McBridc,  the 
newspaper  i)rop(M-ty  ]iassed  into  the  hands  of  his  two  sons,  who 
have  pnblished  it  under  the  name  of  .McHride  Brothers.  ;iiid  it  is 
still  so  pnhlishcd.  althongh  owned  liy  W.  Mcl'.ride.  The  paper 
is  an  eight-colnmn  folio,  printed  all  at    Iiohm-. 

So  far  as  can  he  learned  the  first  effort  to  establish  a  Demo- 
cratic newspajx'r  in  ]\Ionroe  connty  was  in  18.")!).  when  the  Sparta 
Democrat  was  started  by  two  men,  Richard  M.  Copeland  and 
George  Babcock.  The  pnblication  of  tliis  paper  was  discontinued 
after  about  six  months. 

Another  attempt  at  a  Democratic  paper  in  Sparta  was  made  in 
1868  by  two  brothers,  Henry  and  Harrison  Hayden.  who  had  been 
previously  employed  l)y  the  Herald.  It  was  published  only  a  few 
mouths,  the  Tlaydens  having  some  disagreenu^it  willi  theii-  Dem- 
ocratic backers,  and  was  discontinued,  the  llaydens  moving 


The  Sparta  Kagle  was  a  second  Republican  paper  started  at 
Sparta  in  18(i().  as  the  result  of  dissensions  among  Republieau 
politicians  in  the  county.  William  H.  Farnham  and  Luther  B. 
Xoyes  were  the  publishers  one  year,  after  which  the  latter  retired 
and  the  paper  was  continued  by  .Mr.  Fai'uham  luitil  18ti8.  lu 
that  year  he  sold  it  to  George  Kedway.  who  came  from  Ohio,  and 
sul)se(inentl>'  his  bi-otlnM'.  R.  E.  Redway.  had  it  for  a  time,  .\flei' 
this  the  |)apei-  freciueiitly  changed  hands.  D.  B.  J'riest.  Carson 
Graham  and  William  Nelson,  all  of  Viro(|ua.  were  connected  with 
it  between  18()!>  and  1871.  In  the  latter  year  it  was  owned  for  a 
time  by  W.  li.  Kiiieh.  aftei-ward  editor  of  the  LaOrosse  Repub- 
lican-Leadei'.  He  sold  it  to  R.  ('.  Bierce.  of  Vii-o(|na.  and  Henry 
Rising,  a  son  of  the  editor  of  .Monroe  county's  tii-st  paper.  t!ie 
Citizen.  In  the  fall  of  1871  the  paper  was  sold  to  D.  W.  C.  Wil- 
son and  Theodore  F.  Hollister.  The  following  year  .Mr.  Wilson 
withdi-ew  and   the  Kagle  soon  after  died. 


Soon  after  the  suspension  of  the  S])arta  Kagle  the  outfit  was 
bought  bv  D.  W.  C.  Wilson,  who  in    187:^    started    the    ^Monroe 


County  Republican,  a  Democratic  paper.  He  published  it  until 
1879,  when  it  was  consolidated  with  the  Monroe  County  Demo- 
crat, a  paper  moved  from  Tomah  by  Brown  and  Foster.  Mr. 
Wilson  retired  from  the  business  and  Messrs.  Brown  and  Foster 
continued  the  paper  under  the  name  of  the  Monroe  County  Re- 
publican. In  August.  1879,  Mr.  Foster's  connection  with  the  paper 
ceased  and  ^Ir.  Brown  changed  the  name  to  the  ]Monroe  County 
Democrat.  In  October,  1883,  Guy  Whitney,  of  Portage,  took 
charge  of  the  paper  and  the  next  February  B.  W.  Perry  became 
associated  with  him  in  it.  About  three  months  later  Mr.  Perry 
became  proprietor  and  in  January,  1885,  he  changed  the  name  to 

After  disposing  of  the  Democrat  F.  A.  Brown  started  a  Repub- 
lican paper,  the  Sparta  News.  He  had  been  publishing  it  nearly 
a  year  when,  on  the  16th  of  August,  1885,  the  Sparta  Democrat 
was  burned  out  in  the  Ida  House  fire.  The  remnant  of  the  outfit 
w^as  bought  by  B.  E.  McCoy,  of  Sparta,  who  also  bought  the 
Sparta  News,  and  combining  the  two  began  the  publication  of  the 
Sparta  Democrat,  changing  the  name  soon  after  to,  ^lonroe 
County  Democrat.  ]\Ir.  McCoy  published  the  paper  almost  ten 
years,  selling  it  in  September,  1895,  to  D.  C.  Streeter,  of  Sparta. 
Later  S.  E.  Streeter  became  associated  with  his  brother  in  the 
business  under  the  name  of  Streeter  Brothers.  In  October,  1897, 
it  was  leased  to  D.  W.  Cheney  and  Clark  S.  McCoy;  was  run  by 
them  for  a  year.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  lease  D.  C.  Streeter 
again  became  publisher  and  S.  E.  Streeter  editor.  These  brothers 
became  involved  in  some  litigation,  the  paper  going  into  the  hands 
of  a  receiver  for  a  time.  D.  C.  Streeter  being  successful  in  the 
litigation  again  became  proprietor,  and  published  the  paper  with 
C.  S.  McCoy  as  editor  until  December  19,  1903,  Avhen  the  plant 
was  sold  to  G.  S.  Ellicott.  The  following  fall  he  sold  to  el.  P.  Rice 
and  W.  C.  Plawkins.  October  1,  1905,  IMr.  Hawkins  disposed  of 
his  interest  to  George  Esch,  who,  with  Mr.  Rice,  conducted  the 
paper  until  November  15,  1907,  when  Esch  disposed  of  his  inter- 
est to  W.  N.  Wells,  and  the  Democrat  has  been  conducted  by  Rice 
&  Wells  up  to  the  present,  Mr.  Wells  being  editor  and  manager. 


Among  the  papers  published  in  the  county  for  a  short  time 
was  the  Wisconsin  Greenback,  which  flourished  during  the 
Cooper  campaign.  It  was  started  in  June.  187().  by  Lamborn  and 
Needham.     j\lr.   Needham  soon  retired  and  the  paper  was  con- 

94  IIISTOHV  OF  .MnxK(u:  corxTY 

liiiucd  l)\'  Di'.  J.  L;iiiil)(tni  Mild  his  son,  Artliui'  15.  Ii  l)ecamc'  the 
or^an  of  tho  GrcciiljjifU  paity  in  th<'  state  and  was  removed  to 
^lihvankee  in  1S77.  I)u1  iiftcrwjird  returned  to  Spiirta  and  was 
published  for  a  short  time. 


The  Sparla  Trihiiue  was  a  paper  stalled  in  1SS2  by  II.  E. 
Kelly  and  had  a  brief  existenee.  it  was  the  organ  of  the  so-called 
Independent  Re])nblieans.  who  formed  a  coalition  with  the  Demo- 
crats antl  carried  the  county  in  the  fall  election.  ^Ir.  K(dly 
started  another  paper  called  tlie  Tudej^endent  in  -July,  1M90.  He 
sold  it  in  January.  181)4.  to  L.  S.  lliiiii])lirey.  of  .Madison.  The 
next  July  it  was  discontinuetl.  the  outfit  beiii";  sold  to  ^IcBride 


The  pioneer  newspaper  of  Tonudi  w;is  1lie  Tonuili  Chief.  It 
was  published  as  early  as  ]859  when  Toiuali  was  only  a  small 
settlement,  and  there  was  not  adequate  sui)])()i-t  for  ;i  news]iaper. 
It  was  a  small  sheet  and  was  i)ublis!ied  aliout  a  year. 


The  establishment  of  a  permanent  lU'wspaper  in  Tomah  dates 
from  the  year  1867.  In  .July  of  that  year  the  Tomah  Journal  Avas 
started,  and  from  that  time  to  the  i)resent  the  name  has  not  l)eeu 
changed.  It  has  l)een  ])ublished  eontinuou.sly  longer  than  any 
other  paper  in  tlu^  county. 

The  .Jouriud  was  started  by  .lames  A.  and  Cli.-ifles  D.  AVells 
and  for  al)out  eight  ye;irs  \\as  published  by  one  or  both  of  these 
brothers,  with  sexcral  changes  of  firm  name.  In  ls7-'>.  ( '.  D. 
AVells'  coiuiection  with  the  ])aper  ceased,  .-iiid  in  April.  lS7(i.  he 
started  a  Democratic  paper  in  Tonuih  calI'Ml  the  Tomali  Signal. 
It  was  i)ublished  less  Ihiiii  ;i  .\e;ir.  .1.  .\.  Wells  continued  the  i)ub- 
lication  of  the  .Joiu'iial  until  in  .lanuar\.  1S,S4.  when  he  sold  it  to 
Kibbe  (Jc  A'iiH'ent.  .\1  lh;it  time  .Mr.  Fred  Kilibe  was  ]tul)lishing 
a  small  |)apcr  cwlled  the  St;ir.  -which  w;is  then  merged  with  the 
Journal.  During  the  llu'  .Journal  was  leased  to  Mr.  S.  L. 
Chase,  mid  in  .laiiuar\-,  ISS.").  it  wns  sold  to  F.  I>.  S(|uier  and  .1.  H. 
Diitton,  w!io  ])ublished  it  for  three  years.  Al  tluit  time  .Mr. 
S(|uier  bought  out  his  ])ar1iic!-"s  interest  jind  li;is  conducted  the 
l)api']'  to  the  prest-nt  time.  The  .loui-nal  is  a  six  column  (piarto. 
four    i)ages    liom(>    print.       It     has    licen    T?e])ub]ic;in    in    politics 


throughout  its  entire  history.    The  office  is  well  equipped,  with  its 
own  power  plant. 

About  the  year  1867  a  paper  called  the  Toniah  Democrat  w'as 
started  hy  a  ]Mr.  Averill.  but  it  Avas  published  only  six  months. 
The  next  attempt  to  establish  a  Democratic  paper  in  Tomah  was 
made  by  C.  D.  Wells  in  1876,  and  has  already  been  mentioned. 
In  January,  1878,  V.  A.  Brown  and  George  A.  Foster  began  the 
publication  of  the  Monroe  County  Democrat  at  Tomah.  About  a 
year  later  they  removed  the  office  to  Sparta  and  the  paper  w'as 
consolidated  with  the  Monroe  County  Republican. 


The  next  Democratic  paper  in  Tomah  was  called  the  Badger 
State  Monitor,  Avas  started  July  1.  1880.  by  Jay  R.  Hinckley.  He 
published  this  paper  for  eight  years,  during  part  of  which  time 
he  also  published  the  Juneau  County  Argus  at  New  Lisbon  and 
the  Herald  at  Portage.  In  1888  he  sold  the  Monitor  to  J.  A. 
AVells,  a  former  editor  of  the  Tomah  Journal ;  later  he  took  into 
partnership  his  son,  C.  J.  AYells;  they  purchased  the  Tomah  Her- 
ald in  11>U1,  com])ining  it  with  the  ^Monitor  under  its  present 

The  Tomah  Herald  was  started  in  1891  by  Jay  R.  Hinckley 
and  successively  owned  by  Briggs  Brothers,  George  F.  Grassie 
and  ]\Ir.  Lee,  by  whom  it  was  sold  to  J.  A.  and  C.  J.  AVells. 

The  ^lonitor-Herald  is  a  weekly  newspaper  of  eight  pages, 
seven  columns  to  the  page,  published  Fridays,  is  Republican 
in  politics.  The  office  is  ecjuipped  Avith  a  modern  outfit,  the 
largest  tAVo  revolution  press  in  the  county  at  the  present  time,  a 
linotype,  three  job  presses,  using  electric  poAver. 


In  February,  1891,  Mr.  Hinckley  having  purdmscd  the  Port- 
age Advertiser,  combined  it  Avith  his  Portage  Herald  and  again 
located  in  Tomah,  i)ublishing  his  paper  under  the  name  Herald- 
Advertiser.  In  January,  1891,  he  moA^ed  his  paper  to  Sparta, 
Aviiere  he  published  it  for  a  fcAV  years,  then  turned  it  into  a 
daily,  Avhieli  Avas  sold  to  a  local  company,  Avhich  conducted  it 
for  about  a  year,  finally  disposing  of  the  plant  to  L.  D.  Merrill; 
he  moved  the  outfit  to  the  Teasdale  building,  discontinued  the 
daily  and  resumed  the  Aveekly  publication.  Subsequently,  the 
plant  Avas  sold  to  Dorrington  and  Ross,  Dorrington  retiring  from 
the  firm  shortly   after.      The   paper  had   a   precarious   existence 


;iii(l  tiii;ill\'  liiiii  iiriii  I  (lit'tictilt  ics  llircw  il  iiilo  l);iiil<i'ti|)1cy  and  it 
was  sold  by  the  trustee,  ajiaiii  passing'  into  Ihe  hands  of  L.  I). 
jNlerrill.  l-]ai-l\-  in  litlo  he  sohl  it  to  a  eoHipany  formed  of  local 
men.  who  ehanged  the  name  to  the  Monroe  County  Republiean. 
it  Avas  published  under  that  name  up  to  about  October  1.  IDll, 
when  jmblicat  ion  was  finally  discontiinicd,  the  plant  sobl  1o 
.Merlin   Hull   of  Black  TJiver  Falls  and   moved  to  lliat   eity. 


The  Tomah  Enterprise  was  started  in  the  spring  of  1885  by 
K.  .\.  Alderman  and  Son.  and  A\iis  discontinued  in  -Inly.  1887. 
Later  the  i)lant  was  removed  to  .Montana.  The  Enterprise  was 
Republican  in  politics. 


In  Decern biM',  18!);}.  J.  A.  Haines  canu'  1o  Cashton  from  Han- 
gor  and  founded  the  first  newspaper,  which  he  named  The  Star. 
Not  having  an  outfit  of  liis  own.  he  luid  the  sheet  printed  at 
Sparta.  After  continuing  the  publication  for  about  a  year,  he 
sold  Avhat  he  had  to  his  son,  Fraidx.  who  kept  the  paper  running 
until  the  spring  of  1895,  when  he  sold  to  E.  II.  Briggs,  Avho 
came  here  with  an  outfit  from  Shell  Lake,  AVis.  Briggs  changed 
the  name  of  the  paper  from  The  Star  to  The  p]nter])risc.  Briggs 
sold  the  plant  to  E.  II.  Brown  and  d.  AY.  TTaughton  in  August, 
1895.  These  gentlemen  came  iici'e  Irom  \'iro<|ua  and  conducted 
the  business  until  the  foUoAving  July.  1896.  when  they  moved  the 
plant  to  Brooklyn,  AVis.  For  a  few  weeks  Cashton  was  without 
a  paper,  but  the  peoi)le  induced  Frank  Haines  to  try  auain  and 
he.  in  company  with  Frank  Rudoli)h,  started  the  Record.  Things 
went  l)adly  with  tliem  and  they  Avere  forced  to  sell  the  following 
sunniier  to  .James  ^McAIanamy.  AlcAlanamy  edited  the  paper  until 
the  winter  of  1898,  when  a  fire  destroyed  the  building  ami  most 
of  the  outfit.  .McAlanaiiiy  then  sold  what  was  left  to  0.  G. 
Briggs  oi'  \'ii(i(|ua.  IL  conducted  the  i)usiness  until  the  fall  of 
1!)05,  when  E.  11.  Brown  of  A^'iroqua.  the  present  owner,  pur- 
(diased  the  i)lant  and  also  that  of  the  Independent,  whicli  was 
started  by  .1.  R.  Ilinkley  in  the  summer  of  190:?.  Air.  Iliid<ley 
sold  his  interest  in  the  paper  to  d.  A.  .\ori"is  and  Xorris  to  E.  II. 
Brown.  During  the  year  1!)()(>  Fraid<  Haines  started  a  paper  here 
called  the  Sun.  but  its  life  was  short.  He  afterward  started  a 
.jol)  otlice.  but   that   also  soon  gave  up  the  ghost. 



This  paper  was  started  in  January,  1888,  and  was  discontinued 
six  months  later.  The  Norwalk  Times  was  started  just  after  the 
Sentinel  ceased  publication  and  was  published  for  about  six 
months  by  H.  C.  McGary;  the  paper  being  printed  at  Sparta. 


Founded  in  October,  1903,  by  0.  AV.  Sprecher,  who  conducted 
it  until  the  summer  of  1907,  Avhen  it  was  purchased  by  AY.  J. 
Robinson,  and  the  ensuing  fall  was  purchased  by  E.  G.  Hessel- 
grave,  the  present  owner  and  proprietor.  This  paper  started 
under  discouraging  circumstances,  but  has  steadily  grown  in  cir- 
culation and  advertising  patronage  until  at  the  present  time  it 
stands  second  to  any  paper  in  tlie  county  in  respect  to  legiti- 
mate home  patronage.  Independent  in  politics  and  stands  for 
the  best  interests  of  Norwalk,  Alonroe  county,  and  state  of 


The  AA^'ilton  Herald  was  started  about  the  beginning  of  the 
year  189-4  by  a  man  named  Bugbee,  who  set  the  type  in  the  A^^il- 
ton  office  and  printed  the  paper  at  Reedsburg.  He  was  soon 
succeeded  by  Thompson  &  Brown,  and  later  C.  H.  Brown  became 
the  sole  owner,  he  in  turn  sold  the  paper  to  J.  E.  Gruber  in 
February,  1900.  who  has  been  the  proprietor  and  editor  ever 


The  first  issue  of  the  Kendall  Keystone  was  published  Jan- 
uary 28,  1904,  by  Clarence  S.  Dodge,  who  came  to  the  village 
from  AYhite  Rock,  S.  D.  It  was  started  as  an  eight  page  five  col- 
umn paper  and  its  publication  was  continued  by  Mr.  Dodge 
until  July  29,  1905.  when  it  was  purchased  by  the  present  pub- 
lisher, Alex  R.  McCleneghan.  He  soon  enlarged  the  paper  to  a 
six  column  eight  pages,  the  standard  county  paper  size.  In 
politics  the  Keystone  is  Independent  Republican;  the  paper  has 
prospered  from  the  beginning  and  now  has  a  subscription  list  of 
about  eight  hundred  and  good  advertising  patronage.  The  paper 
is  ably  edited  and  has  succeeded  in  bringing  Kendall  to  the  at- 
tention of  the  outside  world,  which  is  appreciated  by  the  people 
of  that  bustling  village. 



The  AVarrons  Index  was  started  at  AVarrens,  Wis.,  October  2, 
1896,  -with  AY.  G.  p]vans,  formerly  of  ^Missouri,  as  editoi-.  Tlu' 
newspaper  outfit  "vvas  added  to  a  job  printing  office,  which  liad 
been  doing  business  for  a  few  years,  owned  by  F.  R.  Barber. 
The  paper  was  published  by  IMr.  Evans  until  ^lay,  1908,  when 
he  disposed  of  his  interest  to  I.  S.  Dunn,  of  Elroy.  ^Ir.  Dunn 
severed  his  eonneetioii  with  the  })ai)er  the  following  year,  l)ut  its 
publication  was  continued  ))y  the  Index  Printing  Co.  under  dif- 
ferent editors  for  several  years.  In  September,  1910,  the  paper 
was  discontinued,  the  subscription  list  and  i)art  of  tin-  i)lant  being 
sold  to  the  Tomah  Jonnml. 


The  AViseonsin  Yalley  Advocate  was  started  at  Yalley  Junc- 
tion on  JNIarch  3,  1898,  by  E.  T.  Hale,  of  Elroy.  After  l)eing  run 
for  a  time  as  a  local  paper,  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 
Twentieth  Century  Co.,  with  AY.  C.  Brawley,  of  ]\Iauston,  as 
editor.  It  was  enlarged  and  became  chiefly  an  agricultural  paper, 
devoted  to  the  development  of  the  lands  in  that  section  of  the 
county.  Mr.  Brawley  Avas  succeeded  by  AY.  II.  Price  as  editor, 
who  conducted  the  paper  until  November,  1907.  At  that  time  it 
Avas  discontinued,  the  subscription  list  being  disposed  of  to  the 
Toniah  -lournal  and  the  plant  was  sold  to  other  parties. 


The  Tomah  Ib-rakl  was  started  as  a  daily  newspaper  in  the 
year  1894  by  J.  R.  Hinckley  and  Son,  avIio  were  also  publishing 
a  daily  paper  in  Sparta  at  that  time.  After  a  short  time  it  was 
purchased  ])y  Briggs  Bros.,  Avho  changed  it  to  a  weekly  paper. 
In  about  a  year  they  sold  it  to  George  Grassie,  of  Alilwaukee,  Avho 
afterward  disposed  of  it  to  R.  G.  Lee.  In  190-1  Air.  Lee  mo\  ed 
the  press  and  part  of  the  ])lant  to  Tomahawk,  selling  the  sub- 
scription list  and  part  of  the  material  to  AYells  and  Son  of  the 
Tomah  Alonitor,  who  then  chantred  tlu^  name  of  tlicir  paper  to 



When  the  news  was  received  of  the  fall  of  Fort  Sumter  the 
general  feeling  of  indignation  felt  by  the  North  did  not  escape 
the  citizens  of  this  young,  but  loyal  county,  and  at  no  place  in 
the  United  States  was  the  president's  call  for  troops  more 
promptly  responded  to.  Six  full  companies  of  volunteer  soldiers 
w^ere  organized  and  a  part  of  the  seventh  furnished  by  this 
county,  together  with  a  large  number  of  men  in  different  com- 
panies in  several  of  the  regiments.  In  all,  there  were  927  men 
who  w^ent  from  JMonroe  county  during  the  war,  and  of  this  num- 
ber 141  gave  up  their  lives  in  the  service  of  their  country. 

This  is  a  remarkable  record ;  Monroe  county  did  its  full  share 
and  a  little  more,  as  will  readily  be  seen  when  the  fact  is  remem- 
bered that  in  the  census  report  for  1860  the  entire  population 
of  the  county,  men,  women  and  children,  numbered  about  8,407 
souls,  and  the  male  population  between  the  ages  of  fifteen  and 
fifty  was  only  2,220,  together  with  the  further  fact  that  the 
county  w^as  only  seven  years  of  age,  having  been  organized 
March  21,  1854 ;  and  that  when  war  was  declared  the  assessed 
valuation  of  the  entire  property  of  the  county,  real  and  per- 
sonal, was  but  $1,477,745. 

In  view  of  the  foregoing,  it  seems  that  it  may  be  said  that 
Monroe  county  did  more  than  her  full  share  and  made  for  her- 
self during  the  AVar  of  '61  a  record  that  any  and  all  of  her  citi- 
zens may  refer  to  with  pride.  We  feel  that  w^e  are  justified  in 
boasting  of  our  volunteer  soldiers,  who  Avere  citizens  before  they 
became  soldiers. 

The  population  of  the  county  now  is  28,881,  as  against  8,407 
in  1860,  and  the  assessed  A'aluation  of  our  real  and  personal 
property  is  $25,921,265,  as  against  $1,477,745  in  1860,  which  is 
suggestive  of  the  truth  of  the  oft  repeated  saying  that  we  live 
in  a  progressive  age,  and  as  a  new  generation  stands  in  our 
places,  let  them  be  taught  that  the  Union  soldier  has  done  much 



ill  AVar  and  in  Peace.  That  in  every  avenue  of  life  soldiers  are 
nuiiihcred  still  l)y  the  thousands,  and  the  lessons  of  patriotism 
should  not  be  lost  ui)on  our  children  or  our  children's  children, 
and  they  should  be  made  to  feel  that  the  blessing  enjoyed  in  a 
free  country  depend  upon  the  loj'alty,  patriotism,  and  intelli- 
gence of  its  people. 

The  history  of  the  troops  which  went  from  this  county  into 
the  war  is  necessarily  the  history  of  the  various  regiments  in 
which  its  citizens  enlisted ;  in  order  to  fully  record  the  great 
service  which  was  rendered  in  that  struggle  by  our  own  peo- 
ple, the  history  of  some  of  the  regiments  in  which  companies 
enlisted  from  this  county  is  given  in  this  chapter;  it  is  a  remark- 
able record,  the  record  of  hardships,  bravery  and  good  Ameri- 
can patriotism  under  all  circumstances,  and  one  which  has 
formed  no  small  part  of  the  remarkable  history  of  AVisconsin 
troops  during  the  Rebellion.  There  were  several  regiments  in 
which  nearly  whole  companies  came  from  ^Monroe  county,  no- 
tably Company  A,  Third  Cavalry,  which  was  almost  entirely  from 
this  county;  Company  I,  Fourth  Cavalry,  and  a  large  number  in 
Company  F,  Fourth  Cavalry;  some  twenty-tive  or  six  in  the  First 
Battery,  Light  Artillery;  quite  a  number  enlisted  in  the  Sixth 
Infantry  in  A'arious  companies;  Company  C  of  the  Eighteenth 
Infantry ;  Company  C  of  the  Nineteenth  Infantry,  a  large  num- 
ber in  Company  D  of  the  same  regiment ;  Company  D  of  the 
Twenty-tifth  Regiment  of  Infantry,  also  a  large  number  of  Com- 
pany F;  Company  C,  Twenty-sixth  Infantry;  Company  K,  Forty- 
third  Infantry:  Company  I,  Forty-eighth  Infantry;  Company  B. 
Fiftietli  Infantry,  and  Company  A,  Fifty-first  Infantry. 


The  Sixth  Regiment  was  organized  at  Camp  Randall  in  -June. 
1861,  and  mustered  into  the  United  States  service  July  13th :  left 
the  state  July  27th,  reaching  AVashington  August  8th.  This  regi- 
ment, in  connection  with  the  Second  AVisconsin.  Fiflh  Wiscon- 
sin and  Nineteenth  Indiana,  composed  Gen.  Rufus  King's  First 
Brigade  and  throughout  the  war  the  Second,  Sixth  and  Seventh 
AA^isconsin  Regiments  served  in  the  same  organization,  and 
became  knoAvn  the  world  over  as  ''The  Iron  Brigade,"  and  their 
services  throughout  that  struggle  were  rendered  as  brigade  and 
not  as  regiments. 

These  three  "Wisconsin  regiments  had  absolute  confidence  in 
one  another;  the  men  to  a  great  extent  were  personally  ac- 
quainted; their  campaigns  extended  over  a  comparatively  small 


section  of  the  country ;  they  became  familiar  with  the  army 
against  which  they  Avere  called  upon  to  battle.  During  the  four 
years  they  were  in  close  proximity  to  the  powerful  armj'^  led  by 
the  most  brilliant  officers  of  the  Confederacy;  they  knew  that  a 
march  of  a  day  or  two  in  its  direction  meant  skirmishing,  if  not 
a  battle.  It  was  necessary  throughout  these  years  in  which  his- 
tory was  made  that  men  of  this  brigade  be  ready  for  battle  all 
of  the  time. 

Another  circumstance  is  found  in  the  fact  that  from  the  first 
to  the  last,  the  brigade  was  commanded  by  a  soldier  who  knew 
how  to  command  and  Avho  knew  how  to  get  the  best  possible 
work  from  his  men.  General  King  was  a  graduate  of  West  Point. 
A  thorough  disciplinarian,  and  his  work  during  the  few  months 
in  which  he  had  command  was  invaluable  in  preparing  the 
brigade  for  its  future  services. 

He  M'as  succeeded  by  Gen.  John  Gibbons  in  ^lay,  1862,  who 
continued  the  work  of  making  his  brigade  regular  army  soldiers, 
and  they  were  regulars  in  fact  as  well  as  in  name ;  not  only  were 
the  men  well  drilled  and  well  instructed,  but  the  field  and  line 
officers  were  made  efficient,  so  that  when  General  Gibbon  was 
placed  in  the  command  of  a  division  after  the  battle  of  Antietam, 
all  of  the  surviving  colonels  of  the  brigade  were  competent  to  take 
his  place.  Meredith  of  the  Nineteenth  Indiana  and  Cutler  of 
the  Sixth  Wisconsin  were  made  brigadiers,  and  had  experience 
as  commanders  of  the  brigade.  They  folloAved  as  closely  as  they 
could  in  the  footsteps  of  Gibbon.  Then  came  Colonel  Robinson, 
of  the  Seventh  Wisconsin,  and  then  Colonel  Bragg,  of  the  Sixth. 
Colonel  Bragg  had  been  a  remarkably  close  student  of  Gibbon's 
methods  and  soon  after  assuming  the  command  he  was  made  a 
brigadier  general.  When  he  left  the  command  in  February,  1865, 
an  officer  who  had  left  AVisconsin  as  a  first  lieutenant  and  had 
reached  the  rank  of  colonel  of  the  Sixth  Wisconsin,  succeeded 
him,  and  ])ecame  a  brigadier  general  by  brevet  because  of  his 
splendid  management  in  the  closing  campaign  of  the  war,  this 
was  Gen.  John  A.  Kellogg. 

Aside  from  the  battles  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  in  the 
spring  and  summer  of  1862  on  the  Potomac,  this  brigade  missed 
none  of  the  great  and  small  battles  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac. 
Its  opportunities  for  winning  credit  and  thinning  its  ranks  were 
greater  than  were  offered  to  any  other  Wisconsin  regiments 
sent  to  the  war,  and  the  statement  is  here  emphasized  that  any 
other  four  Wisconsin  regiments  similarly  situated,  similarly 
commanded,   kept   together  throughout   the  war  and   given  the 

102  iiisi'DRY  OF  :\ionrop:  county 

same  opportunity  to  win  distinction  Avoiild,  without  any  kind  of 
donbt,  liave  won  tho  sanio  rank  and  licen  given  tlic  same  erodit. 
After  spending  the  winter  of  18()l-2  on  Arlington  Heights,  the 
brigade  broke  eainp  ]Mareli  10,  1862,  joined  in  the  march  of  Mc- 
Clellan's  great  army  on  Centerville  and  IManassas. 

The  first  great  battle  in  which  the  brigade  played  a  i)r()ini- 
nent  part  was  in  Gainsville,  Va.,  August  28,  1862;  it  was  the 
beginning  of  a  series  of  battles  in  Uie  vicinity  of  Bull  Run  battle 
tield  of  the  year  before;  here  Jackson's  corps  had  destroyed  mil- 
lions of  dollars  worth  of  property  at  Manassas  and  had  turned 
back  to  join  the  balance  of  Lee's  army.  Gibl)on's  brigade  con- 
sisted of  Ihe  four  regiments  named  and  Hattery  B;  for  hours 
faced  antl  fought  Stonewall  Jackson's  army  corps  of  nearly 
thirty-six  regiments.  The  only  help  it  had  for  a  portion  of  the 
time  being  the  Fifty-sixth  Pennsylvaiiia  and  the  Seventy-sixth 
NeAV  Yorl:  on  the  right  (tf  the  line.  The  brigade  entered  the 
engagement  with  2,200  men  and  its  loss,  killed  and  wounded,  was 
800,  but  in  that  battle  it  won  a  name  for  good  soldiership. 

The  next  engagement  was  South  ^Mountain,  "Sid.,  September 
14:  in  this  battle  the  brigade  charged  upon  the  high  mountain 
in  the  face  of  a  much  larger  force  and  won  the  signal  victory.  In 
this  battle  its  conduct  was  witnessed  by  the  corps  commander. 
Gen.  Joseph  Hooker,  and  Gen.  George  B.  JMcClellan,  conunander 
of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  it  was  in  this  battle  that  it 
was  given  thr  name  of  the  "Iron  Brigade."  General  ]\lc('lellan 
asked,  "Whose  troops  are  these?"  As  he  saw  Ihe  l)i'igade  charge 
upon  the  mountain,  Avhen  told  by  General  Hooker  that  it  was 
Gibbon's  western  brigade,  he  remarked,  "They  are  men  of  iron." 
as  the  story  goes.  AVithin  a  few  days  Cincinnati  ]iapers  were 
received  in  which  the  western  men  Avere  spoken  of  as  the  "Iron 
Brigade."  There  are  different  stories  as  to  how  the  brigade 
received  its  name,  but  General  Bragg,  who  grew  up  with  tlie 
organization,  said  tliat  in  his  belief  it  was  the  war  correspond- 
ents and  he  thought  it  was  a  con-espondent  of  a  Cincinnati  paper 
who  gave  the  comni.iiKi  the  name  it  has  held  (>ver  since. 

At  the  first  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  in  December,  1862.  when 
tlie  brigade  was  in  Franklin's  grand  division,  on  the  left,  and 
while  it  was  under  fire  two  days  and  lost  considerable  nund)er 
of  men,  it  was  not  the  disastrous  kind  of  an  (>ncounter  it  had 
experienced  in  previous  battles. 

It  participated  in  Burnside's  famous  !Mud  ^Marcli  in  1S()2  on 
the  Potomac,  when  it  returned  to  its  camps  at  Bell  Plain  until 


Hooker's  campaig'n  began  iu  the  last  week  of  April,  18G3,  when 
it  made  its  remarkable  charge  in  pontoon  boats  across  the  Rap- 
pahannock river  at  Fitzhugh  Crossing,  charged  the  heights  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  drove  the  enemy,  took  possession, 
fortified  and  held  the  place  until  General  Hooker's  men  had 
crossed  the  riA'er  and  got  on  the  left  flank  of  Lee's  army,  when 
the  brigade  recrossed  the  river  and  marched  to  join  the  main 
army  at  Chancellorsville,  where  it  participated  in  the  fight  and 
joined  in  another  retreat  on  the  safe  side  of  the  Rappahannock. 
A  short  time  later  it  participated  in  the  three  bloody  days  of  the 
battle  of  Gettysburg,  beginning  July  1.  1862.  At  this  time  it 
was  the  First  Brigade,  First  Division,  First  Army  Corps,  Gen. 
Solomon  Meredith  being  in  command.  It  is  claimed  by  some 
authority  that  the  Wisconsin  brigade  and  Pennsylvania  infantry 
opened  fire  in  that  battle  at  about  the  same  time. 

The  authorities  of  ])oth  states  claim  that  their  soldiers  were 
the  first  to  begin  the  infantry  fighting,  but  the  fact  is  that  they 
belonged  to  the  same  division  and  marched  into  the  fight  at  the 
same  time.  In  the  first  day's  fight  the  brigade's  loss  was  very 
great  in  officers  and  men,  and  lost  more  than  one-third  of  its 
troops  in  killed  and  wounded.  During  the  balance  of  the  two 
days'  battle  it  was  on  Gulp's  Hill,  behind  strong  entrenchments. 
It  was  called  into  action  several  times  and  saw  the  never-to-be- 
forgotten  charge  made  by  the  Confederates  under  Gen.  George 
E.  Pickett. 

After  Meade's  fruitless  campaign  in  November,  1863,  the 
brigade  returned  to  its  quarters  with  the  rest  of  the  corps  at 
Culpeper  Court  House,  and  on  the  1st  of  January  the  Sixth  and 
Seventh  regiments  re-enlisted  for  three  years  more  or  during 
the  war,  and  were  given  thirty  days'  furlough,  returning  to 
Wisconsin  as  regiments.  Their  reception  by  the  people  of  the 
state  constituted  one  of  the  great  events  in  the  lives  of  the  young 
soldiers.  At  the  end  of  the  thirty  days  the  two  regiments 
returned  to  the  brigade  and  iu  May.  1864,  it,  with  the  rest  of 
the  army,  plunged  into  the  AVilderness  campaign  on  ]\Iay  5,  1864, 
and  they  were  not  out  of  the  hearing  of  hostile  guns  until  the 
surrender  of  Lee's  army  at  Appomattox,  April  9,  1865.  It  was 
in  the  forefront  in  the  two  days'  battle  of  the  Wilderness 
proper,  at  Laurel's  Hill,  Spottsylvania,  Bethesda  Church,  in 
North  Anna,  Cold  Harbor,  the  Siege  of  Petersburg,  the  three 
days'  battle  of  Weldon  railroad  beginning  August  18th,  and 
ending  on  the  21st;  the  battles  of  Hatcher's  Run,  Gravely  Run, 


Five  Forks  and  Appomattox.  Tlie  brigade  took  its  place  in  the 
grand  revicAV  in  AVasliington  after  the  "war,  and  two  months 
later  returned  to  the  state  and  was  mustered  out  of  the  service. 


The  Eighteenth  Infantry  was  ordered  to  Camp  Sigel.  ^U\- 
waukee,  January  7,  1862.  It  completed  its  organization  and 
was  mustered  into  the  service  and  left  the  state  about  the  last 
of  March,  1862,  reaching  Pittsburg  Landing  April  5,  and  went 
into  the  Battle  of  Shiloh  the  next  day.  It  was  surprised  by  the 
Confederates  early  in  the  morning  of  April  6th,  and,  although 
it  was  poorly  drilled  and  wholly  unprepared  for  service,  yet 
Avithin  a  week  it  Avas  forced  into  one  of  the  greatest  battles  of 
the  war  and  took  up  the  work  of  fighting,  and  made  a  credit- 
able record,  losing  many  valuable  officers,  including  the  colonel 
and  a  large  number  of  men.  Col.  S.  H.  Alban  was  killed  early 
in  the  engagement;  Lieut.  Col.  S.  AV.  Beall,  who  had  been 
lieutenant  governor  of  AVisconsin.  Avas  severely  Avounded,  and 
Maj.  J.  AV.  Crain  Avas  killed.  In  this  battle,  the  Eighteenth 
lost  tAventy-five  killed  and  ninety-one  Avounded.  Jn  the  folloAV- 
ing  October  it  Avas  in  the  battle  of  Corinth,  again  losing  heavily 
in  killed  and  Avounded.  1)ut  adding  greatly  to  its  reputation  as  a 
fighting  regiment.  Capt.  Gabrial  Bouck,  of  the  Second  AViscon- 
sin,  Avas  made  colonel  to  succeed  Colonel  Alban.  killed  at  Shiloh. 
The  Eighteeutli  Avas  one  of  AVisconsin's  regiments  at  the  battle 
and  siege  of  Vicksburg.  The  regiment  reached  Chattanooga  in 
time  to  take  part  in  the  battle  of  Alission  Ridge,  November  25, 
1863,  and  from  there  Avent  to  Iluntsville.  Avhcre  it  remained  on 
guard  and  outpost  duty  until  'May.  1864.  ]\Iost  of  its  duty  from 
that  time  to  the  end  ol'  the  war  consisted  of  important  guard 
and  outpost  duty,  aside  from  tiic  i)arl  it  took  in  1iu^  Confederate 
attack  on  Alloona  I'ass.  There  Avere  stored  at  this  pass  an 
immense  quantity  of  aniiy  supplies.  The  Confederate  army 
needed  these  supplies  and  they  attacked  Avith  great  force  and 
A'igor.  ])ut  the  small  force  of  Union  troops  stationed  there  fought 
as  soldiers  are  seldom  called  upon  to  fight.  Here  the  Eighteenth 
Avon  for  itself  great  praise  and  great  distinction.  It  Avas  in  this 
battle  that  General  Slu>rman  signaled  to  General  Corse  from 
KenesaAv  AFountain  to  hold  the  position,  for  he  Avas  coming.  From 
this  dispatch  came  that  Avouderful  old  song.  ''Hold  the  Fort, 
for  T  am  Coming."  General  Corse  had  received,  previous  to 
this  message,  seA'eral  Avounds  and  signaled  l)ack  to  Sherman, 
"I  have  lost  an  ear,  part  of  a  cheek  and  am  Avounded  in  one  arm. 


but  I  will  hold  the  fort  until  Hades  freezes  over."  It  was  one 
of  the  sharpest  battles  of  that  kind  fought  during-  the  war,  and 
to  this  day  many  wonder  how  that  small  force  could  check  and 
drive  back  a  whole  division  of  Confederates. 

AVhile  the  Eighteenth  did  not  march  with  Sherman  to  the 
sea,  it  joined  Sherman's'  army  by  traveling  on  boats  and  rail- 
roads, reaching  it  the  last  of  March,  and  was  with  him  until 
Raleigh,  the  capital  of  North  Carolina,  surrendered,  soon  after 
which  Johnston  and  his  army  laid  down  their  arms.  The 
Eighteenth  had  three  colonels,  J.  S.  Alban,  Gabrial  Bouck  and 
Charles  H.  Jackson. 


The  Nineteenth  was  organized  at  Camp  I  tley,  Racine,  l)ut  in 
April,  1862,  was  ordered  to  Camp  Randall  to  guard  prisoners 
taken  at  Shiloh.  Early  in  June  of  tliat  year  the  regiment  pro- 
ceeded to  Virginia. 

This  regiment  was  given  a  larger  amount  of  our  post  and 
guard  duty  than  most  of  the  regiments,  though  it  was  in  all  ways 
an  excellent  command,  and  both  officers  and  men  were  anxious 
for  more  service;  Init  this  important  duty  had  to  be  placed  in 
good  hands  and  this  regiment  was  thoroughly  to  be  depended 
upon,  and  did  work  in  a  manner  to  bring  praise  from  its  superior 

It  was  stationed  at  Norfolk  for  some  time  and  again  was 
stationed  at  Suffolk,  Va.  It  was  engaged  in  several  battles  in 
front  of  Richmond  and  Petersburg,  and  lost  in  killed  twenty- 
nine,  died  of  wounds  twelve,  died  of  disease  107.  Horace  R. 
Sanders,  of  Racine,  was  the  first  colonel,  and  S.  K.  Voughan  the 
second  colonel.  The  regiment  had  only  these  two  colonels.  It 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service  August  9,  1865. 


This  regiment  was  organized  at  LaCrosse,  AVis.,  in  Septem- 
ber, 1862,  and  as  soon  as  it  was  mustered  into  the  service  was 
sent  to  Minnesota  to  aid  in  the  Indian  War  prevailing  there  at 
that  time.  It  returned  to  Madison  in  January,  1863,  and  left 
for  Kentucky  February  17th  of  the  same  year.  It  was  com- 
manded by  a  jMonroe  county  man.  Col.  ]\Iilton  Montgomery,  and 
the  history  of  this  regimeiit  is  of  peculiar  interest  inasmuch  as 
nearly  one  whole  company,  D,  and  a  great  part  of  another,  F, 
Avere  composed  of  Alonroe  county  citizens. 


Tlie  Tweiity-fiftli  had  quite  an  experience  in  ^Minnesota  in 
the  Indian  campaign,  after  which,  as  has  been  stated,  it  returned 
to  Madison  and  was  sent  soutli  in  ISfi:}.  and  became  a  part  of 
the  Sixteenth  Army  Corps  and  joined  Grant's  army  at  Vicks- 
burg  early  in  June,  remaining  there  until  after  the  surrender 
and  performing  well  every  duty  assigned  to  it.  It  was  one  of  the 
regiments  wliieh  participated  in  this  memorable  march  of  Gen- 
eral Sherman  from  Chattanooga  to  Atlanta,  and  from  there  to 
the  sea:  It  saw  hard  service  throughout  this  camjiaign,  and  the 
regiment  was  depended  upon,  on  numerous  occasions,  for  very 
important  duty,  and  was  fref(uently  engaged  in  severe  battles. 
AVhile  its  losses  in  killed  and  wounded  were  not  as  great  as 
many  of  the  regiments,  it  lost  from  disease  a  larger  number  than 
any  other  regiment  from  the  state.  The  records  of  Company 
D  showing  a  large  percentage  of  Monroe  county  men  who  died 
of  disease.  This  is  the  regiment  of  Avhich  Jeremiah  31.  Rusk 
was  lieutenant  colonel.  He  went  out  with  it  as  major.  l)ecame 
lieutenant  colonel,  and  as  such  commanded  it  in  many  of  its 
campaigns  and  battles,  and  was  promoted  to  brevet  brigadier 
and  for  some  time  commanded  the  brigade.  General  Rusk  told 
this  story  on  himself:  While  going  through  North  Carolina  in 
command  of  a  brigade  his  troops  went  in  the  x^i'ie  forests  to 
camp  and  when,  two  days  later,  it  In-oke  camp,  nearly  every  man, 
because  of  the  piteh  ])ine  smoke,  was  nearly  as  dark  skinned  as 
the  colored  people.  AVhile  General  Rusk  was  riding  at  the  head 
of  his  brigade,  his  face  nearly  as  black  as  a  crow's  wing,  he 
heard  some  southern  people  by  the  roadside  say:  ''For  Gaud 
sake,  if  the  Yankees  haven't  been  obliged  to  put  niggers  in 
command  of  their  brigades."  Colonel  ^Montgomery  of  this  regi- 
ment lost  an  arm  in  action,  and  for  gallant  and  meritorious  con- 
duct was  made  a  brigadier  general  1)y  brevet.  The  Twenty- 
fifth's  losses  in  killed  and  wounded  Avas  forty-two.  and  of  its 
number  376  died  of  disease.  It  was  one  of  Wisconsin's  famous 
regiments,  which  left  a  glorious  record  (if  its  services.  It  was 
mustered  out  on  June  7,  I860. 


Till'  Thirty-sixth  regiment  was  organized  \inder  the  presi- 
dent's first  call  in  1864,  and  was  Ww  first  to  respond.  It  left 
]\[adison  ]\lay  '10,  1864,  and  joined  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  at 
Spottsylvania,  Va..  a  Aveek  later.  It  went  directly  into  the  line 
of  battle  when  it  reached  that  place,  and  Avas  soon  taken  into  the 
thick  of  the  fight  and  acquitted  itself  as  if  its  soldiers  had  been 


veterans.  From  that  time  until  the  end  of  the  war  the  Thirty- 
sixth  regiment  was  given  the  hardest  service,  and  was  ordered 
into  all  of  the  battles  recorded  up  to  and  including  Appomattox. 

It  had  for  its  colonel,  Frank  A.  Haskell,  who  left  the  state 
in  1861  as  adjutant  of  the  Sixth  Wisconsin,  and  Avas  General 
Gibbon's  adjutant  general.  At  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  while 
serving  on  General  Gibbon's  staff  as  a  captain,  command  of  the 
entire  army  corps  devolved  upon  him  for  a  brief  space  of  time. 
Generals  Hancock,  Gibbon  and  AA^ebb  had  been  wounded  and 
Haskell  assumed  the  responsiliility  of  directing  the  corps  in  the 
engagement.  At  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  where  his  regiment 
did  great  execution  and  met  Avitli  distressing  losses.  Colonel 
Haskell,  while  at  the  head  of  his  command,  standing  on  the 
breast  work  and  as  he  was  about  to  give  a  command  to  charge, 
was  instantly  killed.  Two  days  before  that  he  had  been  rec- 
ommended for  promotion  to  brigadier  general.  He  was,  without 
doubt,  one  of  the  most  soldierly  and  manly  men  from  this  state. 
Though  its  services  extended  for  only  a  year,  the  losses  of  this 
regiment  were  much  greater  than  two-thirds  of  the  three  years' 

It  had  four  different  colonels,  Haskell,  who  was  killed;  Col. 
John  A.  Savage  was  mortally  wounded,  and  Col.  Harvey  M. 
Brown  was  erroneously  reported  killed  at  Petersburg.  Col. 
Clement  E.  A\"arner  lost  an  arm,  and  a  number  of  captains  and 
lieutenants  were  killed.  More  than  half  of  the  thousand  men 
that  Colonel  Haskel  hurried  to  the  front  early  in  1864  were 
killed  or  wounded.  The  regiment  lost  in  one  year  seventy-nine 
killed,  forty-seven  died  of  wounds,  and  168  died  of  disease.  It  is 
not  surprising  that  the  survivors  of  the  Thirty-sixth  AVisconsin 
are  proud  to  have  been  of  such  a  regiment. 


This  regiment  was  recruited  and  organized  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Col.  Amasa  Cobb,  formerly  of  the  Fifth  AVisconsin.  It 
left  ]\Iilwaukee  for  the  field  on  the  9th  of  October,  1861,  under 
orders  to  report  at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  to  General  Sherman.  From 
Nashville  they  moved  by  rail  and  encamped  on  the  15th  of 
October  at  Johnsonville,  the  terminus  of  the  military  railroad 
connected  with  Nashville  and  situated  110  miles  from  Paducah, 
on  the  Tennessee  river.  Here  Colonel  Cobb  was  appointed  post 
commander  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  Paine  assumed  command  of 
the  regiment.  This  important  post,  at  which  was  collected 
immense  quantities  of  stores,  was  then  menaced  by  the  approach 


of  rebel  forces  under  General  Hood,  and  from  the  4tli  to  the 
6th  of  November  the  regiment  was  exposed  to  the  fire  of  tin- 
rebel  gnns,  planted  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  Tennessee,  losing- 
one  man   killed  and   one  wounded. 

The  ForlN-third  left  Johnsonville  on  the  morning  of  the  30tli 
of  November,  and  marched  l»y  Avay  of  Waxcrly  through  an 
unbroken  wilderness  and  arrived  on  the  4th  of  December  at 
Clarksville,  on  the  Cumberland  river.  Embarking  at  (  bii-k'sville 
on  the  28th  they  ]-eached  Nashville  at  10  in  the  evening.  They 
landed  the  next  morning  and  remained  in  the  city  awaiting 
transportation  until  the  evening  of  the  21st  of  January.  I8ti5. 
when  they  left  Nashville  by  rail  and  arrived  at  Dechard.  Tenn., 
where  six  companies  of  the  regiment  went  to  camp  riiid  tour 
companies,  under  command  of  ^Major  Hrightman.  being  detadu'd 
to  guard  the  Elk  river  brigade. 

The  regiment  was  employed  at  that  station  in  i>ost  and  guard 
duty  on  the  line  of  the  Nashville  and  Chattanooga  railroad  until 
the  beginning  of  June,  Avhen  it  was  moved  to  Nashville,  at  whidi 
place  it  was  mustered  out  of  the  service  June  24.  1865,  arriving 
soon  after  in  Milwaukee,  where  they  Avere  paid  and  disbanded. 


Was  organiz(?d  at  ^lihvaukec  during  tin-  months  of  Februai-y 
and  ]\rarch,  1865.  Eight  companies  oi'  the  i-i-giment  under  tlic 
command  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Shears  left  ^Milwaukee  on  the 
2nd  of  ]\rarch  under  orders  to  report  at  Benton  Barracks,  Mis- 
souri, at  which  place  it  received  orders  on  the  28th  of  ^Marcli  to 
proceed  to  Paola,  Kan.  I^pon  its  arrival  llicre  tlu^  (•oui])anies 
were  sent  in  different  directions  to  detached  duly,  and  on  the 
19th  of  July  Colonel  Pearsall  was  assigned  to  the  command  of 
all  the  troops  in  and  west  of  Neosho  Valley,  Kan.,  including  tiie 
station  on  Osage  iMission,  with  headquarters  at  Humboldt.  Kan. 
Orders  were  received  on  the  lOth  of  August  for  the  regiment 
to  proceed  to  Lawrence,  hut  on  account  of  heavy  rains  the  march 
was  delayed  until  the  l!Jtii.  arriving  at  Lawrence,  Kan.,  on  Sejv 
teniber  5th.  I'pon  its  an-ival  at  Lawriuice  the  regiment  Avas 
again  assigned  on  delacln-d  service,  companies  being  sent  to 
occupy  different  places.  Companies  B.  D.  F  and  I,  Avere  nuis- 
tered  out  at  LeaA^euAvorth,  Kan.,  on  the  lllh  of  February,  1866, 
and  reached  ]\Iadison  on  the  23r(l.  The  balance  of  the  companies 
Avere  mustered  out  on  the  24th  of  ]\Iarcli,  1866,  and  arriA-ed  at 
INIadison  on  the  28th,  Avher(»  they  Avere  ])aid  and  disbanded. 



The  Fiftieth  AViseonsiii  was  organized  under  tlie  supervision 
of  John  G.  Clark,  of  Lancaster;  left  Madison  by  companies  the 
latter  part  of  March  and  the  beginning  of  April,  1865,  and  on 
arriving  at  St.  Louis,  ]\Io..  the  companies  were  assigned  to  Ben- 
ton Barracks.  On  the  11th  of  October,  Colonel  Clark  assumed 
command  of  the  ])()st  at  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kan.,  where  the  regi- 
ment w^as  stationed  until  the  expiration  of  its  term  of  service. 
Company  E  was  ordered  to  report  at  INIadison,  AVis.,  where  it 
was  mustered  out  and  discharged  on  the  19th  of  April,  1866. 
The  balance  of  the  regiment  remained  in  garrison  at  Fort  Rice 
until  the  31st  of  May,  1866,  when  Companies  A,  B,  C  and  D, 
under  the  command  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  McDermott  set  out  for 
home,  reaching  Madison,  AYis..  on  the  12th  of  May,  1866.  Com- 
panies F,  G,  H.  I  and  K,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Clark, 
left  Fort  Rice  on  the  3rd  of  June  and  arrived  at  Madison  on 
the  14th  of  June,  and  here  the  whole  army  was  immediately 
mustered  out,  paid  and  disbanded. 


Six  companies  of  this  regiment  were  recruited  under  Col. 
Leonard  ]\Iartin  and  were  organized  at  Camp  Washburn,  Mil- 
waukee, during  the  months  of  February,  March,  April  and  May, 
1865,  and  were  sent  to  Benton  Barracks,  Mo.,  the  last  company 
being  organized  on  the  29th  of  April,  in  that  year.  The  four 
junior  companies  not  having  left  the  state,  they  were  mustered 
out  and  discharged  at  Milwaukee  on  the  6th  of  IMay  under  gen- 
eral orders  from  the  War  Department  for  the  reduction  of  the 
army.  On  the  7th  of  April  Company  B  was  placed  on  temporary 
duty  at  St.  Louis,  and  on  the  8th  of  May  Companies  A,  C,  E  and 
F  were  ordered  to  Warrensburg,  Mo.  These  companies  were 
then  stationed  along  the  line  of  the  Pacific  railroad,  and  were 
occupied  in  guarding  the  construction  of  this  road  from  Holden 
to  Pleasant  Hill.  Company  B  reached  the  regiment  on  the  21st 
of  June.  In  accordance  with  the  special  orders  from  the  War 
Department  June  10,  1865,  the  Fifty-third  Wisconsin,  consist- 
ing of  four  companies,  was  consolidated  with  the  Fifty-first  regi- 
ment and  was  mustered  out  at  Madison  in  companies,  the  last 
company  being  disbanded  on  the  30th  of  August,  1865. 


This  regiment  was  fully  organized,  and  the  colonel  and  field 
officers  mustered  into  the  United  States  service  on  the  28th  of 


fJaiiuary,  18H2.     Col.   William  A.  Barstow  took  i-oiiunaiul  and  its 
headciiiarters  were  at  Camp  Jiarstow,  Janesville. 

On  the  26th  day  of  March,  1862,  the  regiment  left  the  state 
under  orders  to  rejiort  at  St.  Louis.  Th(\v  took  Ihc  ti-aiii  for 
Chicago  and  had  arrived  within  three  nnles  of  that  cily  when 
they  met  with  a  terrible  disaster.  The  cars  were  running  i-apidly 
and  several  of  them  were  thrown  from  the  track.  Twelve  men 
were  instantly  killed,  and  twenty-eight  wounded.  On  the  morn- 
ing of  the  27th  they  arrived  in  Chicago  and  took  the  cars  for 
St.  Louis,  wher(^  they  arrived  the  28th,  and  marched  to  the  fair 
grounds,  near  Benton  Barracks.  ^lay  22nd,  1862.  they  took 
three  steamers  up  the  ^Missouri  for  Leavenworth,  Kan.,  arriving 
IMay  27th.  They  had  previously  drawn  ^Merrill's  carbines  at  St. 
Louis  and  sabres  at  Janesville.  They  camped  on  the  blue  grass 
near  Fort  Lea\  eiiworth,  and  there  drew  their  horses  and  eiiuij)- 
ments,  and  in  the  city  their  revolvers.  Colonel  Barstow  was 
appointed  provost  marshal  of  Kansas,  and  in  the  beginning  of 
June  the  regiment  was  stationed,  by  detachments,  in  different 
parts  of  the  state,  extending  from  the  Nebraska  line  on  the  north 
to  Fort  Scott  on  the  south.  The  nature  of  the  service  was 
chiefly  to  hunt  up  and  expel  the  jayhawkers  and  bushwhackers  of 
that  region.  Companies  C,  F,  I  and  ]\I  were  sent,  June  12th,  from 
Fort  Leavenworlh  to  Fort  Scott,  Avhere  they  aii-ived  on  the 
17th.  This  inai'ch  is  worthy  of  record,  as  it  was  accomplished  in 
five  days  without  the  loss  of  a  man  or  horse,  the  distance  being 
180  miles.  Fort  Scott  was  now  the  outpost  of  the  forces,  and 
]Major  Ilenning  took  command  of  the  post.  Company  T  was 
sent  to  occupy  Carthage,  Mo.,  sixty-five  miles  from  Foi-t  S^-ott. 
Captain  Conkey  in  t-onnnand. 

Company  C  Avas  sent  to  Trading  Post,  thirty-five  miles  north 
of  Fori  Scoit.  (Hi  llie  border.  Bands  of  rebels  were  jtrowling 
about  the  territory.  Captain  Conkey  followed  one  jiarty,  with 
a  snuiU  force,  from  Carthage,  and  finding  himself  in  danger, 
charged  through  their  camj)  of  2.000  one  morning  before  day- 
light and  escaped.  Colonel  Barstow  unexpectedly  met  the  same 
band  at  ]Montevallo.  and  routing  them,  fell  back  to  F(n"t  Scott, 
where  an  attack  was  expected.  But  General  Salomon's  arrival, 
on  liis  retui-n  from  the  Indian  country,  made  the  post  seeure. 
General  Blunt  arriving,  Comjianies  V  and  T,  Lieutenant  Willets 
in  command,  joined  an  expedition  in  ])ursuit  of  the  enemy.  At 
Taberville  they  had  an  engagement  witli  liim.  and  Company 
I  being  in  front,  showed  so  nmch  bravery  that  Colonel  Cloud 
commendctl    them    in    his    official    report.      They   took    ])art    also 


in  the   action   at   Coon   Creek   where   600   loyalists   routi'd   1,500 
rebels.    . 

Early  in  Sci)teinber,  Companies  I  and  ]M  were  substituted,  at 
Fort  Scott,  for  C  and  F,  ]\Iajor  Henning  still  commanding.  They 
were  constantly  engaged  in  scouting  expeditions,  and  as  escorts 
for  trains  to  General  Blunt 's  army  in  southwest  ^lissouri,  until 
January,  1863.  when  Companies  C  and  G  were  added  to  th(^  com- 
mand, and  remained  till  July,  at  which  date  Company  G  was 
ordered  to  report  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  AVhite,  who  then  had 
cniiuiiand  of  the  regiment. 

Meanwhile  the  first  and  third  battalions,  under  ]\Iajor 
Schroeling,  were  engaged  in  such  varied  movements  as  were 
common  to  a  state  of  border  warfare.  In  June,  1862,  a  disposi- 
tion was  made  of  them  at  ditit'erent  points,  thus:  Company  D 
was  sent  to  Atchison,  G  to  Shawnee,  and  L  to  Aubrey;  Com- 
panies B  and  H  guarded  Fort  Leavenworth ;  at  Leavenworth 
City,  A,  E  and  K  performed  provost  duty  besides  scouting  in 
the  border  counties  of  Missouri.  The  infamous  Quantrell,  Avith 
his  guerillas,  was  often  found  and  fought  by  them. 

September  13  six  companies  Avent  to  Indian  Creek,  in  south- 
west Missouri,  and  joined  the  command  of  General  Salomon.  In 
his  brigade  they  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Cane  Hill,  the  last 
of  November,  and  in  that  of  Prairie  Grove,  December  7th,  to  be 
described  hereafter.  Subsequently  tlicy  went  to  Cane  Hill  again, 
thence  to  Van  Buren  on  a  raid,  driving  out  a  Texas  regiment 
and  capturing  several  steamboats.  During  the  Avinter  of  1862-63 
they  Avere  a  part  of  the  time  at  Elm  Spring  ]\Iills,  and  ]\Iarma- 
duke  being  engaged  in  raiding  through  the  country,  they  Avere 
continually  on  the  alert  to  intercept  and  dislodge  him.  They 
Avere  noAV  in  Arkansas  and  then  in  ^Missouri,  on  short  marches 
and  on  long  ones — at  one  time  moving  from  Forsyth,  Missouri, 
to  Springfield,  256  miles,  in  four  days,  AA^thout  taking  forage 
or  rations.  June  22nd  they  Avere  separated  from  the  rest  of  the 
command  and  marched  to  Fort  Scott,  camping  there  July  5th, 
the  day  after  the  fall  of  Vicksburg. 

The  other  companies  of  the  regiments  B,  C,  H.  I  and  ]M,  in 
the  preceding  month  of  ]\Iay,  under  the  command  of  Captain 
Stout,  marched  to  Fort  Blunt,  in  the  Cherokee  Nation,  as  an 
escort  for  the  post  supply  train.  A  heavy  force  of  some  1,500 
Texans  and  Indians  under  the  rebel  general.  Cooper,  attacked 
them  on  the  30th  of  May,  Avhen  they  were  only  four  miles  from 
the  fort.  The  enemy  Avas  repulsed,  the  national  troops  losing 
five  men  killed  and  Avounded.    June  4th  they  again  set  out  from 


Fort  lUuiit  as  I'si-ort  lo  tlir  rcliiniiii^-  train,  and  un  the  2()th 
turned  about  as  escort  to  a  large  train  of  supplies  to  the  fort. 
At  Cabin  Creek,  on  the  27th.  the  ichd  General  Cooper  again 
attacked  them  with  a  nuich  snpcrior  force.  The  enemy,  however, 
were  (liixcn  lil'ls'  miles  across  the  Verdigris  river.  Reaching 
Fort  Hlunl  they  were  attached  to  the  Third  brigade,  army  of  the 
frontier,  .luly  16th  tlie}'  marched  soutli.  nndei-  tlie  lead  of  General 
Blunt.  The  next  day  they  had  a  battle  at  Honey  Springs,  where 
the  I'ebels  under  Coo])ei'  and  Stamlwaite  lost  numy  i)risoners 
anol  their  wiu)le  artillery.  Afterward  they  crossed  the  Arkansas 
river  aiul  i)ursued  the  enemy,  having  some  skirmishes,  and  on 
the  19tli  returned  to  Fort  Blunt  \\ith  tli<'  army. 

The  early  holder  warfare  led  to  the  formation  of  several 
Indian  regiments,  composed  in  general  of  the  arms-bearing 
refuges  among  the  Indians  that  could  be  obtained  for  the  service 
of  the  United  States.  The  Thii-d  AVisconsin  Cavalry  had  some 
connection  with  these  regiments,  i)articularly  the  Third,  wliieh 
was  recruited  on  the  frontier  of  .Missouri  and  Kansas,  ^ir.  F.  II. 
Ely,  of  the  Third  Wisconsin  Cavalry,  was  first  detailed  for  special 
service,  and  then  ordered  by  General  Blunt,  November  15,  1862,  to 
take  command  of  Company  G,  Third  Indian  Regiment,  as  first 
lieutenant.  The  First  Battalion  was  with  this  regiment  in  the 
battle  of  Honey  Springs,  or  Elk  Creek. 


This  regiment  was  originally  organized  as  the  Fourth  Regi- 
ment of  infantry  about  the  6th  of  June,  1861,  at  Camp  Utley,  Ra- 
cine. On  the  15th  day  of  July,  1861,  they  left  the  state  under 
orders  to  report  at  Baltimore,  ]\Id.,  where  they  arrived  on 
the  2:^rd.  After  detached  duty,  which  separated  the  companies 
i)f  the  regiment,  they  were  reunited  on  the  5th  of  August  and 
Avent  into  camp  thirty  miles  north  of  AVashington.  Here  they 
renmined  engaged  in  drill  until  the  4th  day  of  Novendx'r.  when 
the  regiment  took  part  in  an  expedition  on  the  eastern  shore  of 
Virginia  under  General  Lockwood.  wliiili  accomplished  no  result. 
Upon  its  return  the  regiment  Avas  plaeed  in  liari'acks  in  the  city 
of  Kaltimoi-e,  where  it  i-eniained  until  V'ebruary,  lS(i2.  It  was 
orch-red  on  board  of  transports  at  Newport  News,  Virginia,  and 
sailed  south  to  join  the  army  of  the  Gulf,  and  arrived  at  Ship 
Island,  ^Mississippi,  on  the  bilh  of  .March.  There  the  reginu'nt' 
was  assigned  to  the  Second  bi'iL;a<le  of  the  (inlf  department, 
lirig. -General  Thomas  Williams  connnantling.  Here  it  remained 
in  camp  until  the  16th  of  April,  and  on  that  day.  with  tlie  Fourth 


Wisconsin,  Sixth  Michigan  and  Twenty-first  Indiana  regiments, 
went  on  board  the  ship  Great  Republic,  which  was  the  next  day 
towed  by  Jackson  toward  the  Mississippi  river  and  anchored  off 
the  southwest  pass  to  await  the  action  of  the  fleet  which  had  gone 
up  the  river  to  attack  Forts  Jackson  and  St.  Phillips.    Here  they 
witnessed  in   the   distance    that    terrible    bombardment    whose 
lightnings  and  battle  clouds  filled  the  heavens  as  with  a  tempest. 
The  bombardment  opened  April  18th  under  Captain  Farragut. 
The  forts  were  damaged  but  before  being  captured  it  was  de- 
cided to  pass  them  and  go  on  to  New  Orleans,  which  was  done 
on  the  24th,  the  chain  boom  obstruction  over  the  river  having 
first  been  passed  and  the  rebel  fleets  silenced  and  the  guns  of  the 
forts  were  partially  silenced.     The  land  forces  were  ordered  to 
sail  around  by  a  more  shallow  passage  through  the  Bay  of  Ronde 
and  strike  the  river  in  the  rear  of  the  forts.     The  Fourth  Wis- 
consin was  transferred  from  the  Colorado  to  the  Great  Republic 
and  on  the  26th  started  with  other  troops  for  Sable  Island.     The 
expedition  was   successful   and   the   Fourth   Wisconsin   received 
high  praise  from  Gen.  Benjamin  F.  Butler,  who  was  in  command 
of  that  district.     On  the  29th  the  companies  of  the  Fourth  AA^is- 
consin  were  assembled  from  the  gunboats  and  in  connection  with 
the  Thirty-first   Massachusetts  Avere  the  first  troops  to  land  in 
New  Orleans.     With   colors  flying,  their  feet  keeping  time  to 
''Yankee  Doodle"  as  they  marched  to  the  custom  house  and  took 
forceable  possession,  the  Fourth  Wisconsin  occupying  principally 
the  post  office.    Here  it  remained  until  the  8tli  of  May,  perform- 
ing the  duty  of  provost  guard  in  the  city.    On  that  day  six  com- 
panies embarked  on  the  transport  Burton,  steamed  up  the  Mis- 
sissippi river  thirty-five  miles  and  landed  on  the  left  bank.    Just 
before  daylight  they  started  with  part   of  the   Sixth  Michigan 
for  the  Jackson  and   Mississippi   railroad   after   a   difficult   and 
dangerous   march   through    cypress    swamps   and    difficult   roads 
and  having  a  little  brush  with  the  outpost  of  the  enemy.    On  the 
18th  they  reached,  in  boats,  the  vicinity  of  Warrenton  at  5 :00 
in  the  afternoon  and  tied  up  at  that  place  in  sight  of  the  rebel 
works.     After  some  skirmishing  the  regiment  proceeded  on  the 
river  to  Baton  Rouge,  wdiere  it  landed  and  remained  until  the 
17th  of  June.     On  the  5th  of  June  General  AYilliam's  order  was 
issued  directing  the  commanders  to  turn  fugitive  slaves  out  of 
their  camps  and  keep  them  out.     Colonel  Paine  refused  to  obey 
this  order  and  was  placed  under  arrest.     Colonel  Paine  consid- 
ered that  by  turning  these  fugitives  out  that  he  was  violating 
the  act  of  congress  which  provided  an  officer  from  employing 


trooi)s  under  his  coiiiitiaiKl  to  return  fugitivL's  from  services  or 
labor  and  that  by  turning  them  away  from  the  protection  of 
these  troops  he  was  violating  that  act.  The  regiment  stood  by 
the  colonel  and  was  highly  indignant,  and  on  the  17th  of  June 
it  was  so  modified  that  he  again  assumed  connnand  and  the  regi- 
ment embarked  on  the  second  expedition  to  Vicksburg.  At  Grand 
Gulf  they  burned  every  building  and  in  the  night  embarked  for 
Vicksburg,  which  Avas  reached  on  the  2r)th.  Soon  after  the 
arrival  at  Vicksburg  it  was  decided  to  dig  a  canal  from  the 
jNIississippi  river  above  the  city,  the  neck  of  land  opposite  to  the 
river  below,  and  part  of  this  work  was  then  under  the  direction 
of  Captain  Bailey.  Negroes  Avere  conscripted  from  all  the  planta- 
tions along  the  river  for  this  work.  Jt  was  continued  up  until 
July  14th,  when,  owing  to  the  fearful  loss  of  life  from  disease 
contracted  in  the  low,  wet  ground,  the  Avork  Avas  abandoned  on 
July  14th.  On  that  same  day  Capt.  John  AV.  Lynn,  of  Company 
I,  AA'ith  tAventy  men,  tAvo  from  each  company,  crossed  to  the  fleet 
aboA'e  Vicksburg  and  Avent  on  board  the  gunboat  "Tyler,"  and 
the  next  morning  started  up  the  Yazoo  river  to  perform  the  duty 
of  sharpshooters.  AYIien  near  Old  River  the  rebel  ram  Arkansas 
Avas  met  and  the  Tyler  turned  about.  A  running  fight  folloAved 
on  th(>  ^lississippi  riA^er  in  Avhieli  the  ])rave  eaptaiu  and  five  men 
were  torn  to  ])ieces  by  a  sliell  and  six  others  AvoundiMJ.  The  ram 
ran  through  Poilei-'s  ii<'et  fo  Vicksburg.  The  Fourth  AVisconsin 
Avas  sent  undei-  flie  commaiul  of  ('()lon(4  Paine  to  the  ])oint  oppo- 
site the  toAvn  to  jorevent  the  crossing  of  the  rebels.  AVliile  here 
they  AAntnessed  the  bombardment  of  the  city  by  the  eomliined 
fleets  of  Farragut  and  Davis,  Avliieh  Avas  a  ttM'riI)le  scene.  Tlie 
regiment  steamed  doAvn  the  river  and  landed  at  Baton  Rouge  on 
the  26th  after  the  bombardment,  the  expedition  having  suffered 
much  from  disease,  and  on  the  31st  of  July  Colonel  Paine,  in 
obedience  to  ordei-s,  started  for  Ncav  Orleans  to  i'e]>ort  arrest  of 
General  Butler.  On  the  morning  of  August  ')1h  an  advance  Avas 
made  to  meet  ihc  confederates  under  General  Breckenridge,  avIio 
was  repulsed  Avith  great  loss.  Tn  this  battle  General  AVilliams 
w^as  killed  and  Colonel  Paine  Avas  sunnnonod  to  Ncav  Orleans 
by  General  l^utler  and  i)laced  in  command  to  return  to  Baton 
Rouge  and  burn  the  city  to  the  ground.  The  next  night  at  12:00 
o'clock  Colonel  Paine  reached  the  city,  found  that  the  rebels  liad 
retreated  and  fhat  fhe  federal  troops  had  changed  their  i)osition 
and  Avere  Avaiting  another  attack.  Colonel  Paine  held  the  city 
until  the  ITlli  of  August.  Avhen  he  received  information  from 
General  Butler  tliat  Batou  Rouge  Avould  be  again  attacked  on  the 


ISth  of  August.  The  Colonel  had  also  learned  the  same  thing 
from  his  scouts  and  was  prepared.  All  spare  baggage  was 
ordered  on  board  the  transport,  signals  were  arranged  for  by  day 
and  night,  all  state  prisoners  were  taken  to  the  boats  and  sent 
down  the  river.  On  the  18th  the  enemy  approached  the  works 
on  the  southeast  but  were  easily  repulsed  by  the  gunboats.  On 
the  19th  the  colonel  posted  notices  requiring  all  residents  to  leave 
the  city  on  the  following  day,  and  directed  that  the  buildings 
should  be  burned  on  the  20ih  unless  the  order  was  rescinded  by 
General  Butler.  Before  daylight  on  the  20th  an  order  was  re- 
ceived, dated  the  19th,  from  General  Butler,  rescinding  the  order 
to  burn  the  city.  The  town  was  thus  saved,  for  which  the  people 
of  Louisiana  may  be  forever  grateful  to  the  generous  heart  of 
Col.  Halbert  E.  Paine,  of  the  Fourth  Wisconsin.  On  tlie  21st  the 
city  was  evacuated.  The  regiment  did  some  service  at  different 
points  during  September,  October  and  November,  and  on  the 
19th  of  December  returned  to  Baton  Rouge,  Major  Boardman  in 
command.  The  regiment  afterwards  participated  in  that  famous 
siege  of  Fort  Hudson  and  lost  very  heavily.  It  had  been  con- 
verted into  a  cavalry  regiment  in  1863,  and  as  such  it  took  rank 
with  the  best  cavalry  regiments  in  the  service.  Most  of  its  serv- 
ice was  in  ^Missouri,  Louisiana  and  Tennessee,  and  at  the  close 
of  the  war  it  went  with  the  army  destined  for  Texas  and  served 
there  until  18G6.  The  Fourtli  had  a  longer  term  of  service  than 
any  other  regiment  sent  from  AYisconsin  to  the  war.  From  its 
ranks  there  came  four  generals :  Gen.  Harrison  Cubart,  Gen. 
0.  H.  LaGrange,  Gen.  Joseph  Bailey,  who  rendered  the  county 
great  service,  and  Gen.  Ilalbert  E.  Paine,  who  served  several 
terms  in  congress  and  held  various  positions  in  civil  life.  To 
have  served  in  the  bonny  Fourth  Wisconsin  was  an  honor  to 
any  man.  The  Fourth  had  as  colonels,  and  they  were  all  superb 
soldiers  and  officers,  Halbert  E.  Paine,  S.  A.  Bean,  Fred  E. 
Boardman,  Joseph  Bailey,  AVebster  Moore  and  N.  F.  Craigne. 
The  regiment  lost  in  battle  103,  and  from  disease  261.  It  was 
mustered  out  of  the  service  on  the  28th  of  Alay,  1866,  at  Browns- 
ville, jNIinnesota,  and  was  sent  to  Madison,  up  the  river,  arriving 
there  on  the  16th  of  June,  1866,  where  this  veteran  cavalry  regi- 
ment was  soon  afterward  paid  off  and  disbanded. 




A  carci'ul  scai-t-li  lia.s  been  iiuttlc  tliroiigli  .ill  ;i\ail;il)lo  rci-urils, 
including  the  report  of  the  adjutaiil  general  of  AViseonsin  for 
1865,  and  the  roster  of  AViseonsin  volunteers  published  by  author- 
ity of  the  legislature  in  1886;  we  have  endeavored  to  give  here 
as  accurate  a  list  as  is  ])()ssibl('  of  tlic  naiiic  of  e\ery  man  who 
volunteered  or  Avas  drafted  from  IMonroe  county  during  that 
great  struggle;  owing  to  the  similarit>'  in  names  of  towns  in  dif- 
ferent counties  some  confusion  has  resulted,  ])ut  llir  following 
roster  is  believ(>d  to  be  correct. 


Phillips.  AVilliam  •).,  Sparta;  second  lieutenanl  :  dii'd  Novem- 
ber 9,  1862,  of  wounds  received  at  Chalk  Bluft',  Ark. 

Company  "H" — Henry  J.  Crouch,  James  AA".  L(>wis,  Serenus  D. 
Lombard,  Lewis  Stanley,  all  of  Ontario. 


Geoi-ge  1).  Iliggins,  Sparta,  hospital  slcwai'd:  lliraiii  A.  I>run- 
dage,  S]iarta,  battalion  liospital  steward. 

Company  "A" — ('apt.  Jeremiah  D.  Dainuioii,  Sparta:  Cai)t. 
Robert  Carpenter,  Sparta;  See.  Lieut.  John  Davis,  Leon;  Allen, 
Levi,  Sparta;  Harkei".  rctci-  H..  Leon;  Harnes,  Seth,  Sparta; 
Benedick,  Origin  R.,  Glendale;  Bennett,  Benjamin  AV..  Sparta; 
Billings,  Frederick,  Spaita  ;  Blake,  Albn-i  .!..  Sparta  ;  Briggs, 
Charles,  Adrian:  Britton.  Ori'iii  A..  Sjjarta;  Kiundagc,  Hiram  A., 
Adrian;  Bullcn.  Px-njamin.  Sparta;  Bullcn,  -Jesse  \\.  Little  Falls; 
Bui-dick.  Alfred,  Sparta;  Buttei'tidd.  LaFayettc,  Sparta:  Cai'i-, 
AVilliam,  Sparta;  Carr.  A'ercUo.  Lilth'  P'alls:  Cliadscy.  .losepli, 
Leon;  Coi'iiisli,  -John  H..  Spaiia:  Critrliclt,  William  II.,  Sheldon; 
Crosby,  George  C,  Spai-ta:  Davis,  .losiah,  Sparta;  Decker,  Josej))! 
]\I.,  Adrian;  Delong,  AVilliam  A..  Aiigelo;  Dunlap.  James  F., 
Glendale;  Davis,  AVilliam,  Roaring  Creek;  Eddy,  Edgar,  Sparta; 



Farwell,  Corydoii  J..  Sparta  ;  Finnell,  Joseph,  Sparta ;  Foot,  Wil- 
liam R.,  LaFayette ;  Fullagar,  Benjamin,  LaFayette ;  Gates, 
Charles  F..  Sparta ;  Gilbert,  Thomas,  Athens ;  Gilson,  Clark, 
Adrian;  Gordon,  Oscar  L.,  AVellington;  Green,  Manson  L.,  Glen- 
dale  ;  Grnmons,  John.  Leon ;  Harris,  Lewis  P.,  Little  Falls ;  Hen- 
derson. William,  Leon;  Hettman,  Fredric  C,  Sparta;  Hill,  John, 
Eaton;  Hill.  Simeon,  Eaton;  Hodgkins,  George  C,  Sparta;  Hogue, 
Hugh  T.,  Sparta ;  Hohn,  Reuben,  Leon ;  Ilollenbeek,  Henry  D., 
Sparta;  Hoover,  Ancill  B..  AVellington ;  Houghtaling,  John,  Well- 
ington ;  Howland.  Herman,  Sparta  :  Hubbard,  Ozro  W.,  Sparta ; 
Hubbard,  Charles  F..  Sparta ;  Hull.  Joseph  C..  Sparta ;  Hubbard, 
Watts  AY..  Sparta;  Johnson.  Thomas,  Sparta;  Johnson,  Frederick 
H.,  Adrian ;  Kidney,  Albert  J.  H.,  Sparta ;  LaBare,  Charles, 
Sparta ;  Lawrence,  Robert.  Sparta ;  Logan,  Samuel  M.,  Sparta ; 
McGary,  Thomas,  Ridgeville ;  McNab,  Daniel,  Sparta ;  McNab, 
James  S..  Roaring  Creek;  McMillan,  AVilliam  F.,  Sparta;  Mc- 
Queen, Samuel,  Glendale ;  McAA'ithy,  Lucian  A.,  Sparta ;  Mc- 
Withy,  Henry  E..  Sparta;  Meadows.  Thomas  E.,  Portland;  Mead- 
ows, AVilliam  H.,  Sparta;  Meadows,  Charles  W.,  Leon;  Peters, 
Nelson,  Adrian ;  Peters,  Timothy,  Angelo ;  Peters,  Munson,  Ad- 
rian; Pierce,  Austin,  Sparta;  Pierce,  Martin,  Sparta;  Putnam, 
Charles,  Leon;  Pain,  John,  Roaring  Creek;  Rawson,  Lucian  M., 
AVilton ;  Russell,  Andrew,  Sparta ;  Seeley,  Boyd  F.,  Athens ; 
Smith,  John  J.,  Leon ;  Snow,  Jonathan,  Leon ;  Snyder,  Abram  C. 
Sparta ;  Starkweather,  Hiram,  Sparta ;  Steward,  Henry  E.,  Ad- 
rian ;  Thorp.  Adelbert  D.,  Glendale ;  Thorp,  Charles  R.,  Sparta  ; 
Tower,  Alartin  V.  B.,  Clifton:  Underwood,  Horace  H.,  Portland; 
Walrath,  John  J.,  Sparta;  AVaste,  James,  Sparta;  AYest,  Francis 
D.,  Sparta;  AViseman,  Augustus.  Athens;  AYensel.  AYilliam  J., 
Roaring  Creek ;  Youmans,  Samuel  J.,  Leon. 

Company  "K" — Hohn,  Elmore,  Sparta;  Riggs.  Andrew, 
Sparta ;  Stegmann,  Conrad,  Portland ;  AYalter,  Charles,  Port- 
land ;  Zoelle.  A^alentine,  Portland. 

The  Third  AYisconsin  cavalry  was  reorganized  in  1864  and  a 
large  number  of  IMonroe  County  men  re-enlisted.  All  from  origi- 
nal Company  '"A":  Barker,  Peter  R.,  Leon;  Billings,  Fredrick, 
Sparta;  Blake,  Albert  J.,  Sparta;  Butterfield,  LaFayette,  Sparta; 
Chadsey.  Joseph,  Leon ;  Farwell,  Corydon,  J..  Sparta ;  Gates, 
Charles  F.,  Sparta;  Gilbert,  Thomas,  Athens;  Grummons,  John, 
Leon;  Hollenbeck ,  Henry  D.,  Sparta;  Howland,  Herman,  Sparta; 
Hubbard,  Charles  B.,  Sparta ;  Hubbard,  AYatts  AY.,  Sparta ;  John- 
son, Fredrick  H.,  Adrian ;  Kidney,  Albert  J.  H.,  Sparta ;  LaBare, 
Charles,  Sparta;  McMillan,  Wm.  F.,  Sparta;  McQueen,  Samuel, 

118  HISTORY  OF  :moxrop:  county 

Glendak' ;  ^Meadows,  "William  IT.,  Sparta ;  ^Meadows,  Edward  T., 
Portland;  ^Meadows,  Charles  AV.,  Leon;  Niehols,  Joseph,  Green- 
field ;  Paine,  John,  Roaring  Creek ;  Peters,  Nelson,  Adrian ;  See- 
ley,  Boyd  F.,  Athens:  Thorp.  Cliarles  R.,  Sparta;  Tower,  ]\Iartin 
V.  B.,  Clifton;  AVabrath,  John  J..  Sparta;  "Wiseman,  Augustus, 


Theodore  AV.  Gillett.  eonnnissary,  Tomah;  sergeant  majors, 
IMyron  P.  Chase,  Sparta,  second  lieutenant  Company  "I,"  June 
24,  1863 ;  Daniel  A.  Kenyon.  Tomah :  saddler  sergeant,  Rufus  A. 
Roliertson,  Sparta. 

Company  "A" — Farnswortli,  James  F>..  Tomah.  captain,  Au- 
gust 22,  1865;  made  ma.jor  June  18,  1866;  Alton,  ^Michael  C,  Ad- 
rian; Ayres,  Anson,  Angelo;  Bacon,  Amos,  Leon;  Baker,  George 
R.,  Tomah;  Batis,  IMathis,  Tomah;  Beekwith.  Joseph,  Sparta; 
Boyle,  John,  AVilton;  Childs,  Clinton  D.,  Sparta;  Cray,  Parman. 
Sparta;  English,  Isaac,  Tomah;  Getman,  Hiram,  Lincoln;  Get- 
man,  Lorenzo.  Lincoln ;  Gleason,  Emanuel  P.,  LaFayette ;  Haynes, 
Sanford  A.,  Leon ;  Jackson,  AVilliam  S.,  Tomah ;  Knight,  Charles 
A.,  Tomah  ;  Kerr,  Alexander,  Tomah  ;  Putnam,  Lucius  AL,  Sparta  : 
Ralston,  AVilliam  H.,  LaFayette;  Roberts,  AVilmot,  Sparta;  Root, 
Jason,  Tomah;  Seeley,  David  A.,  Sparta;  Skinner,  John  B.,  Port- 
land; Smith.  John,  Adrian;  Twiner,  Jonathan  F.,  Adrian;  Van 
Kirk,  John  II.,  Sparta;  AYalker,  Joseph  A.,  Ontario;  AYeed,  AYil- 
liam  D.,  Tomah;  AYheeler,  John  AA".,  Sparta. 

Company  "C" — Baker.  Hugh,  Sparta,  second  lieutenant,  June 
18,  1866. 

Company  ''D"— Lock,  Henry  F.,  Sparta,  from  Co.  "I"  Yoi. 
Corp;  McLain,  Eleazer  P.,  Sparta;  from  Co.  "I"  A^et.  Corp:  AVal- 
worth,  Ilartwell  C.,  Tomah,  from  Co.  "T"  A^^t.  Corp. 

Company  "E" — Capt.  Joseph  Hall,  Tomah. 

Company  ''I" — John  AA^.  Lynn,  captain,  Sparta;  Levi  R. 
Blake,  captain,  Sparta ;  Capt.  Daniel  G.  Jewett,  Sparta ;  Capt. 
Jas.  B.  Farn.sworth.  Tomah;  First  Lieut.  ]\Iyron  P.  Chas,  Sparta: 
See.  Lieut.  Ansyl  A.  AYest,  Sparta;  Alger,  Josiah,  Leon;  Alton, 
]\Iichael  C.,  Adrian,  transferred  to  Co.  "A"';  Ayers.  Anson,  An- 
gelo ;  Ayres,  Albert,  Leon ;  Bacon,  Amos,  Leon ;  Baker,  Cliarles, 
Ridgeville.  transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Baker,  Hugh,  Ridgeville, 
transferred  to  Co.  "C";  Baker,  George  R.,  Tomah.  transferred 
to  Co.  "A";  Beekwith,  Joseph,  Sparta;  transferred  to  Co.  ''A"; 
Beardsley,  George  L.,  Tomah ;  Blake,  Albert  IL,  Sparta,  trans- 
ferred to  20th  Inf. ;  Bloss,  Charles,  Greenfield,  transferred  to  Co. 


''A";  Boring,  LaFayette,  Ontario;  Boyle,  John,  Wilton,  trans- 
ferred to  Co.  "A";  Brist,  Mandly  ^Y.,  AVilton ;  Bush,  Wm.  J., 
Tomah ;  Chandler,  John  L.,  Greenfield;  Cole,  John  N.,  Cataract; 
Gray,  Parkman,  Sparta,  transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Davidson,  Jo- 
seph H.,  Leon;  English,  Isaac,  Tomah;  Farley,  AVilliara  E., 
Sparta;  Getman,  Lorenzo,  Lincoln,  transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Get- 
man,  Hiram,  Lincoln,  transferred  to  Co.  ''A";  Gillett,  Theo.  W., 
Tomah;  Gilson,  William,  Tomah;  Gleason,  Emanuel  P.,  LaFay- 
ette, transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Graham,  Miller,  Sheldon;  Green- 
man,  James,  Wilton ;  Grenzo,  John,  Wilton ;  Hall,  Joseph,  Tomah, 
first  lieutenant,  May  30,  1864;  Hall,  Benjamin  F.,  Sparta;  Hall, 
Archibald  G.,  Leon;  Hall,  Joseph  R.,  Leon;  Haynes,  Sanford  A., 
Tomah;  transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Hill,  Jacob,  Sparta;  Hodgkins, 
Edward  I.,  Sparta ;  Hubbard,  Charles  S.,  AA^ilton,  transferred  to 
Co.  "A";  Hull,  Edward,  Sparta;  Jackson,  William  S.,  Tomah, 
transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Jewell,  Isaac,  Roaring  Creek;  Johnston, 
Clayton  M.,  Tomah;  Jones,  Ransom,  Sparta;  Kennedy,  John, 
Sparta;  Kerr,  Alexander,  Tomah,  transferred  to  Co.  "A"; 
Knight,  Charles  A.,  Tomah,  transferred  to  Co.  ''A";  Large, 
Jacob  I.,  Tomah;  Matteson,  John  P.,  Cataract;  McClure,  John  B., 
Sparta;  McLain,  Eleazor  P..  Cataract,  transferred  to  Co.  "D"; 
Meadows,  William  C,  Sparta ;  Osborn,  George  I.,  Sparta,  trans- 
ferred to  Co.  ''C";  Pangburn,  William,  Sparta;  Perry,  John  T., 
Roaring  Creek;  Putnam,  Lucius  M.,  Sparta,  transferred  to  Co. 
"A";  Ralston,  AYilliam  H.,  LaFayette;  Rathbun,  Dewey,  Leon; 
Rice,  Wellington,  Ridgeville ;  Robertson,  Rufus  A.,  Sparta ;  Rock- 
wood,  James  H.,  Leon ;  Rockwood,  Theodore  H.,  Adrian ;  Root, 
Jason,  Tomah,  transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Smith,  John,  Adrian, 
transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Spaulding,  Charles  D.,  Tomah;  Skinner, 
John  B.,  Portland;  transferred  to  Co.  "A";  Tolles,  William, 
Wilton,  transferred  to  Co.  ^'A";  Turner,  Jonathan  F.,  Adrian, 
transferred  to  Co.  '^A";  Van  Arnum,  LaFayette,  Cataract;  Van 
Kirk,  John,  Angelo ;  Walker,  Harlow  S.,  Cataract ;  Weed,  Wil- 
liam D.,  Tomah ;  Yoemans,  W^illiam  H.,  Sparta ;  Yoemans,  James 
H.,  Sparta. 

Company  "L" — Capt.  Joseph  Hall,  Tomah. 


Babcock,  Oscar,  Tunnel  City;  Buzzell,  Charles  C,  Sparta; 
Carvar,  Nelson,  Wilton ;  Clark,  John,  Clifton ;  Green,  Frank  L., 
Sparta ;  Harper,  Peter,  Sparta ;  Hayward,  Pliny  P.,  Sparta ;  Her- 
rick,  George  L.,  Sparta ;  Hodgkins,  Edward  I.,  Sparta ;  Hoyt, 
Samuel,   Sparta ;  Joseph,   Charles,  Lincoln ;   Ledyard,   Nathaniel 


D.,  Sparta;  ^McCabe,  John,  Sparta;  ]\lelntyre,  Charles, 
Sparta;  Middaugh,  Charleston  E.,  Sparta;  Milligan,  .Joseph 
G.,  Sparta;  Murphy,  William,  Cataract;  Pangborn,  Hiram 
L.,  Sparta;  Powell,  ]\lilton  E.,  Sparta;  Randless,  James 
W.,  Wilton;  Rathbun,  Ilallett.  I.eon;  Rathlmn,  AVilliam  A., 
Jefferson;  Rice,  Benjamin  \V..  Oakdale ;  Smith,  Gilbert,  AVilton ; 
Sowle,  Albert  AY.,  Wilton;  Smnmcrfield,  William  A.,  Sparta, 
transferred  to  Company  1,  II.  A.;  Thrall,  Joim,  Sparta;  AVhita- 
ker,  Samnel,  Wilton;  Williams,  Jay  "VV.,  Sparta;  AYoodbridge. 
Charles  B.,  Tunnel  City. 


Junior  Sccojul  Lieul.  Henry  A.  Hicks,  Glendale;  ]\Iinets, 
Nelson,  Clifton. 


Company  "E" — Ackerman,  James  0.  Byron;  Adelmeyer, 
John  II.,  Leroy ;  Bates,  Butler  H.,  Leroy ;  Blanchard,  p]dmund  L., 
Leroy;  Braman,  James  II.,  Byron ;  AVeyranch,  Conrad,  Lincoln. 

Company  ''F"— Bashford,  Frank  AY.,  Clifton:  BroAvn,  Will- 
iam C.  Clifton  ;  Cook,  George,  Clifton";  Ellis,  Leroy,  Clifton. 


Company  "B" — Andre,  John.  Lineolii;  Brown,  Christoplu'r. 
Portland;  Dehvick,   Eugene,   Lincoln;   Erickson,  Lars,   Portland. 

Company  "II" — Aney,  John  J.,  Ridgeville;  Ballamore.  James, 
Sparta ;  Combert,  James,  Sparta ;  Cottrill,  Stephen.  Sparta ; 
Downing,  George  AY.,  Sparta;  Downey,  Charles  H.,  Sparta;  Dunn, 
George  AY.,  Sparta;  Hancock,  George  AV..  Sjjarta :  Harding. 
Charles,  Sparta;  AVilliams,  James  P.,  Ontario;  AYeston.  Charles 
B.,  Ontario. 

Company  "I" — ('apt.  Leonard  Johnson,  Glendale:  Boldcn, 
AYilliam  L.,  Ontario;  Boughton,  Lewis  AL,  Tomah :  Brigliam,  John 
M.,  Glendale;  Davis,  Lawson,  Glendale:  Briggs,  Job  S.,  Glendale. 
afterwai'd  second  lietuenant  Forty-eighth  Wisconsin  Infantry: 
Graham,  Larneck,  Tomah;  Green.  Chester  A.,  Glendale;  Har- 
land,  John,  Glendale;  Johnson,  AYilliam  II.,  Sparta;  Newton, 
Thomas,  Glendale;  Robbins.  George,  Glendale;  Rockwell.  Eli, 
Sparta;   Staker,  James  A.,  Sparta;  AYarner,  A^'alentine,  Sparta. 

Company  "K" — Andress,  Alonzo  L.,  Tunnel  City;  Conway, 
Thomas,  Lincoln;  Cuimnings,  Daniel,  Sparta:  Dowing,  George 
AY.,  Sparta,  from  Company  "IT":  Hancock,  AVilliam  D.,  Clifton; 


Revels,  William  J.,  Sparta;  Revels,  Henry,  Sparta;  Roli'e,  Albert 
H.,  Sparta;  Taylor,  Charles  M.,  Tomah ;  A^nn  AVie,  David  C, 
LaFayette ;  AVilliams,  Jured.  Ontario. 


Cullow,  Edward.  Tomah;  Culver,  Charles  A.,  Sparta;  Element, 
Frank,  Clifton;  Grimes,  James,  LaFayette;  Kelso,  Evans  P., 
Sparta  ;  Stalker,  Clinton  L.,  Sparta. 


Col.  AYilliani  W.  Robinson,  Sparta,  lieutenant  colonel,  August 
15,  1861  ;  colonel.  January  30,  1862. 

Company  "A" — Culver,  AVilliam  P.,  Lincoln;  Kitts,  Edward, 
Leroy;  AYalrod,  Jonathan,  Portland. 

Company  ''B" — Barman.  AVilliam  AV.,  Tomah;  l^lowers.  John 
J.,  Tomah. 

Company  ''E" — Robinson,  AVilliam  AV.,  Sparta;  Spooner, 
Edward  J.,  Lincoln. 

Company  "I'' — Capt.  Edward  Terrell,  Leon;  Birdsall,  David, 
Leon;  Perkins,  Hugh,  Leon;  AVilliams,  George  AV.,  Leon;  AVill- 
iams,  Byron  S.,  Leon. 


Kavanaugh,  Patrick,  Kendall. 


Company  "D'" — Aney,  James  P.,  Ridgeville,  from  Company 
"I";  Hall,  AVilliam  G.,  Sparta;  Parker,  Adelbert.  Sparta. 
Company  "I" — AA'^orden,  Henry  D..  AVilton. 


Company  "D" — Shaffer,  AVilliam  Henry,  Sparta. 

Company  "G" — Carnahan.  Archibald,  Sparta;  Carnahan, 
Andrew,  Sparta,  transferred  to  Twenty-first  AA'isconsin;  Lane, 
George,  Jefferson;  Lane,  Jobe,  Sparta. 

Company  "II" — Beardsley.  Everett  AV..  Tomah;  Bigelow, 
Hiram  0.,  Lincoln ;  Church,  Orange,  Lincoln ;  Corey,  Phillip, 
Greenfield ;  Deyotell,  John,  Tomah ;  Gee,  Charles  C,  Sparta  ;  Gor- 
man, Aaron  H.,  Tomah;  Harding,  AVilliam,  Sparta;  Harp.  AVill- 
iam, Lincoln ;  Harp,  Jacob,  Tomah ;  Haywood,  Joel,  Tomah ; 
Hogue,  Charles  P.,  Sparta ;  AleClure,  Samuel,  Tomah ;  AIcGinniss, 
Joseph,  Greenfield ;  Rockwood,  Delorama,  Tomah ;  Spaulding, 
Henry  C,  Tomah ;  Spooner,  Charles  AV.,  Tomah  ;  Thomas,  Alelvin 


G.,    Lincoln;    Thompson,    Dwiglit,    Tuniali;    AVeaver,    lliiaiu    O., 

Company  "K" — Calhoun,  John,  Byron;  Dow,  Loren,  AVilton; 
Gibbs,  Albci't,  Byron;  Graves,  Russell  C.,  Leroy;  Hatch,  Charles, 


Company  "E" — Bai-hcr.  IIuIxtI,  AVilton;  Beaumont.  Georore. 
Kendall;  Carr,  xXndi-ew,  Kendall;  Dain,  .James  AI.,  Kendall; 
Doyle,  John,  Kendall ;  Gugerty,  William  A.,  Kendall ;  Alarr, 
Andrew,  Kendall ;  ]\Iurphy,  Dennis  AV.,  Kendall ;  Shea,  Edward, 

Company  "F" — Carver,  Austin,  Wilton;  Early,  Jobn,  Green- 

Company  '"G"^ — -James,  Joseph,  Portland. 

Company  "H "-^Chamberlain.  Thomas,  Lincoln;  Hancock, 
Thomas  IL.  Tomali;  ITollenback,  Charles,  Lincoln. 


Company  ''D" — Bass,  Charles  H.,  Tomah;  Birdsell.  John, 
Sparta;  Braman,  Edward  F.,  Tomah;  Broughton,  Timothy  B., 
Tomah;  Cleveland,  Daniel  F.,  Tomah,  from  Company  "D," 
Twenty-fifth  Infantry;  Darwin,  Samuel  N.,  Sparta;  Haskins, 
Nathaniel,  Sparta;  Matchett,  James,  Sparta;  Peterson,  Christo- 
pher, Tomah;  Parshall.  AVilliam  H.  II.,  Sparta;  Purcell.  Walli-r 
\V.,  Tonudi,  from  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry;  Put- 
man,  Charles  IL.  Sparta,  from  Comi)any  "D."  Twenty-Hfth  Infan- 
try; Richardson,  Perry,  Glendale;  Scott,  Leonard,  Sparta,  from 
Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry;  Tuthell,  Jobn,  Sparta, 
from  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry;  Trowlridge,  George 
M.,  Tomah,  from  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry;  Yan 
Kirk.  .Icrciiiiali.  Sparta;  Yaughn,  Ilanisou  II..  Tomah. 

Company  ''E" — Livingston,  James,  Roaring  Creek,  from 
Company  "F,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry. 

Ct)mpany  "H," — Rogers.  Jacob.  Tomah. 

Company  "I" — Griffin.  Charles.  Tomab. 

Com]iany  "K" — Xicols,  John,  Kendall,  from  Comi)any  "E, "' 
Tweiily-liflb  Infant I'y. 


Company  "D" — Harrison.  William  L.,  Greenfield;  Sour, 
Daniel  IL,  Sparta. 

Company  "I'' — Reedei".  George  AV..  Spai-ta. 



Company  "H"" — Seeond  Lieut.  Martin  A.  Erickson,  Sparta. 
Recruits  Not  on  Any  Company  Roll — Ole  Olson.  Toniah. 


Company  "C" — Kelly,  Jeremiah,  Glendale,  from  Company 
"F,"  V.  C. ;  Lyman,  Jeremiah,  Glendale  ;  Pearsoll,  James  I.,  Glen- 
dale ;  Rowin,  Robert,  Glendale,  from  Company  "F";  Saddoris, 
Samuel,  Summit,  from  Company  "F";  Teed,  Truman,  Glendale. 

Company  "D" — Lloyd,  Silas,  Portland,  transferred  to  Com- 
pany "E";  AYalrod,  Michael,  Portland. 

Company  "E"— McDougal,  Fredrick  E.,  Tomah. 

Company  "F" — Birdsill.  George,  Glendale;  Boughtou,  Tim- 
othy, Glendale ;  Hancock,  Wallace  B.,  Clifton ;  Douglas,  Richard 
A.,  Glendale ;  Teed  Truman,  Glendale ;  ]Morse.  Anthony,  Lincoln ; 
Palmer,  Sylvester  C,  Lincoln;  Winegar,  William,  Lincoln. 


Company  '"B" — Nelson,  Andrew  A.,  Portland. 
Company     "H" — Thompson.     Alexander,     Sparta;     Wilcox, 
Martin.  LaFayette. 


Sergt.  Maj.  Edwin  L.  Bolton.  Tomah,  from  Company  '"E." 

Company  "A'' — Bannigan,  William,  Tomah;  Miller,  Joseph, 

Company  "B'' — Claigg,  Ilospild,  Kendall;  Okes,  Charles, 

Company  "PI" — Reddelin,  John,  Ridge ville. 


James  Delaney,  chaplain,  Sparta ;  Hosp.  StCAvard,  Luther  B. 
Noyes,  Sparta. 

Company  ''C" — Carpenter,  John,  Jefferson;  Frazer,  Elijah 
S.,  Jefferson;  Herron,  John.  Jeft'erson :  Rodgers,  JMerrick, 

Company  "D" — Capt.  George  A.  Fisk,  Sparta;  First  Lieut. 
Dewitt  C.  AVilson,  Sparta;  Austin,  Palmer,  Sparta;  Beach, 
Arunah  J.,  Angelo ;  Beach,  Henry,  Angelo ;  Birgal,  Francis,  Cata- 
ract; Brown,  Jesse,  Angelo;  Bugbee,  Lanson  L.,  Cataract;  Camp- 
bell,   George,   Angelo ;    Comstock,   Ambrose   L.,    Leon ;    Crocker, 

124  IlISTORV  OK  :\I()NK01':  corxTY 

Ephrain,  Eaton;  Culver,  Nathan,  Ontario,  transforrcd  to  Cnni- 
pany  "K":  Dnstin,  John  P.,  Cataract;  Earr,  Li'rov  II..  Cataract; 
Einncl,  .James,  Ontario;  Freeman,  Select,  Sparta;  Gary,  John, 
Sparta;  (h-oss,  John,  Sparta,  transferred  to  Company  "K";  Iler- 
rick,  Lotin  C.,  Sparta;  Hill,  Oscar  A.,  Sparta:  Hoard.  Ziha.  Cata- 
ract; Humphrey,  John,  Sparta;  Jewell,  Jolm  I)..  Sparta,  trans- 
ferred to  Company  "K";  Landon,  Lewis,  Cataract;  Lang,  Daniel 
II..  Wellington,  transferred  to  Company  "K";  Lathrop,  Alfred 
H.,  Tomali;  Lowe.  AVilliam  IT.,  Greenfield,  transferred  to  Com- 
pany '*K";  ]\Iaguire,  Thomas,  Sparta;  Maila,  Charles.  Ontario; 
^Mathews,  Albert  C,  Cataract;  McKay,  Sheldon,  Cataract; 
]Merriam.  Enos  S.,  Sparta;  Merriam,  Charles  W..  Sjjarta ; 
^Mitchell,  DeLos  AV.,  -leffersou;  ]\Iooney,  James,  Sheldon; 
]\Iott,  Theodore,  Portland;  Noyes,  Luther  P.,  Sparta, 
promoted  to  hospital  stewainl.  1861 ;  Osborn,  James,  Sr., 
Leon;  Osborn,  James,  Jr..  Leon;  Pierce.  Henry.  Adrian;  Phelps. 
Henry  J.,  Ontario;  Purdy,  Owen  W..  LaFayette ;  Rathbun.  Dewey, 
Leon;  Eathbun,  Charles.  Leon;  Remington.  George,  Rockland; 
Riggs.  Andrew,  Leon ;  Ring,  Alonzo,  Sparta ;  Robinson,  John, 
Sparta;  Robinson,  AVilliam,  Sparta;  Rowley,  Henry  ]M.,  Ontario; 
Sanderlin,  Isaac  S.,  Greenfield,  transferred  to  Company  '"K": 
Sayles.  William  IT..  Sj^arta  ;  Seepiy.  Edward.  Cataract;  Sheldon. 
Joshua  AV.,  Sheldon;  Smith.  Amisa,  Angelo  ;  Sprout.  Cummings. 
N.,  Cataract;  Stacy,  Norman  B. ;  LaFayette;  Stetson,  James  ]\I., 
LaFayette;  Stratton,  Josiah,  Sparta;  Stewart,  Alilton  AI..  Sparta; 
Teague,  Isaac,  Sparta;  Towiisend.  AValdron.  Jefferson;  ToAvn- 
send.  Jonathjin.  Jefferson;  AVilson.  High  C.,  Eaton;  AVinter,  John, 
Cataract;  AA^oodford,  Thomas,  Cataract;  AVheeler,  John  E..  Ridge- 
ville;  Youmans,  AA^illiam.  Angelo. 

Comi)any  "K'' — Jewell.  John  D..  Sjiarta.  from  Company ''D": 
Kapi)ing.  Christian.  Eaton;  Lown,  William  II..  (Jreenfield,  from 
Company  '"D";  Lang,  Daniel  H.,  AVellington,  from  Company 
"D";  Danderlin.  Isaac  S.,  Greenfield,  from  Company  *'D." 


Q.  ]\I.  Sergt.  AVilliaiii  11.  Plyton,  Sparta;  Com.  Sergt.  Galusha 
B.  Field,  Synirta  :  i'rin.  Musician  Willinni  Ken-igan.  Sparta.  tVoiii 
Company  "('.'" 

( 'omjiany  "A" — Lee,  li\  run  1>..  Spai'ta  ;  SheiMdan.  -Tames.  Leon, 
from  Company  "G." 

Company  ••("' — Capt.  .John  A.  Chaiullei-.  Sjiaiia;  Capl.  Alonzo 
H.  Russell,  Sparta;  First  Lieut.  AVilliam  R.  V.  Erisby,  Sparta; 
Allen,  James  ^L,  Eaton;  Ashton,  John,  Sparta;  Austin,  AVilliam 


G.,  Sparta ;  Barber,  George  II.,  Sparta ;  Beardsley,  George  W., 
Sparta;  Bingham,  Henry  S.,  Sparta;  Bloom,  Henry  J.,  Sparta; 
Blyton.  Thomas  W.,  Leon;  Blyton,  Charles  "W.,  Sparta;  Branden- 
stein,  John,  Ridgeville ;  Bremer,  Charles,  Sparta ;  Brist,  William, 
Sparta ;  Bullen,  Samuel  T.,  Sparta ;  Campbell,  Eleazor  J.,  Sparta ; 
Chamley,  William,  Sparta;  Close,  W^esley  J.,  Sparta;  Commons, 
James,  Sparta ;  Cottinger,  John,  Sparta ;  Coon,  Caleb,  Sparta ; 
Cutland,  Phillip,  Sparta;  Draper,  John,  Sparta;  Draper,  Thomas, 
Jefferson;  Fields,  Gakisha  B.,  Sparta,  promoted  to  commanding 
sergeant;  Garden,  Daniel,  Leon;  Gates,  ]\Ielvill  B.,  Sparta;  Gross, 
Henry.  Sparta,  transferred  to  V.  R.  C. ;  Hall,  Horace,  Sparta; 
Gross,  John  P.,  Jefferson;  Hartwell,  William  H.,  Sparta;  Hen- 
shell,  William  H.  I.,  Sparta ;  Hill,  Eber  B.,  Sparta  ;  Howard,  David 
H.,  Sparta ;  Hurlbut,  Albert  H.,  Sparta ;  Hutchins,  Sylvester, 
Sparta ;  Jonas,  Elias,  Leon ;  Jones,  Thomas,  Leon ;  Jones,  John 
W.,  Sparta;  Lovell,  Abijah  J.,  Eaton;  Lynn,  James  H.,  Sparta; 
McDougal,  Alexander,  Sparta;,  McGary,  Henry,  Ridgeville; 
McPheters,  Alexander,  Leon  ;  Moore,  Horace  J.,  Sparta ;  Murray, 
Christopher,  Sparta ;  Nichols,  Joseph,  Sparta ;  Nolan,  Andrew, 
Ridgeville;  Paugburn,  Francis  S.,  LaFayette;  Payne,  Nelson, 
Sparta;  Perkins,  John  B.,  LaFayette;  Pierce,  Alfred,  Sparta; 
Pameroy,  Erastus,  Sparta ;  Potter,  Joseph  AV.,  Sparta ;  Potter, 
Jasper,  Sparta ;  Preston,  Taylor,  Sparta ;  Premo,  Lewis,  Lincoln ; 
Rath,  Henry  A.,  Ridgeville ;  Rathbun,  Edward  C,  Sparta  ;  Rath- 
bun,  Edmund,  Sparta;  Ross,  Elisha,  Leon;  Sanderlin,  John, 
Sparta;  Schmitz,  AVilliam,  Jefferson;  Sherwood,  ]\Iartin.  Ridge- 
ville; Shepherd,  George  A.,  Sparta;  Shepherd,  AA^illiam,  Angelo; 
Shepherd,  George  AV.,  Angelo ;  Sheridan,  James,  Sparta,  from 
Company  "F";  Snow,  Jaspar  E.,  Sparta,  from  second  lieutenant; 
Steward,  James,  Sparta ;  Suckam,  Edward,  Sparta ;  Swift,  Lucian, 
Sparta;  Swift,  Cola,  Sparta;  Utter,  Benjamin  F.,  Leon;  AValter, 
Michael,  Cataract ;  Warner,  Samuel  W.,  Sparta ;  AVhitelesly, 
George  M.,  Jefferson ;  AVitting,  John,  Sparta ;  AVoodliff,  John, 
Sparta ;  AVruk,  Christian,  Sparta ;  Ziegler,  Caspar,  Ridgeville. 

Company  "D" — Allendorf,  Peter.  Angelo;  Clifford.  Charles 
C,  Sparta,  from  Company  "G";  Cooper,  Silas  J.,  Sheldon;  Hol- 
lenbeck,  AA^illiam  A.,  Lincoln,  from  Company  "G";  Hoskins, 
Marvin,  Lincoln,  from  Company  "G";  Hubbard,  Richard,  Ridge- 
ville ;  Mallory,  Rodney  D.,  Lincoln ;  Meyer,  Christian,  Ridgeville, 
from  Company  "G";  Robson,  John,  Leon,  from  Company  "G"; 
Sabls,  Charles  F..  Leon;  Shanklin.  Ridgeville,  from  Company 
"G";  Sherwin,  Bissels,  Angelo;  AVilson,  Roger  J.,  Leon,  from 
Company  "G." 


rompany  ''£"— Tuttlc,   Ezra.  AVclliiicrtnn. 

Company  "G" — Crane,  Ohadiali.  Lincoln;  Cnlvcr.  T^nke, 
Byron;  Hettman,  Jacol)  R.,  Ridgcvillc;  Ilaskins.  Varvin  Ji.,  Lin- 
coln, transferred  to  Company  "D";  Hollenbeek.  AVilliam  A.,  Lin- 
coln, transferred  to  Company  "D";  ileyer,  Cliristian.  Rid<;eviile, 
transferred  to  Company  "D";  Vanghan,  George  \V..  Byron; 
Vaughan,  Ira  \\^.  iJyroii:  Wilson,  Addison,  Lincoln;  AVilson, 
Roger  J.,  Leon. 

Company  "K" — Bist,  AVilliam.  Sparta,  transferred  to  Com- 
pany "C";  Close,  AVilsey  J.,  Sparta,  transferred  to  Company 
"C";  Hazelton,  James  A.,  Sparta:  Hill.  Alher  B.,  Sparta,  trans- 
ferred to  Company  "'('." 

Recruits  Not  on  Comjiaiiy  Roll — Pick.  AVilliam  II..  Sparta. 


Company  "A" — Babcock.  Ralph  \V..  Tomali;  Chandler,  Jere- 
miah I).,  Tnnnel  City. 

Company  "F" — First  Lieut.  Albert  H.  Blake,  Sparta;  Dego- 
tell,  Abraham,  Lincoln;  Degotell.  AVilliam,  Lincoln;  Duggan, 
James,  Greenfield;  Durant.  Robert  K..  Sparta;  Eastnu^n.  Limuel, 
Clifton ;  Frank,  John,  Jefiferson ;  Hicks,  Addison  G..  Sparta : 
Johnson,  John,  Greenfield ;  Jones,  Henry  C,  Clifton ;  Kies,  Alva 
E.,  Clifton;  Lamb,  Galen.  Tomah ;  Lewis,  Samuel,  Sparta;  Nolle, 
Bernhard,  Spai'ta  ;  Thiry,  John  L.  C.,  Sparta  ;  Vincent,  Fredrick, 


Col.  Alilton  Montgomery,  Sparta;  Surgeon  AFartin  R.  Gage. 
Sparta;  IIosp.  Stewards  Charles  AV.  Kellogg.  Tomah;  Samuel 
Gunn,  Sparta. 

Company  "D" — Capt.  James  D.  Condit.  Sparta;  Capt.  Morti- 
mer E.  Leonard,  Sparta  ;  First  Lieut.  Charles  S.  Farnham.  Sparta  ; 
Second  Lieut.  Andrew  .1.  High,  Sparta;  Abies,  Henry  A..  Welling- 
ton; Aldrich,  Nathan  B.,  Angelo ;  Alger,  Thonuis,  Leon;  Ayers, 
Albert.  Sparta,  transferred  to  Company  '"D."  Twelfth  Infantry: 
Bailey,  Amnion,  Lincoln;  Bass,  Charles  IL,  Lin<oln.  transferred 
to  Company  *'D.''  Twelfth  Infantry:  Birdsill.  John.  (Jlendale. 
transferred  to  Company  "D."  Twelfth  Infantry;  Bon.  David  B.. 
Lincoln;  Boughton.  William  T..  Tomah;  lioyle,  Peter,  AVilton: 
Braman.  Edward  P.,  Tomah,  transferred  to  Company  "D," 
Twelfth  Infantry;  Braman,  Roswell  E..  Lincoln;  Broughton,  Tim- 
othy B.,  Glendale,  transferred  to  Company  "D,"  Twelfth  Infan- 
trv;  Burdick,  Alfred,  LaFavette ;  Carver.  Nelson,  AVilton:  Chat- 


terson,  Jefferson,  Angelo;  Cleveland,  Daniel  F.,  Ridgeville ;  Con- 
ger, Lewis  B.,  Ridgeville;  Crawford,  Charles  IL,  Tomah;  Cressy, 
Henry  W.,  Tomah;  Cressy,  Warren  P.,  Tomah;  Darwin,  Samuel 
N.,  Sparta ;  Day,  Henry,  AVellington ;  Demmon,  Ira  P.,  Tomah ; 
Depen,  Wile}',  Tomah;  Dnnlap,  Robert  B.,  Sparta;  Dunlevy, 
Thomas,  Sparta ;  Edgerton,  Henry  L.,  Lincoln ;  Edgerton,  Charles 
L.,  Lincoln;  Fitch,  Norman  D.,  Sparta;  Foster,  Anson  T.,  Sparta; 
Gill,  Edward,  Wilton ;  Gleason,  George,  Lincoln ;  Goff,  Spenser 
F.,  Lincoln;  Green,  Abner,  Sparta;  Grover,  Elizer  H.,  AVilton; 
Harland,  William  H.,  Glendale,  Harman,  John  A.,  Sparta;  Harp, 
George  F.,  Tomah ;  Heth,  Perry,  Ridgeville ;  Haskins,  Nathaniel, 
Sparta,  transferred  to  Company  ''D,"  Twelfth  Infantry;  Hol- 
gate,  Francis,  Clifton;  Hollenbeck,  Amos  J.,  Sparta;  Houghtaliug, 
Henry,  AVellington ;  House,  Phileman  P.,  W^ilton ;  Howard, 
Charles,  Tomah;  Howes,  David  S.,  Tomah;  Hull,  Richard  J., 
Angelo ;  Huntley,  Jabez  L.,  Sparta ;  Hutson,  Thomas,  Angelo ; 
Hyde,  Alfred,  Tomah ;  Johnson,  Eben,  Tomah ;  Justice,  John, 
Sparta;  King,  George  AY..  Tomah,  transferred  to  Company  "D," 
Twelfth  Infantry;  Kinney,  AVilliam  H.,  Sparta;  Kenyon,  Mon- 
roe, Sparta;  Lamb,  AVilliam  H.,  Tomah  ;  Leavett.  Edward,  Sparta  ; 
Lewis,  Thomas  S.,  Angelo;  Littell,  James  H.,  Angelo;  Little, 
Theodore  AA^.,  Sparta;  Lyon,  Samuel  J.,  Glendale;  Aloltby,  Appel- 
ton  N.,  Tomah;  Manchester,  Charles  G.,  Sparta;  Alanly,  Henry, 
Greenfield :  Alatchet,  James,  Pine  Hill ;  AIcGinnis,  Elisha  A., 
Tomah;  AlcLean,  AVilliam,  Tomah;  Aliller,  Alexander,  Sparta; 
Milligan,  Rueben  A.,  Sparta ;  Alills,  Elias,  Leroy ;  Alills,  Eli, 
Leroy;  Alinor,  AVilliam  H.,  Ridgeville;  Alorrision,  AV.  A.  Sparta; 
AIusgraA'e,  AVilliam  P.,  Sparta ;  Newton,  Daniel,  Glendale ;  Owens, 
Lewis  E.,  Portland;  Peterson,  Christopher,  Tomah;  Quacken- 
bush,  Ernest,  Pine  Hill,  transferred  to  Company  ''D,"  Twelfth 
Infanty;  Pursell.  AValter  P.,  Tomah,  transferred  to.  Company 
"D,"  Twelfth  Infantry;  Putman,  Charles  H.,  Sparta,  transferred 
to  Company  ''D,"  Twelfth  Infantry;  Quackenbush,  George,  Pine 
Hill;  Randies,  John,  AA^ilton;  Rathbun,  Robert  B.,  Sparta;  Reed, 
Cheney,  LaFayette ;  Reeve,  Horace,  Little  Falls ;  Richardson, 
Samuel,  Glendale ;  Richardson,  Perry,  Glendale ;  Rood,  AVilliarii 
J.,  Ridgeville ;  Rottenstetter,  Simon,  Tomah ;  Russell,  Alexander, 
Sparta;  Rugg,  Alfred  H.,  Tomah,  transferred  to  Company  "D," 
Twelfth  Infantry;  Sanders,  AVilliam  H..  Lincoln;  Sawyer,  Peter 
E.,  Lincoln ;  Scott,  Leonard,  Sparta,  transferred  to  Company 
"D,"  Twelfth  Infantry;  Scoville,  Charles,  AA'^ilton ;  Scruby,  John, 
Sparta;  Shaw,  Joseph,  Tomah,  transferred  to  Company  ''D," 
Twelfth  Infantry;  Shaw,  William  E.,  Adrian;  Sherland,  Joel  E., 



Angelo;  Sliker,  John  J.,  Toiiiali ;  Smow,  George  ]M.,  Sparta; 
Spooiier,  Daniel  11.,  Lincoln;  Squirls,  Gardner,  Lincoln;  Thomp- 
son, James  W.,  Greenfield;  Thomson.  Allen.  Kidgeville ;  Trow- 
bridge, George  I\I.,  Tonuih.  transferred  lo  Company  "J),'' 
Twelfth  Infantry:  Trnlsdell,  William  1'.,  Tomah ;  Tuthell.  John, 
Sparta,  transfei-i-ed  to  Company  "D,"  Twelfth  Infantry;  Cstiek, 
Jacob  Y.,  Tomali :  \'an  Anthrip,  Edward,  Sparta;  Van  Kirk.  Jere- 
miah, Sparta,  transferred  to  Company  "D,"  Twelfth  Infantry; 
Vaughn,  Kniery  \V..  Lincoln;  Vanghan.  Harrison  IL.  Lincoln, 
transferred  to  Company  "D,"  Twelfth  Infantry:  Watson,  George 
R.,  Lincoln:  AVest,  Tlial.  Glendale;  AVilcox,  Lucius  C,  Angelo; 
AVileox,  AVilliam  N.,  Angelo;  W^olcott,  George  L.,  Leon;  AVorden, 
Samuel  H.,  Glendale;  AVright,  William  IL.  Tomah:  Wyant.  Will- 
iam IL,  Sparta;  Yomans,  William  II. ,  Leon. 

Company  "E" — Bartdel,  Francis  A.,  Clifton;  Hudson,  James 
R.,  Clifton;  Mero,  Fredrick,  Clifton. 

Company  "F" — Brainerd,  Darwin  L.,  Glendale;  Berry. 
Charles  II. ,  Sparta ;  Bugbee,  Alien,  Tomah ;  Burlingame,  Phillip, 
Tomah;  Chadwick,  James,  Roaring  Creek;  Chapman.  John  D., 
Roaring  Creek;  Coonrod,  Jared  P.,  Roaring  Creek;  Davis,  Sheron, 
Sparta:  Dell,  Edward,  Roaring  Creek;  Echner,  Philemon,  Green- 
field; Godbould,  David.  Tomah;  Hehnka.  Fredrick,  Adrian; 
Hastings,  Orlando  D..  Lincoln :  Lewis,  Samuel  C.,  Tomah ;  Lin- 
coln, James  H.,  Ridgeville ;  Nelliot,  Simeon,  Sparta ;  Papst,  AVill- 
iam  G.,  Greenfield;  Spencer,  AVilliam  J.,  Leroy;  Taylor,  Pratt  M., 
Leroy;  AValker,  Charles  M.,  Tonuih. 

Company  "G" — Bishop,  Joseph.  Angelo;  Bishop,  Amos, 
Angelo;  Mann,  Nathan.  Cataract;  jManii.  Fliade  E..  Cataract. 

Company  "H" — Falke.  Fredrick.  Sheldon;  Fiiuiell.  James, 
Sheldon;  Heath,  AVinsloAV  J..  Sheldon;  Howard,  John,  Adrian; 
King,  Robert,  Adrian;  Schmelling,  Fi'edi-iek.  Ridgeville. 


Company  "C" — AVade,  Edward  F.,  Lincoln. 

Company  "IF' — Blakeley,  James  IL.  Leon;  Blakeley,  Revilo, 
Leon;  Brown,  John  S.,  Leon;  Carj^enter,  William  J.,  Leon:  Alait- 
land,  John,  Leon;  ^lathews,  James  J..  Leon;  .Mathews,  AVilliam, 
Leon;  Noyes,  Fredrick  E..  Leon:  Stratton.  AVilliam.  Leon:  War- 
ren, Goram  N.,  Leon ;  AVeaver,  David.  Leon. 

Company  ''!" — Block,  August.  Lincoln:  Brick.  Edward  P., 
Lincoln:  Hill.  Alathias.  Lincoln:  Honodell.  John.  Lincoln:  Roach. 
Ernest,  Lincoln. 

Company     "K'" — Steese,     AVilliam      II..      Lincoln;      Stelson, 

il;)!l|    I: 


Lollicr  1: 
i,  S[iiir' . 
Falls;  DuK 
Eiiiiios.  .!■ 
limas  W 




'III,   tl 


LaFayette,  Lincoln ;  Stone,  John  F.,  LaFayette,  AYliitney,  Ber- 
nard K..  Tunnel  City. 


Company  "E" — Young,  Thomas,  Clifton. 


Company  '"C" — Capt.  George  A.  Fisk,  Sparta;  First  Lieut. 
Luther  B.  Noyes,  Sparta ;  Baker,  John,  Ridgeville ;  Barnes, 
Alfred  0.,  Little  Falls ;  Berry,  Jehial  S.,  Sparta ;  Britton,  Daniel 
A.,  Sparta ;  Brown,  Huston,  Sparta ;  Casner,  Thomas,  Sparta ; 
Carnahan,  Archibald,  Sparta;  Cleaves,  Corydon  L.,  Portland; 
Cole,  David  AY.,  Adrian;  Cole,  Darwin,  Sparta;  Cross,  George- C, 
Little  Falls;  Cross,  Jeremiah  A.,  Sparta;  Davis,  Robert  A.,  Little 
Falls;  Douglas,  David,  Little  Falls;  Dunbar,  Alfred,  Sparta; 
Emmos,  Andrew  J.,  Sparta;  Fink,  Cornilius,  Sparta;  Fosdick, 
Jay  H.,  Little  Falls ;  Freeman,  Fredrick,  Sparta ;  Gallaghur, 
Thomas  AY.,  Sparta ;  Graves,  Nathan,  Sparta ;  Greenman,  George 
E.,  Sparta;  Griffin,  Valentine,  Angelo;  Hathaway,  Henry,  Sparta; 
Head,  Delo  AY.,  Little  Falls;  Hunt,  John  AY.,  Little  Falls;  Inger- 
sall,  Daniel,  Sparta ;  Ingersall,  AYilliam  AI..  Sparta  ;  Ingles,  Augus- 
tus B.,  Leon;  John,  Charles  W..  Little  Falls;  Jones,  Alilo,  Sparta; 
Kroll,  AYilliam  F..  Little  Falls;  Alartin,  John,  Little,  Falls;  Alatte- 
son,  David  A.,  Little  Falls;  AlcClure,  Charles  L.,  Sparta;  Allies, 
Stephen  C,  Sparta ;  Nichols,  Theodore,  Sparta ;  Nichols,  Edward, 
Sparta;  Peterson,  Joseph  R.,  Sparta;  Potter,  Joseph  AY.,  Sparta; 
Rathbun,  Eldridge,  Sparta ;  Ripley,  Edwin,  Sparta ;  Sacia,  Henry, 
Sparta ;  Sherwood,  Alartin,  Ridgeville ;  Sour,  Cynes,  Ridgeville ; 
Stevens,  John  E.,  Portland,  AYalker,  Perry  C,  Little  Falls;  AYash- 
burn,  AA'illiam  H.,  Little  Falls;  AYilsey,  John  J.,  Portland;  AYol- 
cott,  Jerome  B.,  Sparta;  AYright,  AA'illiam,  Sparta;  Yoemans, 
Samuel  J.,  Sparta;  Young,  Jerome  B..  Sparta. 


Company  "K" — Capt.  Robert  A.  Gillett,' Tomah ;  Armstrong, 
Sebastian,  Greenfield;  Buswell,  Samuel,  Glendale;  Cassels,  AYill- 
iam, Tomah ;  Collins,  Neal  AL,  Glendale ;  Day,  Allen,  AA^ellington ; 
Durkee,  Lawren  0.,  Tomah;  Englerth,  Adam,  Ridgeville;  Grover, 
James  K.,  Oakdale ;  Gudbauer,  AYilliam,  Greenfield ;  Kellogg, 
Charles  H.,  Tomah ;  Lamb,  Lewis  A.,  Greenfield ;  Loomer,  Amasa, 
Lincoln;  Aledcalf,  Edward  AI.,  Greenfield;  Alooney,  James,  Shel- 
don ;  Aloore,  David  A.,  Glendale,  Plunker,  AYilliam,  Tomah ;  Raf- 


try,  Thomas,  Sheldon ;  Reikie,  Thomas,  Tomah ;  Robertson,  Xeth- 
ven,  Tomah;  Root,  AVilliam  L.,  Greenfield;  Root,  Mortimer,  Green- 
field; Thompson,  Chelnsk,  Glendale ;  Thorpe,  Adelbert  D.,  Glen- 
dale;  Twohay.  John.  Slicldon :  AVard.  Joseph,  Glendale. 


Company  "E" — Bennett,  Henry  R.  J.,  Sparta;  Crosby, 
Charles,  Sparta;  Donovan,  Daniid,  Kendall.  Donnelley,  James, 
Kendall,  Dounellev,  Frank,  Kendall;  Dutt'v,  John,  Greenfield; 
Houghton,  George  B.,  Sparta;  Kelley,  Christopher,  Greenfield; 
Lovell,  Andrew  C,  Eaton ;  ]Mott,  Alfred  H.,  Leon ;  AYilliams, 
Henry  C,  Tomah;  Wymau,  Elias  F.,  Eaton. 


Company  ''K" — Capt.  Edward  F.  AVade,  Lincoln;  Johnson, 
Evan,  Sparta ;  Johnson,  Louis,  Sheldon ;  Jones,  John,  Sparta ; 
Losh,  David  AY.,  Sparta ;  McLaren,  AVilliam,  Sparta ;  Oakley,  Alil- 
ton,  Sparta;  Stewart,  John,  Sparta;  Stoddard,  Richard  Al., 
Angelo ;  Underwood,  Lyman,  Sparta. 


Company  "H" — First  Lieut.  Job  S.  Driggs.  Glendale. 


Company  ''C" — Curtis,  Henry  0.,  Sparta. 

Company  "I''— Capt.  Christoi)her  C.  Aliller,  Tomah;  Banker, 
Bctlincl,  Ontario;  Bell.  Richard,  Cataract;  Bellerman,  Joseph, 
Ridgeville;  liigalow.  Daniel  AV.,  Tomah;  Brooks,  Samuel  E..  AVil- 
ton.  Burroughs,  Eli.  AVilton  :  Daggett,  Samuel  AI.,  AVilton ;  Fish, 
Henry,  Tomah;  Fitcli.  Irvin  X.,  Sparta;  Fryer,  John,  Tomah; 
Fuller.  AVilliam  L.,  Glendale;  Griswold,  Samuel  AV.,  Ridgeville; 
Hale,  Oliver  C.,  Ridgeville;  Hancock,  AVilliam  B..  AVilton;  Ilodg- 
kins.  George  C.,  Sparta;  AEcAIauus,  A^'incent,  Cataract;  Aliller, 
l^uy,  I.<ineoln;  Palmer,  Reuben.  Little  Falls;  Palmer,  Zarah,  Cata- 
ract; Rliodes,  Bela,  AVillon;  Skinner,  Austin  F.,  Cataract;  Strana- 
han,  Rodolphus  A.,  Ridgeville;  Thompson.  Albert  F.,  Ridgeville; 
Triffany.  Sylvanus.  Ridgeville;  Tom]>kins,  Chester  AV.,  Cataract; 
A'^inccnz,  Ferdinand,  Ridg(>ville;  AVeile]i,  Henry.  Ridgeville:  AVhit- 
ney,  Charles  L.,  Lincoln;  AVhitney,  Jacob  AV.,  Lincoln;  AVise, 
Fredrick,  Lincoln ;  AVoodworth,  Lucuis,  Leon ;  Yo\mg,  Thomas, 



Company  "B" — Ciiininiiis,  John,  Jefferson;  Haskill,  Charles 
C,  Jeft'erson ;  Jolmsou,  Albert,  Jeft'erson ;  Kight,  James,  Green- 
field; Kight,  John,  Greenfield;  Kyes,  David  S.,  Jefferson;  MoUey, 
Andrew,  Jefferson;  Moore,  Daniel  M.,  Jefferson  ;  Moore,  Robert  J., 
Greenfield ;  Natwik,  Ole  H.,  Jefferson ;  Schriver,  Buy  F.,  Jefferson ; 
Seals,  Daniel  W.,  Jefferson;  Shult,  Williams,  Jefferson. 

Company  "I" — DeCoursey,  Edward  G.,  Sparta;  Graff,  Joseph, 
Greenfield ;  Ilolloek,  Richard,  Leon ;  Hewitt,  Henry,  Leon. 


First  Asst.  Surgeon  Rouse  Bennett,  Tomah. 


Company  "A" — Banker,  Stephen  0.,  Sparta;  Edwards,  "Will- 
iam A.,  Sparta;  Fairbanks,  Abram  F.,  LaFayette;  Hubbard,  Jobez, 
Lincoln;  ]Mumford,  James  R.,  Sparta;  Nolan,  John,  Leon;  Perry, 
Leauder,  Leon;  Talbot,  Robert  A.,  Sparta;  West,  Henry  C, 

Company  "D" — Brooks,  Seth,  Leon;  Comstock,  William  B., 
Leon ;  Hilmer,  Fredrick,  LaFayette ;  Jacobs,  John,  Leon ;  Jost, 
Peter  P.,  LaFayette;  Keeler,  Daniel  H.,  Leon;  Kinney,  Peter  S., 
Angelo;  Luskuski,  Nicholas,  LaFayette;  Putman,  Isaac,  Leon; 
Ray,  Robert,  Leon;  Robinson,  Henry  J.,  Leon;  Robinson,  William 
B.,  Leon  ;  Shaaf,  Christian,  Leon ;  West,  AVarren  G.,  Leon  ;  Winter, 
Simon,  LaFayette ;  Woodworth,  Chester,  Leon. 


Company  "A" — Crouch,  Stephen  V.,  LaFayette;  Curtiss, 
Martin  M.,  Greenfield ;  Rosenan,  John,  Lincoln ;  Scott,  Lee,  Lin- 
coln;  Williams,  Jeremiah  G.,  Tomah. 


Company  "G" — Grover,  George  W.,  Tomah;  Guthery,  John 
L.,  Tomah ;  Murat,  Conrad,  Wilton. 


co:\rMissioxED  officers. 

]\luni'ot'  county  can  well  Ix'  proud  of  the  lad  that  its  citizens 
did  their  full  share  and  a  little  more,  in  the  AVar  of  the  Rebellion ; 
in  this  connection  it  is  a  matter  of  considerable  interest,  that  in 
addition  to  the  large  number  of  enlisted  men,  ''The  man  ])eliind 
the  gun,"  many  of  its  citizens  received  commission  to  various 
ranks  to  the  extent  of  furnishing  two  colonels,  one  of  whom  was 
promoted  to  brevet  brigadier  general,  two  majors,  fifteen  caj)- 
tains,  eleven  first  lieutenants,  twelve  second  lieutenants,  one  regi- 
mental surgeon,  one  assistant  surgeon  and  three  regimental  chap- 
lains; and  we  here  give  the  record  of  each  man  in  the  service  as 
far  as  it  is  possible  to  obtain  it  from  the  official  records. 


Milton  Montgomery,  Sparta.  AVas  commissioned  colonel  of 
the  Twenty-fifth  Regiment  of  Infantry,  with  the  rank,  from 
August  16,  1862;  was  in  command  of  a  provisional  division  from 
June  6,  1863,  to  July  28,  1863 ;  he  connnanded  the  First  Brigade, 
Fourth  Division,  Seventeenth  Army  Corps,  February  3  to  April 
14,  1864;  he  was  Avounded  and  taken  prisoner  July  22,  1864,  at 
Decatur,  Ga. ;  his  right  arm  was  amputated ;  upon  his  exchange 
and  recovery  he  again  reported  for  active  duty  and  was  assigned 
to  the  command  of  the  same  brigade,  which  he  held  from  January 
29  to  March  28,  1865;  on  March  13,  1865,  for  gallant  and  meri- 
torious conduct  he  was  commissioned  brevet  brigadier  general  of 
United  States  A''olunteers  and  Avas  nnistered  out  of  the  service 
Juno  7.  1865. 

William  W.  Robinson,  Sparta.  AVas  nui.stercd  into  the  service 
August  15,  1861,  as  lieutenant  colonel  of  tlie  Seventh  Regiment  of 
Infantry;  was  severely  wounded  at  Gainsville;  was  commissioned 
colonel  January  30,  1862,  and  served  until  July  9,  1864,  when  he 
resigned  his  commission. 


George  A.  Fisk,  Sparta.  AVas  commissioned  captain  of  Com- 
pany  "D,"   Eighteenth   Infantry,   December   17,    1861;   he   was 



taken  prisoner  at  the  battle  of  Shiloh,  was  exchanged  and  re- 
signed his  commission  August  9,  1863.  He  again  entered  the  serv- 
ice and  was  commissioned  captain  of  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth 
Infantry,  Llarch  4,  1864,  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major 
March  7,  1865,  and  mustered  out  of  the  service  July  12,  1865. 

James  B.  Farnsworth,  Tomah.  Enlisted  in  Company  "I," 
Fourth  Cavalry,  April  20,  1861 ;  was  promoted  to  veterinary  ser- 
geant and  first  sergeant,  commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  Com- 
pany "I,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  August  11,  1862;  first  lieutenant  June 
24,  1863;  captain  September  24,  1864;  he  was  transferred  to  the 
command  of  Company  "A,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  August  22,  1865; 
commanded  the  Third  Battery  of  the  Fourth  Cavalry,  and  was 
mustered  out  May  28,  1866,  receiving  a  commission  as  major, 
dated  June  18,  1866. 

-  J 


Levi  R.  Blake,  Sparta.  Enlisted  April  20,  1861,  and  was  com- 
missioned first  lieutenant  of  Company  "I,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  April 
26,  1861;  was  severely  wounded  June  3,  1863,  at  Clinton,  La.,  and 
died  from  the  effects  of  his  wounds  June  10,  1863,  at  Batan  Rouge, 

Carpenter  Robert,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  "A,"  Third 
Cavalry,  Octol)er  7,  1861.  AVas  commissioned  first  lieutenant  of 
Company  ''A."  Third  Cavalry,  October  21,  1861;  was  mustered 
out  of  the  service  January  30,  1865.  Upon  the  reorganization  of 
the  Third  Cavalry  he  was  commissioned  captain  of  Company  "L," 
Marcli  9,  1865,  and  resigned  his  command  August  14,  1865. 

Chandler,  John  A.,  Sparta.  He  was  commissioned  captain  of 
Company  ''C,"  Nineteenth  Infantry,  January  8,  1862;  resigned 
and  retired  July  30,  1862. 

Damman,  Jeremiah  D.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  "A," 
Third  Cavalry,  September  7,  1861,  and  was  commissioned  captain 
of  company  "A,"  Third  Cavalry,  October  31,  1861,  and  on  account 
of  disability,  he  resigned  INIarch  9,  1863. 

Hall,  Joseph,  Tomah.  Enlisted  in  Company  "I,"  Fourth 
Cavalry,  April  23,  1861 ;  was  promoted  to  corporal  and  sergeant, 
transferred  to  Company  "L,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  and  commissioned 
first  lieutenant  of  the  same  company  April  12,  1864;  captain  of 
Company  "L"  November  28,  1864,  and  transferred  to  the  com- 
mand of  Company  "E,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  August  20,  1865;  mus- 
tered out  of  the  service  May  28,  1866. 

Johnson,  Leonard,  Glendale.  Enlisted  in  Company  "L,"  Sixth 
Infantry,   ]May  9,   1861  ;  was  commissioned  captain  of  the  same 



company  ]\Iay  15,  18(il  ;  he  resigned  tind  retired  from  the  service 
December  13,  1861. 

Leonard,  Mortimer,  Sparta.  Was  mustered  into  the  service  as 
first  lieutenant  of  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry,  August 
22,  18G2;  was  Avounded  June  22,  1S()4.  at  Decatur,  (ia. ;  was  mus- 
tered out  of  the  sei"\'i<'e  June  7,  18()r). 

Lowrie,  Alexander,  Jeflt'erson.  Enlisted  in  Company  "I,"  Sixth 
Infantry,  June  1,  1801  ;  was  promoted  to  corporal,  sergeant  and 
first  sergeant;  was  coimnissioned  second  lieutenant  of  the  same 
company  April  27.  1864;  first  lieutenant  December  21.  1864,  and 
captain  February  25.  1865.  He  was  Avounded  at  the  second  battle 
of  Bull  Rini.  and  was  nuistered  out  of  the  service  July  14,  1865. 

Lynn,  John  W.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  "T."  P'ourth 
Cavalry,  April  20,  1861  ;  Avas  commissioned  captain  of  that  com- 
pany April  26.  1861;  Avas  killed  July  15,  1862,  on  board  the  gun- 
boat Tyler.  The  Post  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  at 
Sparta  bears  his  name. 

Miles,  Stephen  C,  Sparta.  Enlisted  February  29, 1864,  in  Com- 
pany "C,''  Thirty-sixth  Regiment  Infantry;  promoted  to  ser- 
geant and  first  sergeant;  Avas  Avounded  at  the  battle  of  Cold  Har- 
bor; commissioned  captain  of  the  same  company  July  22,  1864; 
Avas  nuistered  out  of  the  service  July  12,  18()5.  not  having  been 
nnist(>red  as  a  captain. 

Miller,  Christopher  C,  Tomali.  Was  nuistered  into  Company 
"I,"  Forty-ninth  Reginu'ut  Infantry,  January  31,  1865,  and  coin- 
missioned  cajitain  of  the  same  com])any  February  24,  1865;  Avas 
mustered  out  of  th(»  serxice  Xoveiiil)er  8,  1865. 

Russell,  Alonzo  H..  Si)arta.  Enlisted  in  Company  ''C,"  Nine- 
teenth InfantiN'.  Januaiy  7,  lSti2:  was  i)i'()moted  to  first  sergeant; 
commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  the  same  company  February  8, 
1863;  first  lieutenant  January  14,  1865;  caj^tain  of  the  same  com- 
pany ^Fay  23.  1865,  and  Avas  mustered  out   August  9,  1865. 

Slog'gy,  Peter,  Sparta.  "Was  nuistei'ed  into  the  service  as  sec- 
ond lieutenant  Company  "D,""  Kighteenth  lid'antry.  December  17, 
1861;  Avas  commissioned  first  lieutenant  of  the  same  company 
July  10,  18()3;  commissioned  captain  August  11,  1863,  ami  Avas 
mustered  out  of  the  serA'ice  ]\Iarch  ^^,  1865. 

Wilson,  DeWitt  C,  Sit.ii-ta.  Was  nuistered  into  the  serA'ice  and 
commissioned  first  lieutenant  of  Company  "D, "  Eighteenth  Infan- 
try, December  17,  1861  ;  he  AA'as  taken  prisoner  at  tlu'  battle  of 
Shiloh  ;  Avas  exchanged  and  ]U"omot(Hl  to  captain  in  the  Eighth 
Louisiana   (colored)   Regiment. 



Blyton,  William  H.  Enlisted  at  Sparta  January  23,  1862,  in 
Company  "C,"  Nineteenth  Regiment,  Wisconsin  Volunteers, 
appointed  post  quartermaster  sergeant  at  Camp  Randall  INIay  11, 
1862;  regimental  commissary  sergeant  July  1.  1862;  regimental 
quartermaster  sergeant  November  14, 1862 ;  commissioned  first  lieu- 
tenant October  21,  1864,  assigned  to  Second  United  States  Infan- 
try; November  11,  1864;  commission  approved  by  the  Presi- 
dent; mustered  in  as  first  lieutenant  and  regimental  quartermas- 
ter, quartermaster  department.  United  States  army.  Mustered 
out  at  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kan.,  June  20,  1866,  as  first  lieutenant 
and  regimental  quartermaster.  Fourth  Regiment,  United  States 

Blake,  Albert  H.,  Sparta.  Mustered  into  the  service  with 
the  rank  of  first  lieutenant  of  Company  "F,"  Twentieth  Infantry, 
August  18,  1862;  w^as  wounded  at  Prairie  Grove;  resigned  June 
10,  1865. 

Chase,  Myron  P.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  April  25,  1861,  in  Company 
"I,"  Fourth  Cavalry;  was  promoted  to  sergeant  and  commission- 
ary  sergeant ;  was  commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  the  same 
company  June  24,  1863,  and  was  wounded  October  10,  1864; 
resigned  his  commission  April  28,  1865. 

Driggs,  Jobe  S.,  Glendale.  Enlisted  May  10,  1861,  in  Company 
''I,"  Sixth  Infantry;  was  promoted  to  sergeant  in  the  Veteran 
Corps;  was  transferred  to  Battery  "B,"  Fourth  United  States 
Artillery,  September  21,  1862,  where  he  remained  until  February, 
1864 ;  was  wounded  at  the  Battle  of  the  Wilderness ;  promoted  to 
second  lieutenant  of  Company  "H, "  Forty-eighth  Infantry,  Feb- 
ruary 24,  1865 ;  commissioned  first  lieutenant  October  28,  1865 ; 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service  December  27,  1865. 

Farnaham,  Charles  S.,  Sparta.  Mustered  into  the  service  as 
second  lieutenant  of  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry,  Sep- 
tember 9,  1862 ;  was  wounded  July  22,  1864,  at  Decatur,  Ga. ; 
acted  as  assistant  inspector  general.  First  Brigade,  Second  Divis- 
ion, Seventeenth  Army  Corps,  from  September  26,  1864,  until 
June,  1865 ;  was  mustered  out  June  7,  1865. 

Foote,  Oscar  E.,  Tomah.  Was  mustered  into  the  service  as 
first  lieutenant  of  Company  "H, "  Tenth  Infantry,  September  11, 
1861 ;  he  resigned  his  commission  October  5,  1861 ;  he  entered  the 
serAdce  again,  being  commissioned  as  second  lieutenant  of  Com- 
pany "F,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry,  September  9,  1862;  died  of 
disease  at  Helena,  Ark.,  August  9,  1863. 



Frisby,  William  R.  V.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  January  7,  1862,  in 
Company  "'C,"  Nineteenth  Infantry;  promoted  to  sergeant  and 
first  sergeant ;  was  commissioned  second  lieutenant  July  30,  1862 ; 
resigned  December  11,  1864. 

Johnson,  Chester  W.,  Liltle  Falls.  Enlisted  February  10, 
1864,  iji  ("oiiii)any  "C,"  Thirty-sixtli  Infantry;  Avas  promoted  to 
corporal  and  sergeant;  was  wounded  August  14,  1864;  com- 
missioned first  lieutenant  July  22,  1865,  but  not  mustered ;  was 
mustered  out  of  the  service  July  12,  1865. 

Lynn,  James  H.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  March  4,  1862,  in  Company 
"C,"  Nineteenth  Infantry,  and  was  transferred  to  Veteran  Corps; 
promoted  to  sergeant  and  first  sergeant ;  commissioned  first  lieu- 
tenant July  11,  1865,  but  not  mustered.  He  Avas  mustered  out  of 
the  service  August  D,  1865. 

Noyes,  Luther  B.,  Sparta.  "Was  mustered  into  the  service  as 
first  lieutenant  of  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry,  March 
4,  1864;  was  wounded  at  Petersburg,  Va.,  June  17,  1864;  on 
account  of  wounds  he  was  discharged  September  28,  1864. 

Pike,  Anson  A.,  Sparta.  Mustered  into  the  service  as  first 
lieutenant  of  Company  "I,"  Forty-ninth  Infantry,  February  24, 
1865;  resigned  his  command  May  27.  1865. 


Avery,  Ralph  H.,  Lincoln.  Enlisted  in  Company  "I,"  Forty- 
nintli  Infantry,  February  21,  1865  ;  was  promoted  to  first  sergeant ; 
was  commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  the  same  company  June 
17,  1865;  mustered  out  of  the  service  November  8,  1865. 

Baxter,  Walter,  Glendale.  Enlisted  in  Company  '"A,"  Fiftieth 
Infantry,  February  22,  1865;  was  promoted  to  corporal,  sergeant 
and  first  sergeant ;  commissioned  second  lieutenant  June  18,  1866, 
not  mustered.    He  was  mustered  out  of  the  service  June  12,  1866. 

Carnahan,  Archibald,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  ''C," 
Thirty-sixtli  Infantry,  February  24,  1864;  promoted  to  sergeant 
and  first  sergeant;  was  taken  prisoner  at  Rean's  Station:  com- 
missioned as  second  lieutenant  April  18.  1865,  not  mustered.  lie 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service  June  10,  1865. 

Ellis,  George  M.,  Sheldon.  Enlisted  in  Company  "A,"  Third 
Cavalry,  November  2,  1861;  promoted  to  corporal,  sergeant  and 
first  sergeant;  commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  the  same  com- 
pany March  0.  1863.  ^Mustered  out  of  the  service  January  30, 

Erickson,  Martin  A.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  ''II,"  P'if- 
teenth  Infantry,  Oeti)l)er  22,  1861;  promoted  to  first  sergeant;  was 


made  sergeant  major  of  the  regiment  January  1.  1863;  was  com- 
missioned second  lieutenant  of  Company  "H,"  Fifteenth  Infantry, 
]\Iay  21,  1863.  He  was  taken  prisoner  at  Chieamauga  ;  was  mus- 
tered out  of  the  service  April  20,  1865. 

Hicks,  Henry  A.,  Glendale.  Enlisted  October  28,  1861,  in  the 
Tenth  Battery,  Light  Artillery;  promoted  to  sergeant;  was  com- 
missioned junior  second  lieutenant  March  3,  1862 ;  was  transferred 
to  the  Ninth  Battery,  Light  Artillery,  March  29,  1862,  and  com- 
missioned senior  second  lieutenant  October  21,  1863 ;  he  was 
mustered  out  of  the  service  January  26,  1865. 

High,  Andrew  D.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  "I,"  Twentj'^- 
fifth  Infantry,  August  5,  1862 ;  promoted  to  first  sergeant ;  w^as 
commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  the  same  company  July  16, 
1863,  and  Avas  mustered  out  of  the  service  June  7,  1865. 

Hill,  Eber  B.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  January  7,  1862,  in  Company 
"C,"  Ninteenth  Infantry;  promoted  to  sergeant  and  first  ser- 
geant; was  taken  prisoner  October  27,  1864;  commissioned  lieu- 
tenant of  the  same  company  January  11.  1865,  not  nuistered.  He 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service  May  15,  1865. 

McMillan,  William  F.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  "A," 
third  corporal  September  30,  1861 ;  was  promoted  to  corporal  and 
sergeant;  when  the  regiment  was  reorganized  he  was  transferred 
to  Company  "K"  March  3,  1865;  promoted  to  veterinary  ser- 
geant and  first  sergeant ;  mustered  out  September  27,  1865 ;  was 
commissioned  second  lieutenant  October  11,  1865,  not  mustered. 

Phillips,  William  J.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  in  Company  "A,"  first 
Cavalry,  August  15,  1861 ;  commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  same 
company  September  2,  1861 ;  died  May  2,  1862,  of  wounds  received 
at  Chalk  Bluffs,  Ark. 

West,  Ansyl  A.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  April  20,  1861,  in  Company 
''I,"  Fourth  Cavalry;  commissioned  second  lieutenant  of  the  same 
company  April  26,  1861 ;  resigned  December  6,  1861. 

Davis,  John,  Leon.  Enlisted  in  Company  ''A,"  Third  Cavalry, 
October  21,  1861 ;  commissioned  second  lieutenant  September  6, 
1862 ;  mustered  out  January  30,  1865. 


Bennett,  Rouse,  Tomah.  Was  mustered  into  the  service  as  first 
assistant  surgeon  of  the  Fifty-first  Infantry  February  24.  18(j5  ; 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service  April  26,  1865. 

Gage,  Martin  R.,  Sparta.  Mustered  into  the  service  as  sur- 
geon of  the  Twenty-fifth  Infantry  August  4,  1862;  resigned  on 
account  of  disability  June  15,  1864. 




DeLaney,  James,  Sparta.  .Mustered  into  the  service  as  chap- 
lain of  the  Eighteenth  Infantry  March  10,  1862;  resigned  July  14, 

Hawes,  Lewis,  M.,  Sparta.  Enlisted  as  a  private  in  Company 
''E,"  Thirty-seventh  Infantry,  March  31,  1864;  promoted  to  cliap- 
lain  of  the  regiment  July  28,  1864;  resigned  April  18,  1865. 

Phillips,  Enos  M.,  Sparta.  Mustered  into  the  service  as  chap- 
lain of  the  First  Regiment  of  Cavalry  December  10,  1862,  and 
resigned  September  26,  1863. 



The  roster,  which  follows,  is  taken  from  the  adjutant  general's 
report  for  1865  and  also  from  the  roster  of  Wisconsin  troops,  pub- 
lished by  authority  of  the  Legislature ;  in  every  instance  the  place 
is  given  where  the  soldier  lost  his  life,  either  by  reason  of  being 
killed  in  action,  dying  of  disease  or  wounds  or  accident,  together 
with  the  date  of  his  death. 



John  W.  Lynn,  captain,  Company  "I,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  on  gun- 
boat Tyler,  July  15,  1862. 

William  J.  Phillips,  second  lieutenant.  Company  "A,"  First  Cav- 
alry, Chalk  Blutf,  Ark.,  August  3,  1863. 


Broughton,  Lanson  I.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Eighteenth  Infan- 
try, Vicksburg,  Miss.,  May  22,  1863. 

Broughton,  Lewis  M.,  private.  Company  "I,"  Sixth  Infantry,  Get- 
tysburg, Pa.,  June,  1864. 

Campbell,  George,  private.  Company  "D,"  Eighteenth  Infantry, 
Cornith,  Miss.,  October  8,  1862. 

Cole,  Darwin,  private.  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry, 
Petersburg,  Va.,  June  18,  1864. 

Cleaves,  Corydon,  private,  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry, 
Petersburg,  Va.,  June  18,  1864. 

Cummings,  David,  private.  Company  ''K,"  Sixth  Infantry,  Antie- 
tem,  Md.,  September  17,  1862. 

Davis,  Josiah.  private,  Company  ''A,"  Third  Cavalry,  Osage,  Nev., 
August  31,  1863. 

Douglas,  David,  private.  Company  "C,"  Sixth  Infantry,  Peters- 
burg, Va.,  June  18,  1864. 

Green,  Chester  A.,  first  sergeant,  Company  "I,"  Sixth  Infantry, 
Petersburg,  Va.,  June  18,  1864. 



Gibbs,  Albert,  private,  Company  "K,"  Tenth  Infantry,  r'h;i])]iri 

Hills,  Ky.,  October  8,  18G2. 
Gallagher,    Thomas    AY.,    sergeant,    Company    "C,''    Thirty-sixtli 

Infantry.  Pcter.shui'g,  Va.,  June  26,  1864. 
Ilarhind,  John,  private.  Company  "D, "  Sixth  Infantry,  Gettys- 
burg, Pa.,  July  1,  1863. 
Haywood,  Joel,  private,  Companj'  "II,"  Tenth  Infantry,  Perrys- 

ville,  Ky.,  October  8,  1862. 
Huntley.  Jabez  L.,  private,  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Decatur,  Ga.,  July  22,  1864. 
Ilaneoek,   "\Yilliam  D.,  private.   Company   "K, "   Sixth   Infantry, 

Salesburg,  N.  C,  Novemlier  27,  1864. 
Hicks,   Addison,    corporal,    Company   "F,"    Twentieth    Jiifnntry, 

Prairie  Grove,  Ark.,  December  6,  1862. 
Ingles,   Augustus   B.,    private,    Company    "C,"    Sixth    Infantry, 

Petersburg,  Va.,  June  18,  1864. 
Morse,    Anthony,    private.    Company    "F, "    Sixteenth    Infantry, 

Shiloh,  Tenn.,  April  6,  1862. 
IMcClure,  Charles,  private.  Company  "Cy  Thirty-sixth  Infantry, 

Cold  Harbor,  Va.,  June  3,  1864. 
Murray,  Christopher,  corporal.  Company  "C,"  Xinetcentli  Infan- 
try, Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  October  27,  1864. 
Palmer,  Sylvester  C,  private,  (^^ompany  "F, "  Sixteenth  Infantry, 

Shiloh,  Tenn.,  April  6,  1862. 
Revels,  AYilliam  J.,  private,  Company  ''K,"  Sixth  Infantry,  \Yrl- 

don  R.  R.,  Va.,  August  19,  1864. 
Stegman,  Conrad,  private.  Company  "G,"  Third  Cavalry,  Baxter 

Springs,  (?   ?     ),  October  6,  1863. 
Stewart,  Milton  H.,  private,  Company  "D,"  Eighteenth  Infantry, 

Shiloh,  Tenn.,  April  6.  1862. 
Stewart,  James,  ])rivate.  Company  'TV'  Nineteenth  Infnntry.  Fair 

Oaks,  Va.,  October  27,  1864. 
Sherwin,  Bissell,  private,  Company  ''D,"  Nineteenth  Infantry, 

Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  October  27.  1864. 
"Walker,  Perry  C,  ])ii\;i1e.  ('(tnipnny  ''C,"  Tliirty-sixtli  Infjintry, 

Petersburg,  Va..  June  18,  1864. 



Levi   R.   Blake,   captain.   Company  "I,"  Fourth   Cavalry,  Baton 
Rouge,  La.,  June  10,  1863. 


Enlisted  Men. 

Brown,  Hutson,  private,  Company  "C,"  Sixtli  Infantry,  AVash- 
ington,  D.  C,  August  24,  1864. 

Casner,  Thomas,  private.  Company  "C,"  Sixth  Infantry,  AYash- 
ington,  D.  C,  August  14,  1864. 

Cressy,  Henry  W.,  private,  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Decatur,  Ga.,  June  22,  1864. 

Chandler,  Jeremiah,  private,  Company  "A,"  Twentieth  Infantry, 
Fayetteville,  Ark.,  December  31,  1862. 

Dunlevy,  Thomas,  private,  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Decatur,  Ga.,  July  23,  1864. 

House,  Phileman  P.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infan- 
try, Atlanta,  Ga.,  August  7,  1864. 

Eathbun,  Eldredge,  private.  Company  "C, "  Thirty-sixth  Infan- 
try, AYashington,  D.  C.  June  9,  1864. 

Robbins,  George,  private,  Company  "I,"  Sixth  Infantry,  George- 
town, D.  C,  September  21,  1862. 


Briggs,  Charles,  private,  Company  "A,"  Third  Cavalry,  North- 
western Railway,  111.,  IMarch  26,  1862. 

Davis,  Y^^illiam,  private.  Company  "A,"  Third  Cavalry,  North- 
western Railway,  111.,  March  26,  1862. 

Hull,  Edward,  private.  Company  "I,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  Rilay 
House,  Md.,  August  25,  1861. 

Rawson,  Lucian  M.,  private.  Company  "A,"  Third  Cavalry  North- 
western Railway,  111.,  March  26,  1862. 


Abies,  Henry,  private.  Company  '"D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Helena,  Ark.,  April  26,  1863. 

Alger,  Thomas,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Helena,  Ark.,  December  16,  1863. 

Batis,  Mathias,  private,  Company  ''A,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  IMorgan- 
zie.  La.,  July  25,  1864. 

Bush,  William  J.,  sergeant.  Company  "I,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  Car- 
rolton.  La.,  November  8,  1862. 

Brigham,  John  M.,  corporal,  Company  "I,"  Sixth  Infantry,  Camp 
Lyon,  D.  C,  October  2,  1861. 

Birdsill,  George,  private.  Company  "F,"  Sixteenth  Infantry,  Co- 
rinth, Miss.,  July  1,  1862. 



Brown,  Jesse,  private,  Company  ''D,''  Eighteenth  Infantry,  Vieks- 

bnrg,  :\Iiss.,  September  24,  1863. 
Boyle,    Peter,    private.    Company    "D,"    Twenty-fifth    Infantry, 

Andersonville,  Ga.,  September  4,  1864. 
Barnes,  Alfred  0.,  private,  Company  "C,''  Thirty-sixtli  Infantry, 

Madison,  Wis..  April  10,  1864. 
Britton,  Daniel  A.,  ])rivate,  Company  "C, "  Thirty-sixth  Infantry, 

Annapolis,  ]\Id.,  ]\Iareh  26,  1865. 
Crouch,  Hiram  J.,  private.  Company  "H,"  First  Cavalry,  Madison, 

Wis.,  April  5,  1864. 
Cottwill.  Stephen,  private.  Company  "H,"  Sixth  Infantry.  Point 

Lookout,  Md.,  March  4.  1864. 
Corey,  Phillips,  private.  Company  "II,"  Tenth  Infantry,  Cowan 

Station,  Tenn..  August  3,  1863. 
Claigg.    Ilospild.    private.    Company    "B,"    Sixteentli    Infantry, 

Rome,  Ga..  July  27,  1864. 
Comstock,  Ambrose  L.,  private,  Company  "D,"  Eighteenth  Infan- 
try, Corinth,  :\Iiss.,  August  2,  1862. 
Cottingar,   John,   private,   Company   ''C,"  Nineteenth   Infantry, 

Salisburg,  X.  C.,  January  24,  1865. 
Chatterton,  Jefferson,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infan- 
try. St.  Louis.  ]\Io.,  January  1.  1864. 
Chadwick.  James,  private,  Company  "F,""  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Rome.  Ga..  September  3.  1864. 
Conger,  Lewis  B.,  private.  Company  "D,"  TAventy-fifth  Infantry, 

hospital  boat,  July  29,  1863. 
Cressy,  AYarren  P.,  private,  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Cairo,  111.,  September  6,  1863. 
Cross,    George    C,    first    sergeant.    Company    "C,"    Thirty-sixth 

Infantry,  ^Madison.  AVis..  May  13,  1864. 
Deyotell.  John,  private.  Company  'II.'"  Tentli  Infantry,  Bacon 

Creek,  Ky..  February  23,  1862. 
Bustiu.  John    P..   jirivate.  Company  "D,"  Eighteenth    Infantry, 

May  21,  1S62. 
Degotell,  AYilliam,  jtrivate,  Comjiany  ""F,"'  Nineteenth  Infantry, 

Sjiringfield.  ^Mo.,  January  1,  1863. 
Day,  Henry,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry,  Man- 

kato,  :\Iinn.,  November  22,  1862. 
Demmon,  Ira  P.,  corporal.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Cher.saw,  S.  C..  :\Iarch  2.  1865. 
Depen,    AYiley,   i)rivate,   Company    "D,"    Twenty-fifth   Infantry, 

drowned  Dallas.  Ga..  Januarv  1,  1864. 


Davis,    Joseph,    private,    Company    "E,"    Forty-third   Infantry, 

Louisville,  Ky.,  June  15,  18()5. 
David,   Theron,   private.   Company   ''F,"   Twenty-fifth   Infantry, 

iMeniphis,  Tenn.,  September  9,  1863. 
Dell,    EdAvard,    private,    Company    "F, "    Twenty-fifth    Infantry, 

Memphis,  Tenn.,  September  9,  1863. 
Eschner,  Phileman,  private.  Company  "F, "  Twenty- fifth  Infantry, 

Vicksburg,  Miss.,  March  9,  1864. 
Edgerton,   Henry   L.,   private.   Company   ''D,"   Twenty-fifth   In- 
fantry, Greenfield,  Mo.,  December  6,  1864. 
Edgerton,  Charles  L.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infan- 
try, Helena,  Ark.,  August  19,  1863. 
Eastman,  Lemuel,  private,   Company  "F, "   Twentieth  Infantry, 

Springfield,  Mo.,  June  9,  1863. 
Freeman,   Select,   private,   Company  "D,"   Eighteenth  Infantry, 

date  and  place  unknoAvn. 
Fitch,   Irwin  N..   private,    Company   "I,"   Forty-ninth   Infantry, 

Madison,  Wis.,  ]\Iareh  27,  1865. 
Gorman,    Aaron    II.,    private.    Company    "H, "    Tenth    Infantry, 

Bowling  Green,  Ky.,  March  31,  1862. 
Gugerty,  AVilliam  A.,  private.  Company  "E,"  Eleventh  Infantry, 

Brashear  City,  La.,  July  15,  1864. 
Gleason,  George,  private.  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Helena,  Ark.,  August  19,  1863. 
Godbould,  David,  private.  Company  "F, "  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Rome,  Ga.,  August  27,  1864. 
Graves,  Nathan,  private,   Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry, 

Salisbury,  N.  C,  December  18,  1864. 
Hill,  Jacob,  private,  Company  ''I,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  Carrolton, 

La.,  November  5,  1862. 
Hill,   Oscar   A.,   corporal,   Company   ''D,"   Eighteenth   Infantry, 

Jefferson  Barracks,  Mo.,  December  20,  1862. 
Hutchins,  Sylvester,  pivate,  Company  "C, "  Nineteenth  Infantry, 

Alexander,  A^a.,  July  16,  1862. 
Harman,  John  A.,  corporal.  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Helena,  Ark.,  September  30,  1863. 
Harp,  George  F.,  private.  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

AVinship  Furnace,  Ga.,  June  16,  1864. 
Holgate,  Francis,  private.  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Snyders  Bluff,  Miss.,  June  15,  1863. 
Hollenbeck,  Amos  J.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infan- 
try, Andersonville,  Ga.,  August  4,  1864. 



Ilydo,  Alfred,  private,  Company  "D,"  Twonty-finii  liif;nitry, 
^Memphis,  'reim..  September  15,  ISi^i. 

Ilatliaway,  Henry,  private,  Company  "C,"  Tweiity-iiftli  Iiiiaiilry, 
Salisl)ury,  N.  C,  November  27,  1864. 

Justiee,  John,  sergeant,  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fit'th  Infantry, 
Helena,  Ark.,  August  15,  1863. 

.Icwi'll.  Isaac.  ])rivate,  Company  "I,"  Fourth  Cavalr}',  Carrolton, 
La.,  September  28,  1862. 

Kiii<rht,  Charles  A.,  private,  Compan.y  "A,"  Fourtli  Cavalry, 
Whitewater,  AVis.,  November  28.  1864. 

Kinney,  AVilliam  P..  private,  Company  "D."'  Twcnly-fifth  Infan- 
try, Vieksburg.  .Miss.,  February  22,  1864. 

Love,  Job,  private,  Company  "G, "  Tenth  Infantry,  Murfreesboro, 
Teun.,  September  6,  1861. 

Lj'man,  Jeremiah,  jnivate,  Companj^  "C,"  Sixteenth  Infantry, 
Vieksburg,  Miss.,  August  10,  1863. 

jMurphy.  AVilliam.  private.  First  Battery  Light  Artillery,  Youngs 
Point,  La.,  February  26,  1863. 

Merriam,  Enos  S.,  ]n'ivate,  Com{)any  "D,"  Eiglitccnth  Tnfanti-y, 
Grand  Junetion.  Tenn.,  Deeember  4,  1862. 

McPheters.  Alexandci'.  private.  Company  "C,"  Niueteenlli  In- 
fantry, Portsmouth,  Va.,  October  3,  1862. 

Miller,  Alexander,  private,  Companj'  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Rome,  Ga.,  October  10,  1864. 

]\lills,  Elias.  private.  Company  "D,''  Twenty-fifth  Infantry. 
Paducah,  Ky.,  August  18,  1863. 

Alills,  Eli,  private,  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry,  Hos- 
pital Boat,  July  25,  1863. 

]Minor,  AVm.  II.,  private.  Company  ''D,"  Twc^nty-fiftli  Infantry. 
Padueah,  Ky..  October  9,  1863. 

a\Iorrison,  AVm.  A.,  private.  Company-  "D,"  Twenty-liltli  Infantry, 
Goldsboro,  N.  C.,  April  1,  1865. 

]\Iusgrave.  \Vm.  P.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Snyder's  Bluff,  Miss.,  July  23,  1863. 

Mero,  Fredrick,  private,  Company  "E,"  Twenty-fifth  Infanti-y, 
Hospital  Boat.  July  28,  1863. 

Nicliols.  Edward,  private.  Company  ^'C."  Tliirly-sixlli  Infantry. 
Salis])ury,  N.  C.,  November  27,  1864. 

Owens,  Lewis  E.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Tw(>nty-fifth  Infantry, 
Helena,  Ark.,  September  10.  1863. 

Rottenstetter,  Simeon,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  In- 
fantry, Helena.  Ark.,  October  27,  1863. 


Randless,  James  AY.,    private,    First    Battery,    Light    Artillery, 
Young's  Point,  La.,  March  9,  1863. 

Rogers,  Jacob,  private.  Company  "H, "  Twelfth  Infantry,  Nash- 
ville, Tenn.,  February  5.  1865. 

Rathbun,  Dewey,  private.  Company  ''D,"  Eighteenth  Infantry, 
Leon,  AYis.,  March  26,  1862. 

Smith,  Gilbert,  private,  First  Battery,  Light  Artillery,  New  Or- 
leans, La.,  August  3,  1864. 

Spooner,    Edward.   J.,    private.    Company   "E,"    Sixth   infantry, 
Arlington,  Yh.,  March  4,  1862. 

Stanley,  Lewis,  private.  Company  "H, "  First  Cavalry,  Bowling 
Green,  Ky.,  February  14,  1865. 

Spooner,  Charles  AY.,  private.  Company  "H, "  Tenth  Infantry, 
Annapolis,  Md.,  May  10,  1864. 

Seepry,  Edward,  private.  Company  "D,"  Eighteenth  Infantry, 
St.  Louis,  Mo.,  June  8,  1862. 

Sanderlin,  Isaac  S.,  private.  Company  "K, "  Eighteenth  Infantry, 
Annapolis,  Mel.,  April  3,  1864. 

Sawyer,  Peter  E.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Helena,  Ark.,  October  27,  1863. 

Shaw,  Wm.  F.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Memphis,  Tenn.,  April  17,  1863. 

Snow,  George  M.,  private,  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Louisville,  Ky.,  June  9,  1864. 

Sour,  Cyrus,  private,  Company  ''C,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry,  Madi- 
son, AYis.,  April  17.  1864. 

Stevens,  John  E.,  private,  Company  ''C,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry, 
Salisbury,  N.  C,  November  28.  1864. 

Stranthan,   Rodolphus    A.,    private.    Company   ''I,"    Forty-ninth 
Infantry,  Rollo,  Mo.,  March  25,  1865. 

Teed,    Truman,    corporal.    Company    "C,"    Sixteenth    Infantry, 
Providence,  La.,  July  6,  1863. 

Thompson,  James  AY.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  In- 
fantry, Paducah,  Ky.,  August  26.  1863. 

Thomson,  Allen,  private.  Company  ''D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
St.  Louis,  Mo.,  October  15,  1863. 

Ustick,  Jacob  Y.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 
Paducah,  Ky.,  August  30,  1863. 

A^aughau,   George  AY.,   private,   Company   "G,"  Nineteenth  In- 
fantry, Yorktown,  A^a.,  August  14,  1863. 

AYeaver,  Hiram  0.,  private.    Company    "H,"    Tenth    Infantry, 
Andersonville,  Ga.,  July  4,  1861. 



Wiiiegar,    AVilliaiu.   i)rivato,  Conipan.y  "F,"  Sixteenth  Infantry, 

Keokuk,  J  a..  July  30,  1862. 
AVileox,    Martin,    private,    Company    "II,"    Sixteenth    Infantry, 

Rome,  Ga.,  August  28,  186-4. 
AVilson,  Addison,  private,  Company  "G,"  Nineteenth  Infantry, 

Raeine,  AVis.,  I\Iay  16,  1862. 
AYolcott,   George   L.,   private.   Company   "D,"   Twenty-fifth   In- 
fantry, i\Iemphis,  Tenn.,  October  11,  1862. 
AYorden,  Samuel,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fiflh  Infantry, 

^Marietta,  Ga.,  September  16,  1864. 
AYolcot,  Jerome  B.,  private,  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry, 

Madison,  AVis.,  April  6,  1864. 
Yomans,  AYm.  H.,  private.  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  Infantry, 

Memphis,  Tenn.,  September  17,  1863. 


Conway,   Thomas,    private,    Company   "K,"   Sixth   Infantrj^   at 
Gettysburg,  July  1,  1863. 



HENRY  W.  CRESSY  POST  No.  42,  G.  A.  R. 
BY  E.  M.  COWLES,  ADJ. 

In  the  summer  of  1882  some  fifteen  or  more  of  the  ex-soldiers 
made  application  to  Grand  Army  headquarters,  department  of 
AYisconsin,  to  muster  a  post  of  the  G.  A.  R.  at  Tomah,  Monroe 
county,  Wisconsin. 

The  department  commander  approving  of  such  application 
the  mustering  officer  detailed  Commander  James  Davidson,  of 
John  W.  Lynn  post  of  Sparta,  to  go  to  Tomah  with  such  com- 
rades as  he  needed  and  muster  Henry  W.  Cressy  Post  No.  42. 
Commander  Davidson  detailed  Comrade  J.  E.  Perry  as  officer  of 
the  day ;  Comrade  Kerrigan,  as  S.  V. ;  C.  AVhetstein,  as  J.  V.  C. 
All  of  said  comrades  being  members  of  John  W.  Lynn  post  of  the 
G.  A.  R. 

Said  detail  visited  Tomah  on  the  afternoon  of  August  26,  1882, 
and  at  7:30  o'clock,  at  the  Fireman's  hall,  proceeded  to  muster 
Henry  W.  Cressy  post  with  the  following  conn^ades  charter  mem- 

J.  B.  Adams,  Company  ''B, "  One  Plundred  and  Fourth  In- 
fantry, Pennsylvania;  C.  A.  Adams.  Company  ''I,"  Fourth  Cav- 
alry, Wisconsin ;  William  Alexander,  Company  "  C, "  Eleventh 
Infantry,  Wisconsin;  W.  N.  Alverson,  Company  "K, "  Twenty- 
fourth  Infantry,  New  York;  E.  L.  Bolton,  Company  "E,"  Seven- 
teenth Infantry,  AVisconsin ;  H.  S.  Beardsley,  Company  ^'E," 
Twelfth  Infantry,  AYisconsin;  A.  D.  Benjamin,  Company  "B," 
Second  Cavalry,  Ohio;  AA^.  T.  Bristol,  Company  "E,"  Fourteenth 
Infantry,  Michigan;  J.  H.  Beardsley,  Company  "A,"  Thirty- 
eighth  Infantry,  AA^isconsin;  D.  F.  Crandall,  Company  "B, "  For- 
tieth Infantry,  AYisconsin;  E.  L.  Craig,  Company  ''I,"  First 
Infantry,  Wisconsin;  AY.  H.  Calkins,  Company  "I,"  Twenty-ninth 
Infantry,  AYisconsin;  C.  A.  Crawford,  Company  "K,"  Sixth  In- 
fantry, AYisconsin;  C.  K.  Erwin,  Company  "E,"  Forty-fifth  In- 
fantry, Illinois;  Charles  Gilson,  Company  "I,"  Fourth  Cavalry, 
AYisconsin :  George  Graham,  Company  ' '  G, "  Thirty-seventh 
Infantry,  AVisconsin;  H.  D.  Hollenbeck,  Company  "A,"  Sixteenth 



Infantry.  Wisconsin;  Fred  Johnson.  Company  'A.'"  Thii'd  Cav- 
alry, "Wisconsin ;  S.  AiMustrong,  A.  AV.  Alderman,  .John  Jiui'nliam, 

E.  L.  Bolton,  n.  S.  Heardsley.  A.  1).  Henjamin,  K.  Bremer,  C.  F. 
Miller.  E.  X.  l).-nsiuort.  C.  K.  Erwin,  P.  Edner.  W.  H.  Foote, 
]\I.  Flint.  •).  Fairl)aiiks.  JI.  Fanninjr,  J.  Fitzsinger.  11.  1^'isli.  -John 
Fryer.  William  Garland,  Sam  Gasper,  Cliai'les  Gilson.  S.  II.  Gris- 
wold.  George  D.  Ilollenbeek,  0.  H.  Hastings.  H.  D.  Ilollenbeck, 
Thomas  Hancock,  A.  B.  Hoover.  E.  \V.  Howard,  S.  A.  Hudson, 
R.  P.  Hitchcock.  A.  E.  Ilollister.  A.  31.  Ilickox.  A.  Z.  Herring, 
G.  11.  lluiidiii.  .1.  T.  Beers,  George  Boyington.  D.  II.  Bcii.  1).  W. 
Bigelow.  H.  ().  Bigelow,  A.  G.  Bernie,  F.  K.  Brown,  A.  C.  Brooks, 
II.  Lettingwell.  H.  L.-a.  AV.  Liseomb,  H.  Miller,  Thomas  McCanl, 
C(»n.  ]\lerril.  J.  M.  ]\lcCurdy.  Z.  31.  ^lorse.  AVilliam  ]\IcLean, 
A.  N.  3Ialtbie.  George  Musson,  J.  31cGinnis,  E.  B.  ]Marvin.  Z.  G. 
Moore.  S.  F.  Nice,  R.  Noble.  G.  Nelson,  AV.  B.  Naylor,  F.  Nuss, 

F.  Noth,  AV.  Olmstead,  John  Organ,  AVilliam  Plnnket.  R.  Parker, 
S.  Pokrand,  George  Persons,  D.  F.  Cleveland.  \V.  1).  Cassels, 
N.  Calkins,  Z.  H.  Crossett,  E.  Al.  Cowles.  AVilliam  Curavo,  G.  11 
Dobbins.  J.  AI.  Decker.  A.  E.  Logan.  A.  AV.  Johnson.  V.  A. 
Thompson.  AV.  D.  Stannard,  II.  C.  Spaidding,  D.  H.  Spoouer,  A.  L. 
Sherer,  A.  AV.  Sowle.  0.  T.  Sowle,  II.  Street,  AI.  Sherwood,  S.  Sut- 
ton. J.  J.  Silken.  R.  Toond)s.  D.  Thompson.  George  AI.  Trow- 
bridge. J.  E.  Fnderwctod.  I.  A^'audervort.  C.  A'andervort,  J.  A'an- 
dervort.  Af.  A'aiulervort,  E.  Alistle,  L.  A'anvoorhes,  Fred  AVise, 
J.  AVilson.  J.  AVhitfield,  AVilliam  Ingham.  F.  Johnson.  S.  P.  Janes, 
J.  Jeffries,  A.  Jeffries,  J.  Kellogg,  C.  II.  Kellogg.  W.  Kenyon, 
C.  AV.  Kenyon,  E.  G.  Kinnie,  B.  Kennedy.  R.  King,  E.  15.  King. 
C.  Kenhl.  Af.  Larkin.  C.  E.  Loomer.  John  Little,  L.  Leech.  J.  E. 
Perry,  I.  Perry,  J.  Prescott,  J.  Peterson,  C.  J.  Aldin,  J.  C.  Quimby. 
Thomas  Reikie.  AI.  Robertson,  N.  R.  Richardson,  O.  Root.  AVilliam 
Ramsey.  G.  B.  Robinson.  D.  P.  Hockwood.  L.  Richards.  B.  Rhodes, 
IT.  Rogga,  Con.  Sullivan.  L.  Sweet,  L.  D.  AVyatt.  Jacob  AVells, 
J.  A.  AVells.  11.  C.  AValrath,  George  AValtenburg,  AV.  II.  AVright, 
J.    G.    Williams.    E.   AVimiie.    A.    D.   AVoodruff,    George   AValker, 

G.  AVoodard,  C.  G.  Walk.r.  B.  Durham.  I).  R.  Jones,  L.  E.  A'au- 
loon.  K.  A.  Ci-ockci".  \V.  II.  Burlin. 


C.  J.  Alden,  A.  W.  Alderman.  C.  A.  Crawford,  A.  1).  Benja- 
min.  .\.  Cary,  G.  II.  Dobbins.  I.  Fitzsinger.  II.  Fish,  AVilliam 
Garland,  Charles  Gilson,  H.  Getman.  A.  Getnuin,  II.  Galloway, 
S.  H.  Griswold,  R.  P.  Hitchcock,  R.  King,  E.  G.  Kinnie,  C.  Bohn, 


Charles  Bremer,  W.  T.  Bristol,  A.   G.  Beriiie,  D.  F.  Cleveland, 

C.  K.  Erwin,  A.  Herring,  J.  H.  Kellogg,  W.  Kenyon,  C.  W.  Ken- 
yon,  John  Little,  L.  Leech,  W.  Liseomb,  C.  Keuhl,  H.  Leffingwell, 
F.  Nass,  F.  Noth,  G.  S.  Preseott,  R.  E.  Bramen,  George  Boyington, 

D.  W.  Bigelow,  H.  0.  Bigelow,  William  Curavo,  H.  Fanning, 
AV.  McLean,  S.  F.  Nice,  R.  Noble,  W.  B.  Naylor,  C.  H.  Kellogg, 
Company  "K,"  Forty-third  Infantry,  Wisconsin;  Thomas 
McCcUil,  Company  "G,"  First  Infantry,  United  States;  C.  W. 
Merril,  Company  "B,"  Second  Cavalry,  Colorado;  S.  F.  Nice, 
Company  "C,"  Twenty-fiftli  Infantry,  Wisconsin;  John  Organ, 
Company  "D,"  Twenty-eighth  Infantry,  AVisconsin ;  George  Rob- 
inson, Company  "B, "  Thirteenth  Infantry,  Illinois;  Cornelius 
Snllivan,  Ignited  States  steamer  Tuscarora ;  W.  D.  Stannard, 
Company  "F, "  Second  Cavalry,  Michigan;  II.  C.  Spaulding, 
Company  ''H,"  Tenth  Infantry,  Wisconsin;  J.  A.  AVells,  Com- 
pany ''A,"  Twenty-third  Infantry,  AVisconsin;  Jacob  AVells,  Com- 
pany "D,"  Thirty-sixth  Infantry,  Ohio;  H.  C.  Walwath,  Company 
"I,"  Fourth  Cavalry,  Wisconsin;  L.  D.  Wyatt,  Company  "A," 
First  Cavalry,  AVisconsin. 

The  officers  elected  and  installed  at  tlie  first  meeting,  August 
26,  1882,  were :  Commander,  C.  K.  Erwin  ;  S.  A^.  C,  George  Gra- 
ham;  J.  A^  C,  E.  L.  Bolton;  Q.  AI..  J.  A.  AVells;  surgeon,  AV.  D. 
Stannard;  chaplain,  II.  S.  Beardsley;  0.  D.,  II.  C.  Spaulding; 
0.  G.,  Thomas  AlcCaul;  adjutant,  George  Robinson;  S.  AL,  J.  B. 
Adams;  Q.  AI.  S..  AVilliam  Alexander;  sentinels,  Jacob  AVells  and 
John  Organ. 


J.  B.  Adams,  ( \  A.  Adams,  AVilliam  Alexander,  W.  N.  Alver- 
son,  O.  A^  Anton,  AI.  C.  Alton,  C.  Bohn,  AV.  T.  Bristol,  J.  H. 
Beardsley,  C.  C.  Boomer,  R.  E.  Braman,  John  Brecker,  D.  F. 
Crandall,  E.  L.  Craig,  AV.  H.  Calkins,  C.  A.  Crawford,  H.  Camp- 
bell, N.  Cary,  A.  N.  Hickox,  H.  C.  Spaulding.  R.  Toombs,  E.  AVin- 
nie,  C.  A.  Adams,  E.  L.  Bolton,  J.  H.  Crossett.  AV.  H.  Foote, 

E.  N.  Griswold,  E.  AV.  Howard,  N.  Calkins,  AI.  Flint.  I.  Perry, 
B.  Rhodes,  0.  Root,  H.  Aliller,  Con.  Alerril,  J.  AI.  AleCurdy,  D.  H. 
Spooner,  D.  Thompson,  A.  D.  AVoodruff,  AV.  N.  Alverson,  H.  S. 
Beardsley,  John  Fryer,  B.  Kennedy,  A.  AV.  Sowle,  0.  T.  Sowle, 
Sam  Sutton,  Con.  Sullivan,  John  Organ,  AVilliam  Plunkett, 
George  Persons,  AI.  Robertson,  G.  B.  Robinson,  L.  Richards,  H. 
Rogga,  George  Waltenberg,  D.  B.  Bon,  C.  G.  AA'alker,  John 
AVhitfield,  Z.  E.  Underwood,  J.  G.  AVilliams,  G.  AVoodard. 



M.  C.  Alton.  J.  liuniham,  J.  IT.  Heardsley,  ('.  ('.  lioomor, 
AV.  B.  Cassols,  K.  .M.  Cowles,  B.  Durliain,  E.  xV.  Crockrr.  George 
Graham,  O.  II.  Ila.stings,  L.  Sweet,  C.  Vaiidervort,  L.  Van  Voorhes, 
L.  D.  AVyatt,  Thomas  Hancock,  A.  B.  Hoover,  D.  R.  Jones,  S.  P. 
Janes,  C.  11.  Kellogg,  A.  E.  Logan,  M.  Lafkin,  C.  E.  Loonier, 
II.  Lea,  George  M.  Trowbridge,  J.  Vandervort,  L.  E.  Vanloon, 
J.  A.  AVells,  V.  .Alistle,  C.  F.  ]\liller,  Thomas  MeCaiil,  A.  X. 
]Maltbie,  R.  Parker,  S.  Pokrand,  J.  Peterson,  Thomas  Reikie, 
D.  P.  Rockwood,  1.  Vandervort,  M.  Vandervort,  F.  AVise,  George 


Commander,  J.  R.  Burnham ;  S.  V.  C,  C.  II.  Kellogg;  J.  V.  C, 
B.  Durham;  surgeon,  Thomas  Reikie;  chaplain,  Robert  Parker; 
adjutant,  E.  M.  Cowles;  Q.  :\I..  D.  P.  Rockwood;  P.  I.,  George 
Graham;  0.  D.,  E.  A.  Crocker;  0.  G.,  C.  Vandervort;  S.  M.,  AV.  B. 
Cassels;  Q.  M.  S.,  A.  N.  Maltby;  delegate,  C.  H.  Kellogg; 
alternate,  AV.  B.  Cassels ;  trustee,  Robert  Parker ;  color  bearer, 
George  Trowbridge. 

The  post  has  a  present  membership  of  forty,  and  as  the  years 
roll  on  its  members  are  growing  steadily  less,  and  the  value  of 
its  associations  greater  to  the  comrades. 


The  following  i^aper  was  read  by  .Mr.  llollister  before  the 
Henry  AV.  Cressy  post,  February  11.  1888: 

"I  was  born  ]\lay  26,  184."),  in  the  county  of  Livingston,  state 
of  New  York.  My  parents  moved  to  Cass  county,  Alichigan,  when 
I  was  three  years  old.  1  lived  on  a  lanii  until  1  enlisted.  In  August, 
1862,  I  enlisted  in  Company  A,  Nineteenth  Alichigan  Infantry. 
Being  only  seventeen,  my  lather  demanded  my  release  of  the  cap- 
tain wlio  enlisted  me,  which  was  readily  granted.  Among  the 
mnnber  of  our  neighborhood  was  a  cousin  whom  I  will  call  Frank. 
AVe  had  been  brought  up  together  and  had  enlisted  together,  and 
T  did  not  want  to  go  honu>  unless  Frank  did.  So,  rather  than  go 
home,  I  hired  out  to  work  on  a  farm.  After  working  for  a  few 
days  I  took  a  'lay-off'  to  visit  camp  and  see  the  boys.  After 
thinking  the  matter  over  1  came  to  the  conclusion  that  I  was  not 
to  blame  for  being  too  young,  and  as  I  was  older  than  Frank 
was,  I  would  not  stay  at  home  and  let  him  go.  After  staying 
around  camp  awhile,  I  offered  myself,  but  the  captain  who 
enlisted  me  before,  and  in  whose  company  Frank  was,  would  not 


take  me  again.  We  soon  found  a  lieutenant  whose  company  was 
not  full  and  I  offered  myself.  He  asked  my  age  and  I  told  him 
eighteen.  He  told  me  to  go  with  him  up  to  the  captain's  office. 
The  first  inquiry  of  the  captain  was,  'How  old  are  you?'  'Eight- 
een, sir,'  was  my  answer.  'When  will  you  be  eighteen."  was 
his  next  question.  'Last  IMay,  sir,'  was  my  reply.  "I  don't 
believe  it, '  he  said.  Here  Frank  thought  he  would  help  me  a 
little  and  said  to  the  captain,  'He  is  older  than  I  am.'  'AYere 
you  there  when  he  was  born?'  asked  the  captain.  As  I  was  ten 
weeks  older  than  Frank  he  had  to  admit  he  was  not  there. 

"After  a  short  consultation  with  the  lieutenant,  he  concluded 
to  take  me,  and  accordingly  I  was  enlisted  in  Company  H  and 
assigned  to  quarters.  The  only  incident  for  some  time  in  which 
I  was  in  any  way  more  interested  than  the  rest  of  the  boys  hap- 
pened about  two  weeks  after  my  enlistment.  An  acquaintance  of 
mine  came  into  camp  one  day  and  picked  up  my  gun.  After 
looking  at  it  a  moment  he  made  a  motion  as  if  to  stick  the  bayo- 
net into  my  foot.  I  thought  he  would  not  strike  and  stood  still. 
He  thought  T  would  .jump  and  struck.  Then  I  jumped.  I  was 
mad  and  he  was  badly  frightened.  'My  G — I'  he  exclaimed,  'I 
thought  you  would  jump.  Take  off  your  shoe.'  Taking  off  my 
shoe  I  found  my  foot  bleeding,  but  not  seriously  injured.  My 
father,  hearing  that  I  had  been  gone  for  some  time  from  where  he 
supposed  I  was.  came  to  camp  to  look  for  me,  but  after  finding 
that  I  had  enlisted  as  eighteen,  and  as  he  thought  that  I  was 
unwilling  to  leave,  went  home  and  left  me.  In  a  few  days  we 
were  mustered  into  the  United  States  service. 

"After  we  broke  ranks  and  went  to  our  (piarters  I  went  to 
see  Frank.  He  was  but  seventeen  and  could  not  be  mustered. 
I  was  in  a  fix.  I  did  not  want  to  go  unless  Frank  Avent.  He  tried 
another  company  but  they  would  not  take  him.  What  would  I 
do?  I  thought  of  a  number  of  ways  to  get  out,  but  did  not  want 
to  be  laughed  at.  All  Frank  could  do  was  to  go  home.  All 
I  could  do  was  to  stay.  I  thought  I  would  stick  to  it  as  it  was  my 
fault  that  I  was  so  old.  That  night  I  could  not  sleep.  The  next 
day  I  did  not  see  anything  around  camp  to  interest  me.  I  felt 
pretty  sober.  In  a  week  I  did  not  have  a  grain  of  sand  left. 
The  first  time  my  father  came  to  see  me  I  told  him  I  would  go 
home  with  him  if  he  could  get  me  out.  He  went  to  the  colonel 
and  was  referred  to  the  mustering  of^cer.  That  official  said  they 
could  not  hold  me  if  my  parents  objected  to  my  going.  The 
colonel  swore  at  me  for  making  so  much  trouble  until  the  muster- 
ing officer  told  him  to  stop,  as  hundreds  of  boys  were  doing  that 

ir,2  lllSTUliV   OF  .MUXKUK  L'OL'XTY 

every  day.  ]\k'ii  were  inori'  Avilling  to  enlist  at  that  time  than  a 
year  or  so  later,  or  I  could  not  have  got  out  of  my  scrape  as 
easily  as  I  did.  1  went  liome.  I  luid  been  a  soldier  long  enough, 
so  I  thought  at  that  time. 

"I  stayed  at  home  about  a  year.  ]My  regiment,  or  tlic  regi- 
ment in  which  I  had  enlistinl,  had  all  been  captured,  and  wc  would 
occasionally  hear  whei'e  they  Avere.  They  finally  brought  up  in 
Libby  prison.  Soon  thej'  were  paroled  and  some  of  them  came  on 
what  they  called  'French  furlough.'  After  listening  to  their 
accounts  of  the  battle  in  which  they  Avere  captured  and  bidding 
them  good-bye  as  they  started  back  after  lieing  exchanged,  I 
began  to  feel  more  patriotic.  Soon  the  Xintli  ]\Iicliigan  cavalry 
began  recruiting  in  our  neighborhood.  I  concluded  to  go.  I 
went  to  see  Frank.  He  Avould  go.  but  not  in  the  cavalry.  He  said 
if  I  would  go  as  a  recruit  in  the  Nineteenth,  himself.  Deacon 
Grinnell  and  Kev.  Gilbert  would  go  with  me.  In  February,  1864, 
we  all  enlisted  and  Avere  sent  to  Camp  Blair,  at  Jackson,  ]\Iichi- 
gan.  Here  Frank  had  the  measles,  Avhich  Avas  the  cause  of  his 
never  doing  any  active  service.  "While  there  I,  among  others, 
Avas  detailed  to  cook  for  the  men  in  barracks  No.  4.  AVhile  acting 
in  that  capacity  the  Rca'.  Gill)ert  and  myself,  through  a  misunder- 
standing of  facts  on  the  part  of  the  ofificer  of  the  day,  Avere 
arrested  and  confined  in  the  guard-house,  leaving  no  one  to  get 
supper  for  the  boys.  By  morning  there  had  been  men  detailed 
to  take  our  places,  and  about  10:00  o'clock  they  brought  us  our 
breakfast.  About  noon  Ave  Avere  taken  out  under  guard  and  y)ut 
to  Avork  scrub])ing  offices  and  privies  until  about  4:00  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon,  Avhen  avc  Avere  released  and  returned  to  our 

'']\[ay  13  Ave  Avere  sent  South.  On  our  Avay  avc  made  shoi-f 
stops  at  Louisville,  Nashville,  Chattanooga  and  Kingston.  From 
Chattanooga  to  Kingston  avc  Avere  obliged  to  ride  on  top  of  box 
cars.  At  llu'  latter  ])lace  Ave  found  everything  in  confusion.  The 
rebel  General  "Wheeler  had  made  a  raid  and  killed  several  negroes 
and  one  or  two  soldiers.  ^My  three  companions  Avere  sick  and  lay 
doA\  n  in  an  old  barn.  1  Avas  ordered  to  assist  in  haiding  a  couple 
of  pieces  of  artillery  to  an  elevation  north  of  foAvn.  Keturuing 
to  my  companions  I  found  them  as  I  had  left  them.  ToAvard  night 
Frank  Avent  Avith  the  other  two  to  the  hospital.  Just  after  dark 
he  returned  and  said  he  Avould  go  to  the  regiment  if  he  did  not 
live  a  day  after  he  got  there;  l)ut  by  the  next  morning  he  Avas 
sick  enough  to  go  to  the  hospital  Avithont  being  urged.  He  had 
eaught   cold   and  the  measles  had  settled  on  his  lungs.     I  Avas 

HENRY  W.  (  RESSY  POST  153 

alone  again.  I  had  to  go  on  further  South  and  they  returned 
North.  I  was  in  excellent  health  and  spirits  and  did  not  get 
homesick  again.  When  I  started  for  the  front  I  had  a  knapsack 
well  filled  with  A\hat  I  supposed  were  necessary  articles.  I  had 
not  marched  more  than  half  a  day  when  I  threw  away  my  over- 
coat. Before  night  1  left  my  blacking-brush,  looking-glass,  etc., 
on  the  corner  of  the  fence.  The  next  morning  I  changed  under- 
clothing, and  threw  away  what  I  took  off.  Before  noon  we  heard 
the  boom  of  artillery,  and  it  Avas  not  the  Fourtli  of  July  either. 
In  the  afternoon  we  could  hear  the  musketry.  Soon  we  came  to 
a  hospital  and  here  I  found  one  of  Company  K.  of  my  regiment, 
who  was  Avounded  in  tlie  calf  of  the  leg.  I  gave  him  my  blanket 
and  went  on.  The  artillery  was  pounding  away,  but  infantry 
was  quiet  most  of  the  time.  I  got  to  the  regiment  just  before 
night.  Soon  the  'Johnnies'  made  a  charge,  l)ut  were  repulsed. 
Here  I  was,  on  my  nineteenth  birthday,  under  fire  for  the  first 
time.  Comrades,  most  of  you  know  how  I  felt.  AVe  were  lying 
behind  the  line  of  light  earthworks.  During  the  night  the  enemy 
made  another  assault  but  were  repulsed.  I  was  asleep  when  the 
first  volley  was  fired.  Which  side  fired  first  I  do  not  know.  I 
sprang  to  my  feet  and  looked  around.  To  the  left  was  one  con- 
tinuous blaze.  Around  me  I  could  hear  the  zip  and  whizz  of 
bullets.  I  could  see  the  smallest  twigs  on  the  trees.  I  was  so 
confounded  or  frightened  I  did  not  know  enough  to  li(^  down.  It 
was  not  long  before  I  could  lie  down  as  close  to  the  ground  as 
anyone,  and  lie  down  quick.  I  would  rather  lie  down  a  half  dozen 
times  when  it  was  not  necessary  than  to  nnss  once  when  it  was. 
I  never  could  get  over  the  habit  of  dodging  when  I  heard  the 
Avliizz  of  a  ball. 

"June  15  found  us  near  Lost  Mountain,  Georgia.  Just  after 
noon  we  were  ordered  to  support  the  First  Brigade,  Third  Divi- 
sion, Twentieth  Corps,  in  an  assault  upon  the  enemy's  works. 
The  First  brigade  made  the  attack  just  as  we  moved  out  across 
a  field.  They  were  in  the  woods.  The  heavy  clouds  of  smoke 
Avere  rolling  up  among  the  trees  and  as  Ave  advanced  the  Avounded 
began  to  come  to  the  rear.  It  seemed  as  though  the  smoke  Avas 
full  of  Avounded  men.  There  Avas  no  Avind  and  the  smoke  did  not 
move  off.  Soon  avc  Avere  in  the  Avoods.  There  Avas  a  battery  in 
front  of  us  that  had  been  firing  all  the  forenoon,  and  as  Ave  Avere 
to  support  a  brigade  I  concluded  Ave  were  moving  to  the  support 
of  the  battery.  AVe  Avere  ordered  to  lie  doAvn.  By  this  time 
it  Avas  dark.  After  lying  doAvn  for  a  short  time  Ave  Avere  ordered 
forAvard.     Imagine  my  feelings  as  we  came  into  an  opening  and 


found  we  were  in  front  instead  of  the  rear  of  the  hattery.  AVe 
could  look  iuto  l!ic  inoutlis  of  those  guns  at  every  discharge,  and 
by  the  flash  Ave  could  see  their  infantry  standing  behind  llie 
Avorks.  I  was  a  recruit  and  not  well  posted  in  nioxcnu'nts,  bnt  i 
don't  thiidv  tbey  knew  where  we  were,  for  they  were  throwing 
their  shells  over  our  line  and  into  a  ravine  some  distance  in  our 
rear.  AVe  Avere  not  uuire  than  one-third  the  distance  from  them 
to  where  their  shells  were  dropping.  AVe  lay  down  again  in  the 
rear  of  the  First  brigade.  In  a  short  time  the  line  in  our  front 
rose  upon  their  knees  and  Avaited  until  the  discharge  from  the 
battery  and  all  fin-d  full  at  the  gunners.  Their  infantry  replied 
immediately  but  tlie  artillery  Avaited  some  iilth-  time.  Their 
musketry  made  it  luipleasant  for  us.  The  line  in  front  of  us  rose 
up  and  Avent  to  the  rear  double  quick.  AVe  had  to  take  it.  They 
had  got  our  position.  They  poured  shell  and  canister  or  grape 
(don't  knoAv  Avhicli  it  Avas)  into  us.  Our  major  Avas  killed,  the 
ball  striking  him  in  tiie  breast.  'Oh.  my  Avife  and  l)oysI'  Avere 
his  only  Avords.  Several  ])rivates  Avere  Avounded.  1  could  hear 
their  comrades  telling  them  to  keep  still  and  not  let  the  'sons  of 

1) knoAv  Avhere  to  shoot.'     Then  a  shell  exploded  in  Company 

I  and  tore  the  limbs  from  the  l^odies  of  tAvo  sergeants,  one  of  them 
dying  in  a  fcAv  moments.  I  heard  the  other  moaning  and  saying. 
'Boys,  I  knoAv  it  is  no  use  to  make  a  fuss,  but  I  can't  help  it. 
Give  me  some  Avater.  Good-bye,  boys.  Kiss  me,  George.  Good- 
bye.' All  this  time  Ave  Avere  merely  lying  there  for  them  to  shoot 
at,  Ave  making  no  reply.  It  uuist  have  been  midnight  or  after 
Avhen  things  l)egan  to  be  more  quiet  and  Ave  Avere  ord(>red  to  the 
left  and  rear,  the  order  being  given  in  a  Avhisper.  Soon  Ave  Avent 
to  building  Avorks  and  Avere  busy  until  it  began  to  grow  liglit.  I 
had  three  pretty  close  calls  Avithin  less  ihan  five  minutes.  Soon 
a  comrade  Avas  shot  by  my  side.  When  1  heard  tlie  ball  strike 
I  looked  up  and  saAv  him  begin  to  reel  and  trend)] e.  1  tln"(>Av  my 
arms  around  him  and  hi'lped  him  to  lie  down.  Then  Ave  got  a 
stretcher  and  undertook  to  carry  him  to  a  ])lace  of  safety.  AVe 
had  not  gone  far  ])efore  one  of  the  men  iielping  carry  him  Avas 
shot.  AVe  got  behind  some  trei's  and  Avent  back.  Soon  one  of 
my  nu^ssmates  Avas  killed.  Then  Ave  lost  our  lieutenant.  The  day 
before  our  company  had  thirteen  men:  noAv  Ave  had  only  nine. 
AVe  Averc^  ordered  to  the  rear  and  sent  to  guard  supply  trains. 
Our  first  ti-ip  Avas  to  Big  Shanty,  Georgia.  AVe  stayed  three  or 
four  days  and  as  avc  moved  out  Avitli  loaded  Avagons  to  return 
to  camp  Ave  saAv  a  division  crossing  tlu^  open  IcA'el  plain  betAvcHMi 
Big  Shanty  and  KenesaAv  mountain.     They  adA-niu-ed  in  s])lendid 


order  for  some  time.  Occasionally  a  man  would  fall  and  be  left 
behind.  Soon  they  began  to  stoop  forward  and  quicken  their 
pace,  and  finally  began  to  double-quick  for  the  woods. 

"About  July  15  were  were  relieved  by  a  detachment  to  the 
Thirty-third  ^Massachusetts.  Found  our  regiment  on  picket  along 
the  Chattahooche  river.  That  night  we  moved  with  Sherman's 
advance  and  crossed  the  river  on  pontoons.  We  marched  until 
near  morning  before  we  were  permitted  to  lie  down.  It  did  not 
seem  as  though  I  could  take  another  step.  Some  of  the  boys 
made  coffee,  but  I  spread  my  blanket  and  lay  down. 

"July  20  found  us  near  Peach  Tree  creek,  with  things  looking 
a  little  strange.  We  were  called  up  about  2:00  o'clock  and  got 
ready  to  move.  "We  would  go  a  short  distance  and  halt  and  then 
move  on  again.  I  noticed  a  number  of  orderlies  in  our  front 
riding  in  every  direction.    I  asked  one  of  the  boys  of  my  company 

what  was  up.    His  reply  w^as,  'We  are  going  to  catch  h be- 

f or  night ;  if  your  gun  is  not  loaded  you  had  better  load  it. '  As 
we  came  to  a  halt  again  I  noticed  that  about  half  of  the  men 
were  loading  their  guns.  As  we  came  into  an  open  field  I  could 
see  the  right  of  the  Fourth  corps  already  across  the  creek,  and 
to  their  right  the  Twenty-second  Wisconsin  deployed  as 
skirmishers.  We  crossed  the  creek,  built  shades  and  made  coffee. 
Just  as  our  dinner  was  about  ready  there  was  brisk  firing  in  our 
front  and  our  skirmishers  fell  back  on  the  main  line.  We  were 
ordered  forward  and  just  as  Mi^jor  Baker  gave  the  order  he 
clutched  his  thigh  v\'ith  both  hands,  threw  up  his  leg  and  called 
Captain  Anderson  to  take  command.  Before  he  let  go  of  his  leg 
the  blood  began  to  run  between  his  fingers.  It  was  but  a  flesh 
Avound,  but  I  never  saw  him  again.  'Guide  left,  guide  left,'  was 
the  order  as  we  moved  across  the  open  field.  As  we  came  to  the 
top  of  a  ridge  the  'Johnnies'  opened  on  us  from  the  ridge  beyond. 
Several  men  went  down  close  to  me.  My  knees  began  to  feel 
weak.  Soon  one  of  Company  G  was  shot  and  tried  to  start  for 
the  rear,  but  fell  in  front  of  me.  As  he  fell  he  gave  one  of  the 
most  blood-curdling  shrieks  I  ever  heard.  It  made  my  hair  stand 
on  end.  I  could  feel  the  wind  blow  on  top  of  my  head,  under  my 
hat.  ]\Iy  back  was  cold  as  ice ;  I  shook  all  over.  How  I  kept  up  I 
don't  know,  Init  as  soon  as  we  fired  the  first  volley  I  had  no  more 
fear.  I  could  see  some  of  the  boys  turn  their  guns  and  club  them. 
We  would  break  them  and  they  would  reform  and  charge  again. 
For  some  time  all  I  could  see  of  them  were  their  legs  below  the 
smoke.  I  think  it  must  have  been  at  least  two  hours  before  they 
began  to  fall  back  as  though  they  had  got  enough  of  it.     The 



conirade  wlio  told  iiic  in  tlie  inoriiiiig  what  we  were  going  to 
eatc'h  before  night  swung  his  hat  and  said,  'Let's  go  for  them; 
come  on  I'  Gaining  the  top  of  the  ridge  we  eonld  sec  them  some- 
thing like  a  half-mile  away,  forming  as  if  to  charge  again.  They 
would  move  out  from  the  timber  and  then  go  back  again.  We 
could  see  the  otficers  riding  in  front,  but  they  did  not  come  near 
us  again,  not  even  to  look  after  their  woundcnl.  The  next  )norn- 
ing  I  took  a  look  over  the  tield.  In  three  i)laces  I  saw  fifty-one, 
twenty-seven  and  thirty-two  Confederate  dead.  Guns,  sabers, 
cartridge  boxes,  canteens,  etc.,  were  scattered  in  every  direction. 
Now  let  me  describe  scenes  that  would  move  the  most  hardened 
to  tears.  The  first  is  a  colonel  Avith  his  horse  lying  near  liini. 
Next,  a  man  Avith  a  gaping  wound  in  his  forehead,  still  alive.  t!ie 
brains  oozing  out  and  lying  doAvn  over  his  eyes.  Next,  a  dead 
man  with  a  letter  in  his  hand — the  last  kind  words  he  Avill  ever 
receive  from  the  loved  ones  in  his  far-away  home  in  ^lississippi. 
Then  several  with  Bibles  in  their  hands.  Knowing  their  hour 
had  come,  they  had  sought  to  obtain  consolation  and  relief  from 
their  suffering  from  the  word  of  God.  The  next  was  lying  on  his 
back,  his  cartridge-box  under  his  head.  In  iiis  hands  he  was 
holding  tile  ])liotograph  of  a  womnn  and  child.  He  had  died  gaz- 
ing on  the  features  of  those  who  were  as  dear  to  him.  and  he  to 
them,  as  any  from  our  Xoi'thern  homes.  Th'"  tliought  Avould  come 
to  my  mind:  Did  T  fir;'  the  fatal  shot  that  made  a  widow  and  an 
or]>lian  .'  Perhaps:  but  this  is  war.  This  was  tlu^  last  b;it11f  in 
whi'-h  1  was  actively  engaged. 

"August  V.)  I  Avas  near  Atlanta.  Ai)out  4:00  o'clock  p.  m..  as 
I  Avas  getting  some  supper.  1  suddenly  found  myself  trying  to  get 
up  off  the  ground.  This  Avas  the  first  notice  1  had  that  anything 
was  wrong.  I  had  no  feeling,  Avas  in  no  ]iain.  but  knew  1  Avas 
shot.  I  tried  several  times  to  rise,  but  would  fall  bai-l<.  1  gave  it 
np.  I  could  hardly  get  my  breath.  Soon  1  bci:an  to  spit  blood. 
Then  the  boys  j)oiutcd  to  my  breast.  T  saAV  my  shirt  bosom  Avas 
covered  Avith  blood.     I  opened  my  shirt.     I  thought  my  time  had 

come.     '^ly  G .'  said  one  of  the  boys,  'see  Avhere  it  canu^  out.' 

I  asked  him  Avherc  Tlicy  told  me  1  had  been  shot  clear  thro\igh. 
I  began  to  feel  faint  and  thought  surely  1  Avas  going  to  die.  I 
Avanted  Avater  every  fcAV  miniTtes.  T  gave  my  watch  to  one  of  my 
comrades  and  asked  him  to  send  it  home  if  he  could.  An  ambu- 
lance came  and  I  bade  the  boys  good-bye,  as  I  had  heard  nmny 
do  before.  I  certainly  ncA'er  expected  to  see  them  or  my  home 
again.  T  Avas  taken  to  the  field  liospital.  The  first  question  of  the 
doctor  Avas.  'Have  aou  bled  fr^elv!'     Tf  a'ou  liaA'c  there  is  a  fight- 


ing-  ehanee  for  you.  If  you  have  bled  internally  I  can't  save  you.' 
He  called  several  men  to  his  assistance  and  dressed  my  wound. 
Next  morning-  as  I  w^oke  up  alive  I  began  to  have  some  hopes. 
The  next  day  I  felt  quite  encouraged,  and,  thanks  to  kind  nurses, 
a  strong"  constitution  and  good  morals,  after  running  the  chances 
of  gangrene  and  small-pox  (both  of  which  I  was  exposed  to),  and 
after  having  a  run  of  lung  fever,  T  am  thankful  to  meet  you,  my 
cpmrades,  here  today." 

By  Fred  Noth. 
I  was  born  INIarch  6,  1889,  State  of  Lippe,  Germany.  At  the 
age  of  twenty  I  emigrated  to  New  Orleans  in  the  fall  of  '59. 
Shortly  after  the  election  of  Abraham  Lincoln,  preparations  com- 
menced for  the  war.  Not  willing  to  fight  for  slavery,  I  took  pas- 
sage on  a  steamboat  to  St.  Louis.  During  May  and  June  I 
served  in  a  company  of  militia  in  St.  Charles  county  to  guard 
railroad  bridges.  On  the  21st  day  of  July,  1861,  I  enlisted  in 
Company  E.  second  Missouri  Volunteer  Infantry.  I  was  ap- 
pointed a  sergeant  and  color  bearer  of  the  regiment.  Part  of 
our  regiment  was  ordered  to  Potosie  to  gimrd  the  Iron  Mountain 
Railroad,  returning  to  St.  Louis  for  mustering  in  September.  The 
regiment  in  October  was  ordered  to  Jefferson  City,  Tipton  and 
Sedalia.  Returning  to  Tipton,  preparations  were  made  for  a 
march  to  Springfield,  ^lo.  Arriving  at  Springfield,  tlie  Fremont 
Hussars  having  the  lead,  they  encountered  the  enemy,  about 
2.000  strong,  and  made  a  brilliant  charge,  scattering  the  enemy 
in  all  directions.  Late  in  the  fall  Ave  marched  to  Rolla,  a  station 
on  the  Pacific  branch,  for  winter  quarters.  Early  in  February, 
'62,  our  march  was  again  for  Springfield.  Two  new  two-pounder 
howitzers  mounted  on  mules  and  used  on  the  enemy's  flank  caused 
a  great  deal  of  fun.  After  a  lively  skirmish.  General  Price  va- 
cated Springfield  and  retreated  to  Fort  Smith.  Our  army  fol- 
lowed close  after  him,  into  Arkansas,  going  into  cam])  at  a  place 
called  Pea  Ridge.  Being  240  miles  from  railroad  communication, 
our  provision  train  failed  to  come  in  time.  One  ear  of  corn  was 
issued  for  a  ration  for  a  day ;  next  day  orders  for  foraging  were 
given.  A  place  where  about  500  bushels  of  apples  were  piled 
was  found,  and  before  night  came  none  were  left.  My  regiment 
was  ordered  to  a  flour  mill  in  the  corner  of  Indian  Territory,  or 
the  so-called  Oklahoma.  Taking  possession  of  the  mill,  we  found 
about  400  bushels  of  good  winter  wheat  and  ten  ])arrels  of  lard 
in  a  store. 



About  ton  days  later,  one  night  at  eleven  o'clock,  the  l)uo:le 
sounded,  tents  down,  marching  orders.  The  advance  of  the 
enemy  was  reported  within  one-half  mile  of  our  camp,  ^[arching 
during  the  night  we  reached  General  Sigel  at  noon,  at  Benton- 
ville,  where  we  waited  the  approach  of  the  rebels.  Our  regiment 
was  ordered  one  mile  further,  there  to  await  his  orders,  when 
all  at  once  about  2,000  Texas  Rangers  stepped  in  between  us  and 
cut  General  Sigel  oflf.  Tlie  Rangers  made  an  attack  on  my  regi- 
ment, killing  captain  of  Company  A  and  a  number  of  men.  Gen- 
eral Sigel  with  a  battalion  of  Benton  Hussars  cut  a  gap  through 
the  Rangers  and  we  all  marched  to  the  main  part  of  the  army, 
the  rebels  following  close  behind.  Arriving  at  Sugar  Creek  val- 
ley, the  rebel  army  was  about  30,000  in  numl)er  and  was  com- 
manded by  Generals  INIcCollough  and  Mcintosh.  The  battle  of 
Pea  Ridge  began  next  morning.  Our  army,  numbering  about 
14,000,  was  commanded  by  Generals  Curtis,  Sigel.  Arboth  and 
JeflP.  C.  Davis.  The  fighting  on  the  7th  was  mostly  with  musketry. 
The  rebels  had  about  2,000  Indians  on  their  side  who  were  led  on 
to  a  l)attery,  but  they  soon  retreated,  yelling  "Huh!  hull  I  big 
gun."  On  the  8th  at  daybreak,  our  artillery  commenced  the  fire. 
General  Sigel  was  ordered  to  report  to  the  Department  of  the 
Potomac.  About  three  weeks  later  we  came  marching  over  the 
Ozark  mountains  to  Cape  Girardeau,  crossing  the  Corinth  and 
AVhite  rivers.  Three  and  Five  Forks  and  some  other  rivers.  About 
half-way,  on  Sunday,  we  had  a  day  of  rest.  An  officer  and  some 
recruits  had  arrived  and  presented  a  ncAv  silk  flag  to  my  regi- 
ment from  the  German  ladies  of  St.  Louis.  From  this  place  part 
of  our  troops  marched  south  in  the  direction  of  Island  Xo.  10, 
while  our  brigade  marched  to  Cape  Girardeau.  About  a  week 
later  we  embarked  on  steamboats  down  the  ^Mississippi,  up  the 
Ohio  and  Tennessee  rivers  and  landed  at  Pittsburg  Landing.  In 
marching  over  the  battlefield  of  Shiloh  to  Corinth,  General  IL^l- 
leck  had  a  well  organized  army.  After  a  little  skirmish  a  few 
days  later,  the  rebels  during  one  night  vacated  Corinth.  From 
there  our  brigade  marched  to  Riance,  JMiss..  where  we  remained 
during  the  summer.  Early  in  September,  1862,  we  received  or- 
ders to  go  to  Cincinnati.  Arriving  at  Cincinnati  we  marched  to 
^Market  Hall.  About  a  Aveek  later  we  embarked  on  steamboats 
for  Louisville,  wliere  our  army  was  reorganized  by  General  Buell, 
and  Pliilip  Siieridan  was  assigned  to  the  command  of  our  First 
Division,  Fourteenth  Corps. 

On  the  evening  of  October  7th,  we  arrived  in  front  of  Perry- 
ville.     General  Bragg  had  prepared  for  a  battle.     At  sunrise  on 


the  morning'  of  the  8th,  my  regiment  was  ordered  to  make  a 
charge  on  some  Arkansas  troops  in  double  quick,  and  after  about 
an  hour  of  hard  fighting,  the  rebels  retreated.  My  regiment  had 
lost  twenty-three  killed,  including  our  major,  and  fifty-six 
wounded.  In  the  afternoon  General  Hardy  made  an  attack  on 
our  division,  formed  in  line  on  a  ridge  in  a  half  circle.  The 
rebels  were  badly  beaten  in  this  fight.  The  most  of  them  were 
left  dead  or  wounded  on  the  field.  The  next  day  General  Bragg 
evacuated  Perryville.  As  we  marched  on  to  Perryville  we  passed 
a  stack  of  arms  about  a  mile  long.  It  appeared  as  if  half  of  Gen- 
eral Bragg 's  men  had  left  for  home.  From  here  we  marched  to 
Nashville,  passing  Mammoth  Cave.  Fourteen  miles  south  of 
Nashville  we  went  into  camp.  Being  on  picket  duty  one  day, 
thirty  volunteers  were  called,  officers  and  non-commissioned  to 
ascertain  the  position  of  the  rebel  pickets  three  miles  off.  AVe 
reached  them  just  at  dark.  A  sergeant  from  my  camp  shot  the 
rebel  sentinel  and  at  the  same  time  he  received  a  shot  through 
the  lungs  and  died  the  next  morning.  Some  days  later  my  regi- 
ment and  a  battery  was  ordered  out  on  a  scouting  expedition. 
We  encountered  the  enemy  about  five  miles  from  camp.  After 
a  little  skirmish  the  rebels  retreated.  In  the  latter  part  of 
December  we  marched  for  Murfreesboro.  On  the  last  day  of 
December,  early  in  the  morning,  when  our  artillery  had  taken  their 
horses  to  water.  General  Longstreet  unexpectedly  attacked  our 
Fourteenth  Corps.  Our  right  wing  was  entirely  repulsed,  hard 
fighting  going  on  all  day.  As  soon  as  we  reached  the  railroad 
embankment  Longstreet 's  forces  were  checked.  The  colonel  com- 
manding our  brigade  at  this  place  was  shot  through  the  throat  and 
died.  The  next  day,  January  1st,  General  Rosecrans  pushed  his 
left  wing,  the  Twenty-first  Corps,  across  Stone  river  and  the  rebels 
commenced  to  evacuate  Murfreesboro.  At  the  place  where 
the  fighting  had  commenced  eighty  comrades  of  our  division  were 
buried  in  one  grave. 

During  the  spring  of  1863  ]\Iurfreesboro  was  fortified.  A 
pioneer  brigade  had  been  organized,  and  I  was  detached  to  the 
Second  Battalion,  called  the  Pontoon  Battalion.  On  the  25th  day 
of  June,  1863,  our  army  commenced  to  march  to  the  Tennessee 
river.  General  Rosecrans  from  here  moved  on  to  Chattanooga, 
remaining  at  Bridgeport  some  time.  In  October  we  moved  on  to 
Chattanooga  over  the  Cumberland  mountains.  Just  before  we 
reached  the  mountain  General  AVheeler  had  destroyed  a  supply 
train  of  about  150  wagons.  Arriving  at  Chattanooga  we  con- 
structed another  pontoon  bridge.    One  da}^  the  rebel  artillery  sent 


;i  til'ly-|i()iiii(l  shell  iiitu  oni'  cami)  i'roiii  Lookout  mountain,  but  it, 
exploded  higli  in  ihe  aii'.  October  16th  General  Koseerans  was 
rplieved  of  his  conuuand.  and  Gen.  U.  S.  Grant  took  command.  On 
the  (n-enino;  of  Novembei'  22nd  we  were  ordered  to  march  on  the 
north  side  ol'  the  Teiuiessee  river,  a  distance  of  three  miles.  Dur- 
ing' the  night  we  passed  a  bi  i^ade  of  Sherman's  troops  across  the 
river.  P'arly  in  the  nu)rning  a  i)ontoon  Ijridge  was  laid  for  General 
Sherman  to  cross  the  Tennessee.  About  10  o'clock  the  bridge  was 
coinjiK'ted  and  the  signal  sergeant  signaled  to  hoadf|uarters.  Gen- 
eral Shernuin  uu)ved  over  the  i)ontoon  ])ridge  and  an(»ther  corps 
from  the  Tennessee  army  started  from  Chattanooga  and  .ioined 
General  Sherman  in  the  afternoon.  We  returned  to  Chattanooga. 
In  the  evening  a  division  of  General  Hooker's  corps  was  moved 
di»\vn.  ])artly  on  boats,  to  storm  Lookout  mountain  during  the 
night  1).\  moonlight.  About  12  o'clock  the  firing  ceased  and  Look- 
out was  taken  next  day.  General  Sherman  on  the  left.  General 
Hooker  on  the  right,  and  General  Thomas  in  the  center,  the  army 
of  the  Ciunberland  made  a  charge  on  ^Mission  Ridge,  and  before 
night  .Mission,  was  taken.  Sixty-eiglit  ])ieces  of  artillery  and 
11,000  prisoners,  including  two  brigadier  generals,  were  captured. 
Next  day  the  rebel  prisoners  marched  over  the  pontoon  bridge  to 
go  north.  xVs  they  formed  into  line  on  the  north  side  of  the  river 
one  of  our  l)ands  of  nuisic  i)layed  the  "Star  Spangled  Banner."  A 
hurrah  for  the  Union  followed  from  all  the  camps  near  by. 

In  Deceiubei-  I  and  sixty  other  mechanics  were  sent  to  Nash- 
ville to  make  new  canvas  pontoon  boats,  returning  to  Chattanooga 
in  IMarrli.  On  ]May  5,  1864,  our  army  started  for  Dalton.  On 
the  (ith  m\  battalion  Avas  ordered  Avith  our  canvas  pontoon  train. 
Arriving  at  a  river  north  of  Resaca,  on  the  right  wing,  a  regi- 
ment of  rebels  were  in  a  good  position  in  a  lot  of  heavy  timber, 
disputing  our  right  to  cross  the  river.  AVe  crossed  a  battalion  of 
sharpshooters  to  dislodge  the  rebels,  and  a  nunihei-  of  our  boys 
Avere  killed  and  Avounded.  From  here  Ave  marched  with  a  division 
to  Rome.  (}a.,  on  a  point  betAveen  tAVO  rivers.  Crossing  on  a  pon- 
toon bridge  Ave  took  possession  of  Rome.  AYe  crossed  the  Yazoo 
river  on  the  south  side,  Avhere  on  a  little  mountain  the  rebels  had 
some  fortifications,  but  as  Johnson "s  army  had  fallen  back  to 
Atlanta  by  this  time  they  eA'acuated  the  place  and  avc  marched  on 
to  ^Marietta  and  remained  in  camp  at  this  place  for  some  time.  The 
lattei'  ])art  of  June  Ave  Avere  ordered  back  to  Chattanooga.  In 
•Inly  1.  Avith  my  detachment,  Avas  ordered  to  Bridgeport,  Ala.,  to 
take  charge  of  a  pontoon  bridge,  and  Ave  remained  at  this  place 
until  September  20,  1864. 



The  adjutaut  from  our  regiment  ordered  us  to  get  ready  to  go 
to  St.  Louis  to  be  mustered  out.  Arriving  at  St.  Louis  with  about 
two  hundred  and  twenty  men  left  in  our  regiment,  we  marched  to 
Washington  liall.  On  the  29th  day  of  September  my  regiment  was 
mustered  out  on  expiration  of  term. 

I  respectfully  remain,  FRED  NOTH, 

Sergt.  Co.  E,  2nd  Mo.  Vol.  Inf. 


John  W.  Lynn  Post  No.  30,  Department  of  Wisconsin,  Grand 
Army  of  the  Republic,  was  organized  jMay  8,  1882,  at  Sparta, 
county  of  Monroe,  and  state  of  AVisconsin,  with  fifty-seven  charter 
members  as  follows,  to-wit : 

James  Davidson,  lifty-seven  years,  okl,  formerly  major  of  the 
Fifth  New  York  cavalry,  afterwards  department  commander  of 
the  Department  of  AVisconsin,  and  died  at  AVichita,  Kansas, 
]\Iarch  16,  1891,  a  native  of  the  state  of  Ncav  York. 

Samuel  Hoyt,  sixty-three  years  of  age,  served  as  sergeant  of 
the  First  Wisconsin  battery  over  four  years,  was  honorably  dis- 
chai'g'cd  :ui(l  died  ;it  Sparta  on  tlie  tliird  day  of  June,  1898. 

Edwin  W.  Olin  was  born  in  the  state  of  New  Y^ork ;  aged 
thirty-nine  when  the  post  was  organized;  served  as  first  lieuten- 
ant of  Company  "E,"  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-first  regiment, 
New  York  infantry  volunteers,  and  was  finally  nnistered  out  at 
Sparta,  AA^is.,  on  the  27th  (I;iy  of  January,  3907.  AVas  post  com- 
mander and  quartermaster. 

L.  C.  Herrick  was  sixty-two  years  of  age,  was  a  private  of 
Company  "D,"  Eighteenth  AVisconsin  infantry,  and  passed  out 
of  this  life  on  the  22ik1  day  of  Alay,  1898.  Held  the  ..flicks  of 
cha]ilain  and  musician. 

William  H.  Blyton  iiatl  arrived  at  the  age  of  thirty-nine  years, 
born  in  New  A^)rk  state,  served  in  Company  "C."  Nineteenth 
Wisconsin  infantry,  as  quartermaster  sergeant  and  as  first  lieu- 
tenant and  <iuartermaster  of  the  Fourth  T'nited  States  infantry. 
Has  served  in  the  i)()st  as  j)ost  commander  several  terms  and  as 
adjutant  and  quartermaster. 

Alonzo  E.  Howard  was  forty-four  years  of  age,  born  in  New 
York  state,  served  in  Company  "A."  Ninety-second  New  Y''ork, 
as  first  sergeant  and  lieutenant,  and  in  Company  "K,"  Ninety- 
sixth  New  York  infantry,  as  first  lieutenant.  lias  held  tlie  offices 
of  sergeant,  major,  adjutant  and  post  commander. 

Hugh  T.  Hogue  was  born  in  Pennsylvania,  enlisted  October 
21st,  1861.  in  the  Third  AA'isconsin  cavalry,  Company  "A,"  served 


JOHN  W.  LYNN  POST  163 

three  years  and  three  months.  Was  a  valued  member  of  the  post, 
always  taking  an  active  interest  in  its  proceedings,  but  died  in 
Big  Creek,  May  16,  1896. 

Alfred  Dunbar  had  reached  the  age  of  fifty-three  years,  a  na- 
tive of  New  York  state,  was  a  private  of  Company  ''C,"  Thirty- 
sixth  AA^isconsin  infantry,  the  snare  drummer  of  the  post,  a  very 
active  member  on  all  memorial  days,  but  departed  this  life  on 
the  10th  of  September,  1903. 

William  Waste,  forty-eight  years  old,  was  from  New  York 
state  and  was  a  member  of  Company  "I,"  Twenty-third  Ohio  in- 
fantry ;  served  four  years  and  two  months  and  was  badly  broken 
down  on  being  discharged ;  died  many  years  ago,  but  the  date  was 
not  entered  in  the  post  records. 

William  Kerrigan,  another  New  York  state  man,  fifty-one 
years  of  age  at  the  organization  of  the  post ;  Avas  a  member  of 
Company  "C,"  Nineteenth  AVisconsin  infantry,  serving  about 
three  years  and  six  months,  and  during  his  membership  in  the 
post  was  its  chief  musician  and  fifer.    Died  June  29,  1897. 

Charles  A.  Hunt,  another  New  York  boy,  fifty-three  years  old 
at  the  organization  of  the  post,  was  first  lieutenant  and  captain, 
Company  "K,"  TAventy-fifth  AVisconsin  infantry,  was  one  of  our 
strong  and  active  members,  adding  strength  and  interest  to  the 
organization.  He  was  finally  mustered  out  at  Melvina  and  his 
remains  interred  in  the  Melvina  cemetery. 

James  E.  Perry,  forty-four  years  old,  at  the  time  a  native  of 
New  A^ork,  served  in  the  army  from  September  22,  1861,  to  June 
23,  1865,  as  corporal  of  Company  ''I,"  Twenty-seventh  Alassachu- 
setts  infantry.  Removed  to  Tomah  and  joined  Heni-y  AA".  Cressey 
post  of  that  city. 

George  A.  Fisk,  captain  of  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  AA'is- 
consin  infantry,  Avas  a  gallant  soldier  and  a  good  Grand  Army 
man,  but  only  remained  Avith  us  to  August  10,  1886,  AAdien  he 
joined  the  majority. 

George  Graham,  of  Tomah,  joined  the  post  but  commenced 
immediately  to  aid  in  the  organization  of  the  post  at  Tomah. 

George  W.  Shepherd  Avas  a  charter  member  and  served  in  Com- 
pany "C,"  of  the  Nineteenth  AVisconsin  infantry.  He  has  passed 
the  Dark  riA'cr. 

Sylvanus  Holmes  Avas  born  in  Ncav  York  and  sixty-seven  years 
old  at  the  date  of  organization.  He  enlisted  as  priA'ate  in  Com- 
pany "I,"  Fifty-eighth  Pennsylvania  infantry,  and  Avas  mustered 
out  a  captain.    He  Avas  one  of  the  strong  members  and  serA^ed  as 


senior  vit-c  c-ouunantlor  and  commander  of  the  post,  and  moved 
beyond  on  the  3rd  of  January,  1895. 

William  J.  Siimmerfield,  forly-fivc  years  old,  a  charter  member, 
was  a  sergeant  iu  the  First  Wisconsin  battery,  serving  from  1861 
to  1865;  was  an  active  comrade  for  ycais.  Imt  on  account  of  in- 
firmiti(^s  of  age  has  withdrawn. 

DeWitt  C.  Beebe,  forty-four  years  old  and  a  native  of  W-rmont. 
was  surgeon  of  the  Fourth  New  York  cavalry,  served  till  the  close 
of  the  wai'.  Dr.  Beebe  was  many  years  the  surgeon  of  the  post 
and  held  the  office  of  post  commander;  one  of  the  faithful  mem- 
bers, but  he  jiassed  over  the  river  on  the  Fourth  of  July.  1908. 

Ira  A.  Hill  was  forty  years  old,  born  in  New  Ilamjjsliire,  and 
served  as  sergeant  of  Company  "A,"  Nineteenth  New  Hampshire 
infantry.  He  was  the  first  quarteriuaster  of  the  post,  was  for 
many  years  one  of  its  trustees,  and  served  as  post  comnmnder  one 
term.  Comrade  Hill  was  always  interested  and  did  much  to  pro- 
mote the  welfare  of  the  organization.  He  was  mustered  into  the 
larger  army  beyond  on  the  20th  day  of  March,  1904. 

E.  W.  Robie  was  a  native  of  Vermont,  forty-four  years  old; 
served  three  years  and  two  months  in  the  Third  Vermont  infantry, 
a  faithful  Grand  Army  man,  but  died  February  23,  1894. 

M.  J.  McOmber,  aged  thirty-seven,  was  a  native  of  New  York, 
was  adjutant  of  the  post  for  two  years,  served  in  the  Sixth  Penn- 
sylvania reserve  corps,  lost  a  leg  at  the  battle  of  (rettysburg.  died 
in  Sparta  on  the  3rd  of  February,  1890. 

Lucian  A.  McWithy,  fifty  years  of  age,  was  born  in  New  York 
state,  was  an  efficient  member  of  the  Third  "Wisconsin  cavalry. 
Company  "A,"  and  though  suflt'ering  from  inability  to  see  has 
been  one  of  the  most  persistent  and  regular  attendants  at  the  post 

John  Burk,  forty-four  years  old.  Avas  born  in  Ti-eland.  but  gave 
assurance  that  he  was  a  faithful  American  citizen  by  serving  the 
country  three  years  and  one  month  in  the  Tenth  AVisconsin  in- 
fantry, in  Com])any  ''D,"  but  he  is  with  us  no  more. 

John  Winters,  a  native  of  Germany,  was  a  member  of  Comi>any 
"D,"  of  the  Eighteenth  Wisconsin  infantry,  the  service  and  his 
continuing  to  serve  the  state  making  good  his  claim  on  the  nation. 
William  Shepherd  did  not  furnish  us  his  full  record,  but  he  was 
a  member  of  Company  "C,"  of  the  Nineteenth  AVisconsin  infantry, 
for  many  years  a  resident  of  the  town  of  Ang(^lo  and  one  of  its 
good  citizcMis. 

James  O'Connor,  forty-two  years  old,  a  native  of  New  Y'ork 
state,  served  four  vears  and  three  months  in  the  Second  Michigan 

'  I 

JOHN  W.  LYNN  POST  165 

Infantry,  Company  "D,"  was  for  many  years  one  of  the  best 
known  citizens,  but  after  removing  from  Sparta  withdrew  from 
the  post. 

Joseph  Jones,  a  native  of  England,  enlisted  September  7,  1861, 
in  Company  "D,"  of  the  Eighty-fourth  Pennsylvania  infantry, 
and  was  mustered  out  December  24,  1864,  thus  proving  his  loyalty 
to  his  adopted  country.  He  has  joined  the  majority  on  the  other 

Franklin  Campbell,  aged  thirty-eight,  was  a  native  of  Wis- 
consin, was  a  member  of  the  Tenth  Wisconsin  battery.  He  with- 
drew from  the  post  after  a  few  years  and  has  since  been  reported 

Michael  McPeak,  forty-one  years  old,  born  in  Ireland.  His 
service  was  in  Company  "E,"  First  Michigan  volunteers;  still 
residing  in  Sparta. 

Chauncy  Bunce,  fifty-two  years  old,  born  in  Connecticut,  en- 
listed Januar.y  o,  1864,  in  the  Twelfth  Wisconsin  infantry.  Com- 
pany "E,"  and  was  mustered  out  July  15,  1865,  but  on  account 
of  age  and  residence  at  a  distance  from  the  city  withdrew  after  a 
time  and  he  has  passed  to  the  other  shore. 

Charles  Slaver,  thirty-eight  years  of  age,  another  acquisition 
from  Germany,  was  a  member  of  Company  "I,"  Forty-eighth 
AVisconsin  irifantry,  proved  his  right  to  citizenship  by  his 

Nathan  B.  Aldrich,  a  Vermonter,  was  forty-eight  years  old, 
was  a  meml)er  of  Company  "D,"  Twenty-fifth  AVisconsin  infantry, 
from  August  8,  1862,  to  May  10,  1865;  a  good  citizen  of  Sparta, 
])ut  died  July  22,  1902. 

Joseph  W.  Potter,  ])orn  in  Ohio,  was  forty  years  old,  was  a 
corporal  of  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  Wisconsin  Infantry, 
from  February  29,  1864.  to  June  10,  1865.  Served  with  the  post 
as  its  bass  drunnner  until  disabled,  and  left  us  to  be  mustered 
in  the  new  army  Alarch  2,  1910. 

Edward  J.  Hodgkin  enlisted  July  2,  1861,  in  Company  "I," 
Fourtli  Wisconsin  infantry,  and  was  mustered  out  July  18,  1865, 
a  member  of  the  First  Wisconsin  battery.  He  withdrew  from 
the  post  as  he  resided  too  far  out  to  meet  with  it,  and  has  since 
left  this  life.  He  was  born  in  New  York  and  was  thirtj^-nine  years 
old  at  the  organization  of  the  post. 

William  J.  Jordan  was  forty-one  years  old  and  served  in  the 
Fiftieth  New  York  engineers  from  August  31,  3861,  to  June  13, 
1865.    He  died  on  the  16th  of  March,  1891. 

Adelbert  E.  Bleekman  was  a  native  of  New  York  state,  served 


in  the  Fifth  Ohio  cavalry,  Company  ''A."  AVas  tlie  post  coin- 
maiidi  r  in  1888  and  1S84.  lie  removed  to  LaCrosse  and  became 
a  mcniher  of  the  post  there.  A  good  Grand  Army  man  and  a 
successful  attorney.  He  has  gone  to  his  reward  foi-  all  the  activi- 
ties oi  an  earnest  life. 

Bruce  E.  McCoy  was  fifty-one  years  old.  born  in  New  York 
state,  and  served  as  captain  of  Company  — ,  Forty-third  Wiscon- 
sin infantry  from  its  muster  in  to  the  end  of  its  term,  and  con- 
tinues a  valued  member  of  the  post. 

Rufus  S.  Dodge  .served  as  sergeant  of  Company  "K,"  Six- 
teenth New  York  infantry,  during  the  entire  term  of  its  service, 
was  a  native  of  New  York  state.  For  many  years  lie  was  trustee 
of  the  post  and  passed  away  July  31,  1008. 

Ulrich  Wettstein  was  thirty-four  years  old.  a  native  of  Ger- 
many, was  a  member  of  Company  ''C."  P'ifty-third  AVisoonsin 
infantry:   has  gone  out   but  date  is  not  recorded. 

Charles  A.  Bunce  was  forty  years  old  and  a  native  of  Con- 
neeticut.  He  served  in  Company  "K,"  Eleventh  Massachusetts 
infantry;  Avas  discharged  at  his  own  request. 

Lucius  M.  Stevens,  forty  years  old,  a  native  of  New  Y^ork,  was 
a  member  of  Company  "I,"  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-sixth  New 
York  infantry,  was  post  commander  in  1885  and  has  removed  to 

John  W.  Carter  was  a  native  of  Ohio,  a  member  of  Company 
"D,""  Kighteenth  Wisconsin  infantry,  was  thirty-seven  years  old 
at  his  muster  in  the  post,  and  was  the  first  death  after  our  organ- 

William  A.  DeLong',  thirty-nine  years  old,  a  native  of  New 
York  state,  was  a  corporal  in  Company  ''A,"  Third  Wisconsin 
cavalry.     He  withdi-ew  from  the  post. 

Chauncy  K.  Kennedy,  aged  fifty-eight,  a  New  Yorker  by  birth, 
was  a  member  of  I'ompany  "A,"  Nineteenth  "Wisconsin  infantry, 
but  lie  lived  only  a  short  time  after  joining  the  post. 

John  Jarrett,  forty  years  old.  a  nati\'e  of  rennsylvania.  Serv- 
ice was  in  Company  "D,"  Seventh  Pennsylvania  cavalry.  He 
removed  from  the  city  and  Avithdrew  from  the  post. 

Jeremiah  Van  Kirk,  a  native  of  New  York  state,  was  a  mem- 
ber (if  Company  "'I).""  Tweiity-tifth  AVisconsin  infantry,  Avas 
thirty-seven  years  of  age  and  is  still  with  us. 

E.  Crocker,  born  in  Oliio.  Avas  thirty-seven  years  old,  a  mem- 
ber of  Company  "D,"  Eighteenth  AVisconsin  infantry,  Avas 
Avounded  and  discharged.  Has  moved  aAvay  and  Avithdrawn  from 
the  i>ost. 


JOHN  W.  LYNN  POST  167 

Henry  T.  Bell,  a  native  of  New  York,  served  three  years  in 
Company  "K, "  Seventh  New  York  heavy  artillery,  has  been  an 
efficient  officer  of  the  day  of  the  post,  and  is  still  doing  duty 
Avith  it. 

Robert  Rathbun  did  not  furnish  his  war  record  and  withdrew 
soon  after  joining. 

W.  H.  Washburn  was  forty-one  years  old  and  a  native  of  New 
York  state,  was  a  member  of  Company  "C,"  Thirty-sixth  AVis- 
consin  infantry,  was  transferred  to  the  George  A.  Fisk  post  at 

Walter  A.  Wodd,  forty-three  years  old,  a  native  of  New  York, 
was  corporal  of  Company  "A."  Tenth  AYisconsin  infantry,  serv- 
ing four  years.  He  removed  to  Oakland,  California,  and  was 
transferred  to  a  post  in  that  city. 

Byron  M.  Dunham  was  forty-one  years  old,  born  in  Michigan, 
served  in  Company  "D,"  Fourteenth  Wisconsin  infantry  four 
years;  died  January  6,  1902. 

William  N.  Wilcox  furnished  no  record  of  service  and  with- 
drew after  a  short  time. 

S.  F.  Ketcham  was  thirty-six  years  of  age,  born  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, was  a  private  in  Company  "L,"  Sixth  New  York  heavy 
artillery,  withdrew  from  the  post  soon  after  its  organization. 

Abram  Heath,  thirty-eight  years  old,  born  in  New  Hampshire, 
a  member  of  Company  ''G, "  Twelfth  AYisconsin  infantry;  re- 
mained a  member  but  a  short  time. 

Edward  Busby,  forty-seven  years  old,  a  native  of  Ohio,  served 
nearly  four  years  in  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-ninth  in- 
fantry; has  continued  a  member  and  is,  and  has  been,  for  many 
years  entirely  blind. 

James  P.  Larry  was  forty-five  years  old,  born  in  Ohio,  a  mem- 
ber of  Company  '"I,"  Forty-second  AYisconsin  infantry,  and  died 
April  17,  1902. 

Of  the  above  fifty-seven  charter  members,  thirty-seven  have 
passed  into  larger  ranks  and  have  been  mustered  beyond  the 
dark  river ;  eleven  remain  in  Sparta  and  nine  have  moved  away. 

One  hundred  and  eighty-two  have  been  mustered  into  our 
ranks  since,  of  whom  eighty-six  died  and  forty-six  have  with- 
drawn, some  to  move  to  other  states  and  some  for  their  own 
reasons  not  known  to  us,  and  there  remains  in  good  standing  in 
the  post  at  this  writing  sixty  seasoned  veterans,  many  of  them 
so  feeble  and  weak  from  age  and  infirmities  that  they  are  not 
able  to  meet  with  us,  especially  those  living  at  a  distance  in  the 


The  executive  officers  of  the  post  since  its  organization  have 
been : 

In  1882  James  Davidson,  post  commander,  and  AVilliam  II. 
Blyton,  adjutant;  in  1883,  Adelbert  E.  Bleekman,  post  com- 
mander, and  AVilliam  II.  Blyton,  adjutant ;  in  1884,  Adelbert  p]. 
]51eeknuin.  post  comnumder,  and  IVIichael  J.  ]\IcOmber,  adjutant ; 
in  1885,  Alojizo  E.  Howard,  ])0st  commander,  and  Miehael  J. 
McOmber,  adjutant;  in  1886,  Lucius  M.  Stevens  was  post  com- 
mander, and  Alonzo  E.  Howard,  adjutant;  in  1887,  John  A.  Sholts 
was  the  chief  executive  officer,  and  Alonzo  E.  Howard  has  held  the 
office  of  post  adjutant  to  the  present  time.  Elorus  "\V.  Babcock 
served  as  post  commander  in  1888,  AVilliam  H.  Blyton  in  1889, 
Arthur  L.  Page  in  1890,  AVilliam  P.  :\Ieyer  in  1891,  Sylvanus 
Holmes  in  1892,  Russell  Brownell  in  1893,  David  C.  Hope  in  1891, 
Edward  E.  Olin  in  1895,  Ira  A.  Hill  in  1896,  N.  J.  Kemp  in  1897, 
Thomas  Hobson  in  1898,  DeAVitt  C.  Beebe  in  1899,  A.  R.  Benzie  in 
1900  and  1901,  John  A.  Sholts  in  1902-03,  Andrew  C.  Cole  in  1901, 
Russell  Brownell  in  1905,  and  AVilliam  II.  Blyton  in  1906-07-08-09- 

Immediately  on  the  organization  of  the  post  active  opera- 
tions were  inaugurated  to  suitably  decorate  the  graves  of  all 
deceased  comrades  of  all  wars  for  the  preservation  or  defense  of 
the  nation,  and  in  1886  there  was  added  to  the  by-laws  of  the  post 
one  requiring  the  quartermaster  of  the  post  to  place  a  memorial 
tablet  at  the  head  of  the  graves  of  all  defenders  of  the  country 
buried  in  the  several  cemeteries  within  our  jurisdiction,  and  at 
the  head  of  the  graves  of  all  such  who  should  thereafter  be  in- 
terred in  such  cemeteries. 

The  post  has  so  far  as  its  means  would  alloAV  assisted  and 
cared  for  the  sick  and  needy  soldiers,  attended  to  the  proper 
burial  of  all  its  deceased  nuMubers.  carried  out  faithfully  its  duty 
of  ('el('])rating  Alemorial  Day  l)y  decorating  the  graves  and  pro- 
viding suitable  patriotic  nuMuorial  addresses  and  by  jiatriotic 
Sabliath  services  on  Tne  Siuulay  jjreceding  Alemorial  Day,  has 
procui-ed  the  erection  in  the  city  park  of  a  beautiful  soldiers' 
monument,  dedicated  to  "Our  Nation's  Defenders,"  has  for  years 
held  ])atri<)tic  services  and  addresses  in  oui-  public  schools  to 
instill  ]>atriotism  in  the  minds  of  our  coming  citizens,  has  co- 
operated with  the  national  order  in  ])romoting  the  welfare  of 
those  who  faithfully  served  the  country  aiul  suffered,  ami  has 
by  every  means  in  its  poAver  jiromoted  good  citizenship  and  love 
of  countrv. 

(■\I"I'.    M.    K.    IJ'.ON"  AKP 



Captain  Leonard's  service  to  his  country  began  as  a  recruit- 
ing" officer,  which  position  he  held  for  several  months.  The  gov- 
ernor, appreciating  his  fitness  to  command,  appointed  him  captain 
and  through  his  services  in  that  capacity  did  valiant  duty.  He 
enlisted  in  July,  1862,  in  Company  "  D, "  Twenty- fifth  Wisconsin 
regiment ;  was  mustered  in  in  August  the  same  year,  and  his 
regiment  was  first  stationed  in  Minnesota,  near  New  Ulm,  where 
they  participated  in  the  frontier  Indian  massacre.  This  company 
was  in  charge  of  Captain  Leonard,  who  guarded  the  thirty-eight 
Indians  who  were  now  in  ]\Iankato.  ]Minnesota.  Prior  to  this 
they  were  ordered  to  scout  through  Big  Cottonwood  and  Little 
Cottonwood  to  West  Mankato,  and  January  1st  were  ordered  to 
report  at  Madison,  next  to  Columbus,  Kentucky,  where  the  sub- 
ject was  appointed  port  officer  by  General  Asbeth.  Captain 
Leonard  at  this  time  was  first  lieutenant  and  his  regiment  was 
ordered  to  Helena,  Arkansas,  where  they  were  reviewed  by  Gen- 
eral Beauford,  down  the  Mississippi  river  to  Vicksburg,  being  in 
charge  of  the  subject,  the  trip  being  accomplished  without  acci- 
dent. It  was  the  season  of  what  was  known  as  th(^  winter  of  deep 
ice  and  it  was  with  the  greatest  difficulty  that  the  trip  was  made. 
The  gunboat  was  ordered  to  Helena  and  returned  to  Vicksburg 
in  February  for  Sherman's  march  through  ^Mississippi  to  Ala- 
bama, then  returning  to  Vicksburg,  thence  up  the  river  to  ( 'airo, 
Illinois;  thence  to  Moorsville  and  to  Decatur,  Alabama.  Thence 
to  the  foot  of  Lookout  mountain  to  Chattanooga,  to  Tunnel  Hill, 
flanking  recours  on  the  right,  thence  engaging  in  the  severe  three- 
days'  fight  of  Sugar  Gap,  following  which  was  the  battle  of 
Eosackie;  to  Calhoun's  ferry,  crossing  the  river  to  Kingston; 
thence  to  Dallas,  Texas,  engaging  in  the  battle  of  Dallas;  tlience 
to  Altoona.  to  Kenesaw  mountain,  to  ^Marietta,  Georgia,  to  Chat- 
tahoochee at  night  through  dense  darkness.  Next  to  Decatur. 
Georgia,  thence  six  miles  to  Atlanta,  with  constant  fighting  dur- 
ing this  trip.  It  was  during  this  time  that  the  regiment  lost 
heavily  from  the  enemy  and  the  wounded  and  dead  were  left  at 
Decatur.  The  balance  of  the  regiment  whipped  around  to  the 
right  and  entered  the  siege  of  Atlanta  after  wbipping  General 
Hood,  in  which  the  loss  of  the  men  were  heavy.  The  regiment 
then  made  a  retrograde  movement  to  AVest  Point  and  over  the 
mountains  to  the  extreme  right,  and  marching  during  the  night 
to  Lovejoy's  station,  and  from  there  to  West  Point,  to  camp. 


Then  folloAVod  Ilond  to  Altoona,  thence  to  Alabama,  Kingston, 
to  Atlanta,  moved  on  to  Savannah,  fighting  and  tearing  np  rail- 
ways nntil  they  reached  King's  bridge,  fifte<Mi  miles  from  Savan- 
nah, -where  they  remained  luitil  the  time  of  surrendei-.  Then  the 
subject  became  aide  to  Colonel  Rusk  and  the  regiment  was  or- 
dered to  Thunder  Boat  bay.  Next  demonstration  was  made  on 
Savannah,  leaving  General  Foster's  command  moving  on  u])  the 
line  tearing  up  the  railway  between  Augusta  and  Charleston  and 
to  the  river  of  seven  l)ridges,  fording  swamps,  until  Columbia 
was  reached,  extending  their  line  of  march  to  Bentonville.  being 
the  scene  of  the  last  battle,  after  running  to  Goldsborough  and 
Raleigh,  N.  C,  through  Virginia,  and  marched  to  Grand  river, 
where  the  captain's  service  ended. 

The  regiment  was  mustered  out  June  1,  1865,  he  having  given 
nearly  three  years  to  the  service. 


The  movement  which  culminated  in  the  final  completion,  erec- 
tion and  dedication  of  the  Soldiers'  Monument  which  now  stands 
in  North  Park  originated  on  the  9th  day  of  August,  1895,  when, 
at  a  regular  meeting  of  John  W.  Lynn  Post  No  30  Grand  Army 
of  the  Republic,  twelve  comrades  of  the  Post  were  unanimously 
elected  a  committee  to  consider  whether  or  not  it  was  feasible 
or  desirable  to  erect  at  Sparta  a  Soldiers'  Monument,  and  if  so 
to  consider  the  ways  and  means  for  its  accomplishment  and  report 
at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Post.  This  committee  consisted  of 
Edwin  E.  Olin,  chairman;  Ira  A.  Hill,  David  C.  Hope,  Martin  R. 
Gage,  John  A.  Sholts,  Alonzo  E.  How^ard,  William  H.  Blyton, 
Charles  A.  Hunt,  Rufus  S.  Dodge,  William  P.  Meyer,  N.  J.  Kemp 
and  E.  W.  Babcock  This  committee  met  at  the  office  of  Tyler 
&  Hill  on  the  13th  day  of  August  and  elected  Alonzo  E.  Howard 
chairman  of  the  committee ;  after  a  careful  and  thorough  discus- 
sion, the  committee  decided  that  such  a  monument  was  desirable 
and  a  sub-committee  consisting  of  Martin  R.  Gage,  Rufus  S. 
Dodge,  Ira  A.  Hill  and  AYilliam  P.  Meyer  were  appointed  to  devise 
ways  and  means ;  at  a  ineeting  of  the  committee  on  August  22nd 
of  the  same  year,  a  fair  plan  for  raising  funds  was  proposed  by 
the  sub-committee  and  adopted  and  reported  at  the  meeting  of  the 
Post  held  on  August  23rd,  and  after  some  discussion  this  plan  was 
adopted  and  the  Post  added  to  the  committee  Comrades  DeAYitt 
C.  Beebe  and  Thomas  Hobson. 

At  the  next  meeting  of  the  committee  the  plan  which  has 
been  outlined  was  carried  out  substantially  and  Ira  A.  Hill 
was  elected  treasurer  of  the  monument  fund  and  sub-committees 
were  appointed  for  the  following  purposes :  For  soliciting  among 
soldiers,  among  citizens,  to  visit  other  posts  and  interest  them; 
a  press  committee  to  publish  such  matter  as  in  the  opinion  of 
the  committee  would  interest  the  public  in  the  enterprise.  Sub- 
scription lists  were  prepared  by  the  secretary  and  delivered  to 
the  solicitors  and  work  was  considered  then  fully  organized. 

A  resolution  was  adopted  by  the  committee  that  notes  be 
accepted  on  subscriptions,  payable  on  or  before  January  1,  1898, 



providing  the  subscriptions  adopted  including  the  notes  amounted 
to  $2,500.  Several  notes  were  made  and  delivered  to  the  treasurer 
and  cash  subscribed  and  collected  and  in  the  treasurer's  hands, 
but  in  less  than  the  time  limited  for  tlie  payment  of  the  notes, 
interest  seemed  to  wane,  and  the  iund  grtw  only  by  the  inter- 
est on  the  certificates  of  deposit  at  3  per  cent,  so  that  the  notes 
given  matured  and  Avere  returned  and  canceled*  as  tlie  fund  at 
their  maturity  had  not  reached  the  sum  of  $2,500. 

But  the  project  received  new  light,  when,  on  November  Kith. 
1897.  a  "Ladies'  Auxiliary"  to  the  post  was  organized  with 
seventeen  charter  members;  as  soon  as  this  organization  became 
strong  enough  they  took  up  for  their  special  Avork  the  raising 
of  fuiKls  for  the  proposed  monument;  they  gave  socials  with 
tlie  usual  refreshments  and  obtained  sul)scription  blaidvs  from 
the  secretary  and  solicited  ;uiil  collected  funds;  slowly  and  con- 
stantly the  sum  grew,  owing  to  the  hard  Avork  and  with  the 
perseverance  of  these  few  faithful  workers,  wliich  could  not  be 
estimated  and  without  whose  work  no  monument  would  have  been 
today  in  existence.  After  nearly  five  years  of  labor  by  these 
ladies  a  meeting  was  called  September  19,  1902,  to  reorganize 
the  committee  for  the  special  active  Avork  to  complete  all  ar- 
rangements and  secure  the  erection  of  the  monument. 

DeWitt  C.  Beebe  Avas  made  chairman  of  this  committee,  ha  A. 
Hill,  treasurer,  and  A.  E.  HoAvard,  secretary;  the  other  members 
of  the  committee  were  George  D.  Dunn  and  AVilliam  (\  Hoffman. 
AfterAvards  an  organization  knoAvn  as  the  Soldiers"  .Moiiuiueiit 
Association  Avas  formed,  it  having  for  its  officers  and  members 
D.  C.  Beebe,  president;  A.  E.  HoAvard,  secretary;  AV.  ('.  Hoffman. 
George  Dunn  as  the  executiA'e  committee ;  other  mendiers  being 
W.  :\IcBride,  Mrs.  L.  A.  :\rcAVith.y.  Mrs.  E.  S.  Denis,  Mrs.  :\Iary 
Cole,  John  A.  Sholts.  1).  A.  :\lc\Vithy.  :\rrs.  D.  Benzie,  :Slrs.  C. 
Foster,  all  of  the  above  l)eing  of  Sj)arta  and  J.  E.  Perry  and  A. 
C.  Cole  of  Tomas  and  also  X.  J.  Kemji,  of  S])arta. 

A  committee  Avas  appointed  to  confer  Avitli  the  county  board  of 
supervisors  Avhich  endeaA'ored  to  iiuluee  tlie  board  to  give  jier- 
mission  to  place  the  monument  on  the  court  house  grounds,  haA'e 
the  county  assume  permanent  care  of  it  and  if  possible  obtain 
an  approi)riation  foAvards  the  expense  of  its  construction,  luit 
these  efforts  met  Avith  no  success  Avhatever.  This  liaAing  provc^l 
an  entire  failure  the  committee  ajipealed  to  the  city  council  of  the 
City  of  Sparta  for  aid.  The  council  ordered  a  special  election 
to  be  held  upon  the  ])roposition  as  to  the  raising  of  the  taxes  on 
taxable   property   of  th'-   city   of  one-half   mill   on   the   dollar  to 


aid  in  the  laoniiment  fuiul  and  at  this  election  the  citizens  of 
Sparta  voted  the  tax  by  a  large  majority ;  it  was  levied  and  col- 
lected with  the  regnlar  taxes  of  1904  and  amounted  to  $1,087.21. 

The  treasurer  of  the  committee,  Ira  A.  Hill,  died  March  20, 
1!)01.  and  George  D.  Dunn  was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy.  In 
order  to  fulfill  the  legal  requirements  under  the  city  appropria- 
tion, the  mayor  appointed  Andrew  J.  Carnahan,  William  11. 
Blyton,  A.  G.  Welker  and  Wilfred  McBride  to  represent  the  city 
on  the  committee.  Plans  and  specifications  were  then  procured 
and  bids  called  for  to  erect  tlie  monument ;  these  were  invited 
to  be  of  different  kinds  of  granite  with  the  granite  statue  of 
the  soldier  and  also  with  a  copper  bronze  statue  complete  with 
foundation  to  be  placed  on  a  location  to  be  designated  by  the 
committee.  The  successful  bidder  was  Mr.  Fred  Schlimegan,  of 
Madison,  Wisconsin,  whose  bid  was  accepted,  being  one  with 
the  specification  that  the  monument  was  to  be  of  Barre  granite, 
except  the  centre  block  for  the  inscription,  which  is  of  Montello 
granite,  and  the  statue  of  the  soldier  which  is  made  of  copper 
bronze.  The  monument  was  completed  and  accepted  on  Decem- 
ber 4th  and  the  contractor  settled  with  and  the  total  cost,  in- 
cluding the  monument  complete,  inscription,  setting  and  ex- 
pense, being  about  $3,000.  The  statue  of  the  bronze  soldier 
stands  facing  the  south  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  face  of  the 
monument  appears  the  words  "In  Memory  of  Our  Nation's  De- 
fenders. ' ' 

This  monument  was  formally  dedicated  and  accepted  on  the 
30th  day  of  May,  1905.  Invitations  were  extended  to  all  parts  of 
the  county  and  an  elaborate  program  was  planned  and  carried 
out,  an  extensive  part  of  which  was  a  march  to  the  Woodlawn 
cemetery  in  the  afternoon,  where  memorial  exercises  were  held, 
and  then  proceeded,  to  North  Park,  where  with  due  and  appro- 
priate ceremonies  the  monument  was  unveiled  and  formally 
accepted  on  behalf  of  the  city  by  Andrew  Carnahan,  then  presi- 
dent of  the  city  council. 

As  a  fitting  ending  of  this  chapter  none  can  better  be  written 
than  the  address  by  DeWitt  C.  Beebe,  whose  untiring  efforts  had 
been  largely  instrumental  in  the  successful  completion  of  this 
project,  whose  words,  patriotic  and  full  of  emotion  w^ere  delivered 
with  that  earnestness  which  was  one  of  the  characteristics  of  Dr. 
Beebe,  and  although  this  address  was  short,  it  had  a  .profound 
effect  upon  the  assembled  audience.     It  is  as  follows : 

"FELLOW  CITIZENS-COMRADES:  We  have  come  to  this 
quiet  shaded  place  today  to  unveil    this  shaft    of    granite    and 


bronzo  and  dedieate  it  with  M])propriato  ceremony  to  the  memory 
of  'Our  Country's  Defenders."  It  seems  eminently  fitting  and 
])roi)er  that  we  come  directly  here  for  this  hallowed  purpose  from 
the  little  silent  city  over  yonder,  Avhere  we  have  tenderly  strewn 
fresh,  l)eautiful  flowers  upon  the  graves  where  lie  our  beloved 
dead.  The  two  occasions  seem  so  tenderly  similar  in  sentiment 
that  they  should  not  be  separated.  Comrades,  we  have  reason  to 
rejoice  that  the  Great  Commander — the  God  of  Battles — has 
spared  our  Wwh  and  health  that  so  many  of  us  are  enabled  to  see 
this  day  and  this  hour.  AVe  have  reason  for  congratulation  that 
so  many  wives,  widows  and  daughters  of  the  veterans  of  the  Avar 
of  1861-65  are  also  permitted  to  be  here  today  and  enjoy  the 
consummation  of  their  long,  persistent,  loyal  labor,  but  for  which, 
my  friends,  Ave  avouIcI  not  be  here  today  for  this  purpose.  The 
memorial  here  which  we  shall  unveil  and  dedicate  today  is  the 
result  of  several  years'  labor  and  growth,  a  short  sketch  of  Avhich 
Avill  be  giA'en  later  by  Adjutant  Howard.  Comrades,  it  will  mat- 
ter A'cry  little  to  us  in  a  few  years  when  Ave  shall  have  been  nuis- 
tered  into  that  great  army  over  the  river  Avhether  or  not  SAveet 
floAvers  from  loyal,  loA'ing  hands  Avill  be  strcAvn  upon  our  graves 
in  the  springtime  of  the  returning  years,  or  that  a  memorial  has 
been  erected  in  some  beautiful  spot  to  our  memory,  but  the  senti- 
ment that  is  kept  burning  in  the  breasts  of  those  Avho  folloAV  us, 
Avhich  prompts  the  doing  of  these  offices  is  of  momentous  impor- 
tance, for  it  is  this  that  makes  loyal  heroes  and  a  nation  invincible 
in  times  of  danger. 

"Sad  Avill  be  the  day,  and  may  it  never  come,  Avhen  this  great 
American  people  shall  become  so  absorbed  in  cold  business, 
crazed  in  finance,  or  so  drunken  Avitli  the  |)leasures  of  the  day 
that  they  shall  forget  to  recognize^  the  services  of  their  nation's 





The  Spanish-American  war,  whih'  aeeomplishiug  the  great 
result  in  the  freeing  of  Cuba,  annexing  of  Porto  Rico,  the  Philip- 
pines and  consequent  turning  to  civilization  and  education  of  the 
l)eople  of  those  tropical  regions,  did  another  thing — it  gave  to  the 
ndlitary  authorities  of  this  country  the  long-needed  lesson,  which 
could  not  be  too  well  learned,  that  army  methods  in  this  young 
and  lusty  republic  were  way  behind  the  times ;  demonstrated  that 
in  the  mobilization,  equipping  and  feeding  of  troops  in  the  field 
there  was  plenty  of  incompetency,  plenty  of  antiquated  red  tape 
methods — and  the  army  began  to  wake  up.  For  a  long  period 
after  the  civil  war,  in  fact,  not  really  until  the  Spanish-American 
war,  was  there  little,  if  any,  attempt  to  mobilize  troops  in  larger 
bodies  than  a  regiment  for  field  practice.  The  experience  in  the 
Spanish-American  war  brought  about  the  iiecessity  of  frecpient 
mobilization  not  only  of  regular  troops,  but  also  national  guard 
organizations,  for  field  maneuvers,  and  the  field  maneuvers  now 
held  in  ditferent  parts  of  the  country  every  other  year  are  the 
result.  ]\Ianeuver  camps  becanu^  a  necessity  and  the  war  depart- 
ment began  acquiring  large  tracts  of  land  in  different  parts  of 
the  country  for  that  purpose,  under  the  provisions  of  various 
acts  of  congress. 

The  State  ^Military  Reservation  at  Camp  Douglas,  so  admirably 
situated  and  equipped  for  rifle  practice  and  maneuver  ground, 
had  years  ago  attracted  the  attention  of  the  officers  of  the  regular 
army,  particularly  of  the  then  Department  of  the  Lakes ;  and  all 
reports  sent  the  department  gave  praise  to  tlie  location  and  nat- 
ural advantages  and  ecjuipment  provided  by  the  state,  it  being  in 
almost  every  case  described  as  one  of  the  finest  rifle  ranges  in 
the  United  States.  Its  fame  grew  and  a  number  of  years  ago  a 
department  competition  was  held  there,  and  later  two  batteries  of 
artillery  were  sent  up  from  Fort  Sheridan  for  summer  practice. 
The  officers  of  the  Department  of  the  Lakes  became  strongly  de- 
sirous that  the  government  might  acquire  the  reservation, 
especially  for  artillery  practice,  and  offers  were  made  through 




Colonel  AVagner  to  purcliase  the  property,  but  the  state  refused 
at  all  times  to  ]iart  with  control  of  it. 

Way  hack  (]ui-iii<i-  tiic  time  when  the  establishment  of  a  range 
at  Cam{)  Douglas  was  heing  considered,  the  tract  of  land  near 
what  was  then  the  station  of  LaFayette,  in  this  county,  on  the 
Chicago,  ^lilwaukee  &  St.  Paul  railway,  lying  principally  in  the 
towns  of  LaFayette  and  Angelo,  was  suggested  to  Gen.  C.  1*. 
(  lijipiiian,  then  adjutant  general  of  this  state,  by  Col.  George 
Graham,  tlien  liic  i-aptain  of  Company  K.  and  interested  strongly 
in  the  establishment  of  a  state  camp  ground.  Owing,  however, 
to  the  distance  from  the  cities  of  Tomah  and  Sparta  and  to  the 
better  railway  facilities  at  Camp  Douglas,  after  looking  over  both 
tracts  the  latter  was  decided  upon  and  became  subsequently  the 
state  property. 

The  idea  still  o])tained,  however,  that  the  LaFayette  tract  was 
suitable  for  military  purposes,  and  attention  of  the  war  depart- 
ment was  called  to  it  by  Congressman  John  J.  Eseli  a  few  years 
ago.  As  early  as  1897  Col.  George  Graham  again  called  the  atten- 
tion of  the  officers  of  the  national  guard  at  a  convention  in 
^Milwaukee  to  a  tract  of  land  lying  between  Tunnel  City  and 

Hon.  W.  11.  Taft.  then  secretary  of  war,  in  1906  advocated  the 
establishment  of  four  large  military  maneuver  camps,  to  be  used 
jointly  l)y  tlie  regular  army  and  the  national  guard  of  the  several 
states,  one  to  be  located  in  the  east,  one  in  the  south,  one  in  the 
west,  and  one  in  the  mitldle  north.  Congressman  Escli  at  that 
time  commenced  a  movement  to  locate  the  northern  camp  at 
Camp  Douglas,  Wis.,  by  the  purchase  of  land  adjacent  to  the 
AVisconsin  Alilitary  Reservation.  Other  sites  suggested  were  in 
Pennsylvania.  Texas  and  California.  None  of  these  large  camps 
projiosed  by  Secretary  Taft  had  been  provided  for  by  congress. 
I)u1  as  incidental  thereto  ]Mr.  Esch  was  successful  in  securing  an 
api)ropriation  of  $150,000  to  purchase  land  adjacent  to  the  mili- 
tary reservation  at  Cami)  Douglas  for  the  use  of  the  regular 
army  and  an  artillery  range,  a  i)urpose  entirely  distinct  from  that 
of  a  maneuver  camp. 

During  the  ])endency  of  this  legislation  a  board  of  regular 
army  engineei-  officers,  with  Gen.  A.  IL  Ernest  at  its  head,  visited 
Cam})  Douglas  under  orih'rs  to  make  a  toi)ograhpical  survey,  and 
while  in  AVisconsin  were  invited  to  Sparta,  and  accompanied  by 
General  Boardnuin.  Colonel  Salsman  and  Colonel  Graham  were 
<lriven  over  the  lands  l)etween  Sparta  and  Tuiniel  City.  General 
Ernest   ill  his  I'eport  to  the  war  department  on  Camp  Douglas,  in- 


eluded  a  reference  to  the  Sparta  site.  The  summer  work  of  the 
United  States  tield  artillery  is  comprised  of  long  practice  marches 
and  a  target  practice.  Very  few  places  are  available  for  this 
latter  purpose,  and  artillery  officers  during  this  part  were  sent 
over  the  country  looking  for  location  for  an  artillery  range. 
Maj.  Samuel  Allen,  commanding  the  artillery  at  Fort  Snelling, 
Minn.,  in  1905,  while  searching  for  a  place  for  target  practice, 
came  to  Camp  Douglas  during  the  encampment  of  the  Third  regi- 
ment that  year.  Adjutant  General  Boardman  suggested  to  him 
the  availability  of  the  Sparta  site,  and  called  Colonel  McCoy  in 
consultation,  with  the  result  that  an  invitation  was  extended  to 
the  battalion  commanded  by  Major  Allen  to  go  into  camp  on  the 
McCoy  ranch.  Colonel  JMcCoy  having  gradually,  during  a  long 
series  of  years,  acquired  title  to  about  4,000  acres  of  this  land. 
Major  Allen  accepted  the  invitation  and  the  battalion  of  artil- 
lery came  from  Fort  Snelling  and  camped  for  sixteen  days  during 
the  month  of  September,  1905,  testing  the  various  ranges  which 
might  be  available  for  artillery  practice,  and  his  report  upon  the 
possibilities  of  the  Sparta  tract  called  the  attention  of  the  war 
department  very  strongly  to  it. 

Meanwhile  the  passage  of  the  appropriation  of  $150,000.00 
proposed  by  Congressman  Esch  for  the  purchase  of  land  near 
Camp  Douglas,  caused  land  owners  in  that  vicinity  to  raise  the 
price  of  land  from  $3.00  an  acre  to  about  $30.00,  or  thereabouts, 
and  the  war  department  found  it  impossible  to  deal  with  them, 
with  the  result  that  the  attempt  to  purchase  any  land  at  Camp 
Douglas  ceased  and  the  appropriation  remained  in  the  hands  of 
the  Avar  department  unexpended. 

This  situation  brought  the  attention  of  the  war  department 
back  to  Sparta  and  resulted  in  the  sending  of  a  board,  consisting 
of  Major  Mott  and  Captain  Overton,  to  report  upon  the  advisabil- 
ity of  purchasing  lands  at  Camp  Douglas  or  leasing  lands  at 
Sparta.  In  September  of  1907  Battery  C  from  Fort  Snelling, 
under  the  command  of  Captain  Overton,  camped  on  the  McCoy 
ranch,  and  was  there  when  the  board  above  mentioned,  and  of 
which  he  was  a  member,  investigated  the  two  sites  of  Camp 
Douglas  and  Sparta.  They  were  accompanied  by  General  Board- 
man,  Colonel  Salsman,  Colonel  McCoy,  Major  "Williams,  and  a 
part  of  the  time  by  Congressman  Esch.  After  a  thorough  investi- 
gation the  board  made  a  report  to  the  war  department  disapprov- 
ing of  the  purchasing  of  lands  at  Camp  Douglas  because  of  the 
exorbitant  prices  demanded,  and  recommended  that  the  lands  at 
Sparta  be  leased,  but  the  board  did,  however,  go  a  step  farther 



and  reeommended  the  luirchase  of  7,600  acres  of  land  at  Sparta. 

This  recommendation  to  become  effective  required  legislation 
l)y  congress  to  enable  the  war  department  to  use  the  Camp 
Douglas  appropriation  at  Sparta  or  so  much  of  the  same  as  might 
be  found  necessary  to  purchase  the  Sparta  site.  This  again 
opened  the  figlit  between  the  people  interested  in  the  lands  at 
Camp  Douglas  and  Sparta.  Congressman  Esch  was  successful, 
however,  in  amending  the  bill,  or  law,  Avhich  had  appropriated 
the  $150,000.00  by  having  the  words  "Camp  Douglas"  stricken 
out  and  the  word  "Sparta"  inserted,  so  tliat  the  appropriation 
became  available  for  the  purchase  of  this  land. 

Colonel  ]\Ic('oy,  during  the  time  that  the  board  of  investiga- 
tion Avas  looking  upon  this  site,  prepared  and  presented  strong 
arguments  for  the  purchase  of  the  property.  The  idea  of  leasing 
this  land  was  given  up  and  the  war  department  finally  decided 
to  purchase  a  tract  of  7.500  acres,  and  negotiations  were  com- 
menced and  were  pending  for  some  time,  it  being  found  that  so 
many  of  the  pieces  of  land  were  acquired  by  tax  title  transfers 
that  it  would  he  necessary  to  condemn  the  lands  in  order  to  get 
a  perfect  title  in  the  government,  and  proceedings  were  inau- 
gurated in  1909  for  that  purpose. 

Through  the  good  work  of  Congressman  Esch  and  others 
interested  in  the  matter  the  department  was  finally  convinced 
that  it  would  be  the  best  thing  to  buy  the  inner  tract  of  7,500 
acres,  as  it  was  called,  and  also  to  buy  an  outer  tract  or  rim  of 
land  around  this  of  about  7,500  acres  more.  Eventually  negotia- 
tions were  concluded  through  the  efforts  of  Judge  R.  B.  McCoy 
in  the  summer  of  1909  whereby  the  government  became  tlie 
owner  of  a  grand  total  of  14,206.65  acres,  and  tlie  Sparta  maneu- 
ver tract  became  a  reality. 

In  April,  1909,  the  Avar  department  announced  tlie  commence- 
ment of  artillery  practice,  and  during  July  and  August  sent  a 
battalion  of  regular  army  officers,  consisting  of  Captains  AVilliam 
Brook,  Albany.  New  York;  C.  K.  Green,  Chicago,  111.:  AVilliam 
Cruikshank,  Fort  Sheridan,  111.;  John  J.  Calerus,  of  Chicago, 
together  Avith  District  Passenger  Agent  AV.  AV.  AVinton,  of  the 
St.  Paul  company;  Trainmaster  Ilenrichs,  of  Alihvaukee.  and 
Roadmaster  1'.  IT.  Aladden,  together  Avith  Col.  R.  B.  McCoy  and 
]\Iaj.  D.  AV.  Cheney  located  the  place  for  the  temporary  build- 
ings and  for  the  camp  grouiuls.  The  Avhole  matter  Avas  gone  OA'er 
tiioroughly  and  a  maneuver  camp  selected  on  the  north  side  of 
the  raihvay  tracks,  and  the  artillery  camp  remained  at  the  loca- 
tion Avhich  had  been  previously  occupied  by  Colonel  Allen,  near 


the  artesian  well,  close  to  and  on  the  south  side  of  the  tracks  of 
the  St.  Paul  company. 

Temporary  galvanized  storage  buildings  were  provided  for 
and  erected  during  the  summer  of  1909.  The  St.  Paul  company 
provided  a  side  track  for  unloading  purposes  near  the  artillery 
camps,  and  ran  a  spur  into  the  maneuver  camp  grounds  and 
placed  there  a  large  amount  of  side  tracks  so  that  troop  trains 
could  be  handily  unloaded.  An  artesian  well  was  sunk  at  the 
maneuver  camp  ground  in  the  summer  of  1910,  and  a  large  steel 
elevated  water  tank  erected  and  pipes  laid  to  conduct  the  water 
throughout  the  camp  grounds.  A  tank  was  also  erected  at  the 
artillery  camp  which  is  supplied  from  the  large  flowing  well, 
which  had  been  running  for  several  years. 

The  war  department  having  issued  orders  for  artillery  prac- 
tice, in  addition  to  the  regular  batteries  ordered  to  Sparta,  bat- 
teries from  the  states  of  Michigan.  "Wisconsin,  Illinois,  Iowa  and 
Minnesota  were,  upon  invitation,  ordered  to  Sparta  for  artillery 
practice  and  instruction  during  the  months  of  August  and 

Three  regular  batteries  of  light  field  artillery,  one  from  Fort 
Sheridan,  one  from  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kansas,  and  one  from 
Fort  Snelling,  Minnesota,  arrived  about  the  8th  of  July,  1909, 
together  with  the  regimental  band  of  the  Fifth  artillery  from 
Fort  Leavenworth,  being  Companies  E,  D  and  F,  of  the  Fifth 
artillery,  under  the  command  of  Captain  Cruikshank  as  camp 
commander.  The  camp  was  named  "Camp  Robinson"  in  honor 
of  Colonel  Robinson,  at  one  time  a  resident  of  the  city  of  Sparta, 
and  the  government  military  reservation  known  as  the  "Sparta 
Maneuver  Tract,"  was  duly  inaugurated  as  one  of  the  great  mili- 
tary centers  for  field  operations  for  the  army  and  the  national 
guard.  The  possibilities  of  it  would  seem  to  be  far  greater  than 
was  originally  anticipated ;  as  the  strategic  location  in  the  middle 
west,  with  the  railroad  facilities  and  the  large  acreage,  makes 
it  at  once  available  as  a  point  for  the  mobilization  of  large  bodies 
of  troops  in  the  time  of  war  and  for  conducting  maneuvers  on 
a  larger  scale  than  ever  heretofore  adopted  in  time  of  peace. 

On  the  13th  of  July  Company  A,  of  the  Hospital  Corps  from 
Fort  Russell,  AYyoming,  consisting  of  120  and  ten  officers,  arrived 
and  went  into  camp.  They  were  under  the  command  of  INIajor 
Fauntleroy,  and  the  officers  of  the  corps  in  attendance  were 
]\Iajor  Purpiance,  Major  Pratton,  Captain  Whitcomb,  Captain 
Bale,  Captain  Talbot,  Lieutenant  Jones,  Lieutenant  Leary,  Lieu- 


t(^'ii;mt  Docrr  and  Lioutciiaiit  IJaylcy,  all  surgeons  oi'  the  regular 

Soon  after  the  anival  of  this  eonipnny  and  the  army  surgeons 
a  new  feature  to  tlie  regular  army  service  was  inaugurated  by 
the  establishment  of  a  School  of  Instructions  for  National  Guard 
]\Iedical  Offii-ei's.  The  school  conducted  at  ('ainp  liobinson  is  one 
of  three  held  during  the  year  190!),  the  other  two  being  at  Annapo- 
lis, ^Maryland,  and  California.  In  previous  years  the  instruction 
Avhich  the  National  Guard  medical  officers  received  was  given 
at  the  encampments  of  the  state  troops  by  offirci's  of  tlic  regular 
arni>-  detailed  for  that  purpose. 

Tlu»  present  system  which  l)rings  tlic  nu^lical  officers  of  tlie 
various  states  under  the  instruction  of  a  fully  equijiped  hospital 
corps  becomes  so  evident  that  there  is  but  little  doul)t  but  tluit 
the  medical  school  of  instructions  will,  and  practically  has.  be- 
come a  part  of  the  ])lans  of  the  AVar  Department  for  increasing 
the  efficiency  of  the  National  Guard. 

The  instruction  given  at  this  first  school  consisted  in  daily 
lectures  given  by  the  regular  army  surgeons  concerning  the 
various  phases  of  practice  encountered  in  connection  with  the 
army  work.  There  was  also  given  practical  demonstration  of 
field  Avork  by  the  members  of  the  hospital  corps,  and  the  Avork 
througliout  Avas  made  as  realistic  as  it  Avas  possible  to  luivc  it 
Avithout  the  actual  presence  of  the  Avounded. 

The  first  class  of  National  Guard  surgeons  arrived  on  the  15th 
of  July,  and  consisted  of  thii-ty-one  officers  from  the  states  of 
Indiana,  Ohio,  Michigan,  Illinois,  ]\lississiii]>i  and  "Wiscon.sin. 
After  thcii-  departure  another  class  arrivctl  as  large.  Avas  estinui- 
bly  from  these  various  states,  and  remained  for  another  period 
of  ten  days,  and  on  the  12th  of  August,  the  Company  A.  of  the 
Hospital  Corps  returned  to  its  station  at  Fort  Russell,  AVyoming. 

Connected  Avith  the  IMinnesota  batteries  Avhicii  Avere  in  camp 
during  the  fore  i^art  of  August  in  that  year  Avas  >\Ir.  P.  Daley,  a 
Avireless  telegraph  cxpci't,  Avho  had  been  co)ulucting  experiments 
with  the  Avireless  telegraph  as  a  nutans  of  connnunication  betAveen 
inland  points.  With  the  pci-niission  of  County  Clerk  Talbot.  ]\Ir. 
Daley  ci'cctcd  ujtiMi  the  rool'  of  tlif  ('uri-t  Ibiuse  a  small  wireless 
appai'atus.  the  oliject  of  which  cxpcrimciil  was  to  dciiionstrate 
the  usefulness  of  the  Avireless  telegraph  as  a  means  of  connnuni- 
cation betAveen  troops  so  that  in  case  of  actual  Avarfarc  it  Avill  be 
possible  for  detachments  to  ci-cct  stations  at  any  i>oint  and  com- 
nuinicat<^  Avith  each  othei-. 

Alter  lh(>  apparatus  Avas  finally  set  uj)  ^Ir.  Smiih.  a  represent- 


ative  of  the  St.  Paul  Dispatch,  about  4:00  o'clock  on  Wednesday 
afternoon.  August  5th,  sent  the  following  message  to  St.  Paul, 
addressed  to  Judge  Thomas  Wilson,  the  oldest  living  resident  of 
that  city:  "This  is  the  first  wireless  message  ever  sent  into  the 
city  of  St.  Paul,  and  in  appreciation  of  the  many  things  you  have 
done  to  make  it  possible,  it  has  been  addressed  to  you." 

The  message  was  received  all  right  in  St.  Paul  and  the  experi- 
ment was  pronounced  a  success.  In  the  history  of  the  reservation 
the  encampment  of  1909  was  made  memorable  by  a  visit  of  ]\Iaj. 
Gen.  Fred  D.  Grant,  commanding  the  Department  of  the  Lakes, 
Avhich  occurred  on  the  26th  of  August. 

The  General  arrived  at  Golvin  station,  which  was  the  name 
given  for  the  stopping  place  near  the  artillery  camp,  and  Avas 
received  by  Captain  Cruikshank  and  escorted  to  the  headquar- 
ters tent.  After  breakfast  the  General  was  met  by  Congressman 
Esch  and  United  States  District  Attorney  George  H.  Gordon,  of 
LaCrosse,  and  Maj.  D.  W.  Cheney,  of  Sparta,  and  this  party  was 
taken  by  jMaj.  Cheney  in  his  automobile  for  a  tour  of  inspection 
of  the  range.  During  the  forenoon  the  distinguished  visitors 
were  shown  all  of  the  portion  of  the  tract  which  could  be  reached 
with  an  auto,  and  in  the  afternoon  the  inspection  was  continued 
in  an  army  wagon.  The  following  day  the  General  Avas  taken 
over  the  more  inaccessible  portions  of  the  range,  including  the 
many  hills,  on  horseback. 

His  inspection  was  most  complete  and  at  the  end  of  it  General 
Grant  expressed  himself  as  highly  pleased,  and  stated  that  he 
found  it  in  all  respects  superior  to  what  it  had  been  represented 
to  him  as  being,  and  it  Avas  reported  at  this  time  that  the  General 
was  in  favor  of  extending  the  reservation  l)y  the  purchase  of 
additional  land  up  to  the  amount  of  20,000  acres.  He  afterwards 
in  a  rei)ort  recommended  that  the  range  be  converted  into  a 
general  maneuver  tract  for  all  branches  of  the  service,  that  small 
arms  ranges  be  installed,  and  other  extensiA'e  improA'ements  made. 
The  General's  visit  Avas  productive  of  much  good  and  his  report 
afterAvards  resulted  in  further  action  by  the  War  Department 
as  to  the  installing  of  fixed  distance  ranges,  and  early  in 
1910  in  the  army  operation  a  bill  passed  by  congress  was  in- 
cluded the  amount  of  $40,000  for  improvements  on  the  military 
reservation  near  Sparta,  and  Avas  the  first  definite  step  tOAvards 
the  development  of  the  tract  for  further  uses,  in  accordance  with 
the  plans  Avhich  the  War  Department  then  had  in  a^cav,  for  it 
marked  the  beginning  of  a  settled  policy  Avith  regard  to  this 
reservation,  and  indicated  that  in  the  near  future  the  national 


i-itlc  contests  would  be  liild  upon  tliis  ground  instead  of  at  Camp 
I'ci'i-y.  Ohio,  wlirre  these  contests  had  been  held  fur  scxci-al 

And  the  reasons  for  asking  for  these  appropriations  were  sub- 
mitted to  congress  by  the  Secretary  of  AVar  and  originally  made 
to  the  secretary-  by  J.  B.  Aleshire,  quartermaster  general  of  the 
Inited  States  army,  and  in  a  part  of  his  recommendation  with 
regard  to  military  posts,  has  found  the  following,  which  is  an 
extract  from  the  same:  "Target  range,  Sparta,  AVisconsin :  For 
the  construction  and  equipment  of  a  target  range  for  the  field 
firing  of  the  artillery,  cavalry  and  infantry  branches  of  the 
United  States  army  and  for  machine  guns,  including  the  con- 
struction of  a  concrete  store  house,  portable  railroad  and  im- 
])rovements  on  camp  sites  for  water  and  sanitation  on  land 
authorized  to  be  acquired  near  Sparta,  ^Monroe  county,  AVis.,  as  a 
site  for  target  range,  and  for  all  other  absolutely  necessary  ex- 
penses in  connection  herewith,  to  be  immediately  available, 
$40,000."  (Note — The  foregoing  estimate  is  submitted  in  view 
of  a  report  made  thereon  by  Col.  R.  K.  Evans,  Twenty-eighth 
infantry.  United  States  army,  which  reads  in  part  as  follows:) 

"Advisability  of  establishing  a  range  for  field-firing  on  the 
Sparta  reservation  for  the  three  arms — artillery,  cavalry  and  in- 
fantry— and  machine  guns:  This  reservation,  on  account  of  its 
size,  14,000  acres,  and  the  character  of  the  terrain,  offers  excel- 
lent facilities  for  field  firing,  in  which  the  fire  of  artillery  and 
small  arms  can  be  worked  in  combination  against  moving  and 
disappearing  targets  at  unknown  ranges.  This  kind  of  field 
firing  is  the  most  advanced  stage  in  the  training  of  modern  armies 
for  battle.  So  far  we  have  not  fully  equipped  a  single  range  for 
this  kind  of  work,  Avliile  the  other  great  powers  have  been  busy 
in  this  direction  for  years.  Our  Small  Arms  Firing  ^Manual,  1909, 
contemplates  this  kind  of  practice,  but  there  is  only  one  range  in 
the  United  States  wliere  it  is  at  all  practical)le  to  init  it  into 
execution  even  for  rifie  and  nmchine  gun  fire,  viz.,  the  one  near 
Monterey,  California,  used  by  the  School  of  I\Iusketry.  ]More- 
over,  as  this  range  is  not  owned  by  the  government  it  is  not 
advisable  to  spend  anything  on  permanent  or  extensive  improve- 
ments or  appliances. 

"If  we  are  to  keep  abreast  of  the  standard  of  progress  set  by 
other  nations  we  sliould  equip  and  use  other  field  ranges  as  soon 
as  possible.  The  Sparta  range  has  a  decided  advantage  over  the 
one  in  California  in  that  it  is  accessible  to  a  much  larger  popula- 
tion.   It  might  be  valuable  for  the  troops  in  the  Department  of 


the  Lakes  and  Dakotas,  and  for  the  militia  of  four  or  five  popu- 
lous states.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  most  important  feature 
of  the  practical  training  of  modern  troops  for  battle  consists  in 
practicing-  the  combined  and  supporting  fire  of  infantry  and 
artillery  directed  against  a  common  objective,  it  is  recommended 
that  an  ordinary,  standard  known-distance  target  range  be  estab- 
lished on  the  Sparta  reservation,  and  also  that  the  necessary 
appliances  be  provided  for  firing  at  moving  and  disappearing 
targets,  the  most  important  of  the  moving  and  disappearing 
targets  to  be  arranged  to  run  on  light  movable  railway  tracks. 

"Light  portable  railroads  are  now  a  recognized  part  of  the 
necessary  transportation  equipment  of  modern  armies  for  war. 
The  leading  military  powers  kept  more  or  less  material  of  this 
kind  in  store  for  war  purposes.  The  Japanese  used  such  roads 
extensively  in  Manchuria.  Kuroki's  march  from  the  Yalu  to 
Mukden  would  not  have  been  practicable  without  the  DeCauville 
railroad.  AYe  read  and  talk  much  about  the  use  and  value  of 
DeCauville  roads  in  war,  but  none  of  our  officers  have  seen  one 
in  operation  in  our  territory  or  know  its  practical  uses  and  lim- 
itations from  actual  experience. 

"It  is  believed  that  this  range  offers  an  excellent  opportunity 
for  acquiring  necessary  experience  in  deciding  on  a  type  for 
such  railroads,  which  up  to  this  time  is  not  definitely  decided. 
Should  an  emergency  arise  requiring  the  use  of  such  roads  the 
material  on  hand  at  the  Sparta  range  could  be  immediately 
shipped  to  the  point  required.  In  order  not  to  lose  a  year  it  is 
necessary  that  some  funds  be  made  available  for  commencing  im- 
provements on  this  reservation  before  the  adjournment  of  the 
present  congress.  It  is  believed  that  at  least  $40,000  should  be 
appropriated  for  this  purpose.  With  this  sum  it  is  estimated 
that  known-distance  range  could  be  equipped  with  100  targets, 
$12,000 ;  a  storehouse  of  concrete  built,  $8,000 ;  and  the  remainder 
spent  on  the  portable  railroad  and  on  improvements  on  the  camj) 
sites  for  water  and  sanitation  generally. 

"The  construction  and  equipment  of  this  range  Avas  under 
consideration  by  the  department  prior  to  the  submission  of  the 
regular  annual  estimate  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1911, 
but  the  necessary  data  for  the  preparation  of  this  estimate  was 
not  at  hand  in  time  to  permit  of  its  inclusion  in  the  regular  esti- 
mates. The  submission  of  this  supplemental  estimate  is  deemed 
imperatively  necessary  in  order  that  funds  may  be  provided  for 
the  commencement  of  this  work  at  the  earliest  possible  date." 
The  foregoing  extract  from  the  report  of  the  quartermaster  gen- 



eral  of  the  army  outlines  the  course  wliieh  is  to  be  pursued  in 
the  futui-e  in  the  development  of  all  arms  of  the  service  in  the 
army  wi1li  tlic  cxcf^plion  of  the  coast  ailillery;  and  insures  the 
t'Xtciisi\c  use  to  wliicli  llii>  h\^  reservation  will  lie  put  in  the 
future,  and  that  for  the  tidd  work  of  an  army  corps. 

On  -May  '■],  lilld.  lln'  War  I  )epai1  iiicnt  issued  order  Xo.  Til, 
proxidin.u'  lor  1lic  military  work  on  I  lie  I'ange  for  tin-  summer. 
including'  maneuvei-s  on  an  extended  scale.  Early  in  June  Bat- 
tery V  from  Fort  Sheridan.  P>attery  K  IVom  Foi't  Sncllin^'.  and 
Battery  1)  from  Fort  Leavenworth  arrivetl  at  the  reservation  in 
advance  of  other  troops  and  engaged  in  long-distance  firing  until 
the  l)eginning  of  maneuvei-  field  instructions  of  state  troops  (lur- 
ing August.  These  batteries  are  all  a  part  of  the  Fifth  Field 
Artilh'ry,  and  in  addition  to  them  the  headquarters  field  staff  and 
l)and  of  the  .Medical  Battalion  was  also  ordered  into  camp. 

Under  oi-dei-  Ti>.  above  referred  to.  the  I'ltllowing  troops  were 
designated  to  attend  the  maneuvers,  and  arrived  about  the  1st 
of  August,  to-wit :  Three  troops  of  the  Fourth  Uavali-y  from 
Fort  Snelling;  three  troo])s  of  the  1^'ifteenth  Cavalry  from  Fort 
Sheridan;  headqimrfers  and  one  l)aftery  Fifth  Artillery  from 
Fort  Sheridan;  one  baffei-y  Fifth  Ai-fillery  from  P'ort  Sheridan: 
one  battery  Fifth  Artillery  from  Fort  Leavenworth;  headquar- 
ters and  eleven  companies  of  the  Twenty-seventh  Infantry  from 
Fort  Sheridan:  Iiead(|uai-tei's  and  ele\'en  companies  of  the 
Twenty-eighth  Inlanti-y  i'l'om  Fort  Snelling;  one-half  of  ('om- 
])any  A.  of  the  llosintal  Corps,  fi'om  1-^ort  Kussell.  Wyonnng. 

This  oi'der  required  that  all  infantry  troops  must  maridi  at 
least  200  miles  in  I'eaching  the  city  of  Spai'fa  or  returning  to  their 
station,  while  the  eavali'y  and  the  artillery  weiv^  recpiired  to 
nuirch  2.')0  miles.  In  additioji  to  the  fd)ove  troops  from  the  regu- 
lar army  there  were  ordei-ed  to  the  i'(\servation  for  artillery  prac- 
tice National  Guard  batteries  from  different  states  as  follows: 
Ohio  seven  batteries.  Indiana  three  batteries,  ^Michigan  one  bat- 
tei-y.  Illinois  fhi-ee  batteries,  fowa  one  battery.  .Minnesota  one 
battery,  AViseonsin  one;  all  of  light  ai'fillery.  None  of  these 
organizations  brought  their  own  equipments,  but  for  the  purposes 
of  instruction  they  were  required  to  handle  the  regular  arm\- 
e(pupmen1s  of  the  batteries  abovi'  designated.  This  order  also 
provided  that  to  inirticipate  in  maneuvers  several  regiments  of 
infantry  were  ordered  to  the  reservation  and  arrived  at  different 
times  during  the  month  of  August :  AViseonsin  sent  the  First 
Regiment  and  the  Tenth  Battalion,  making  sixteen  companies; 
Iowa  one  brigade  and  three  regiments,  ]\Iinnesota  one  regiment. 


North  Dakota  twelve  eoinpanies.  South  Dakotii  twelve  eouipauies, 
so  that  the  troops  which  participated  in  the  maneuvers  during 
this  month  numbered  about  10,000. 

The  scheme  of  instruction  resembled  nearly  as  ])ossil)le  the 
conditions  to  Ix-  encountered  in  actual  warfare,  the  ol).iect  being 
to  promote  the  field  training  of  the  troops.  Accurate  topograph- 
ical maps  of  the  entire  reservation  had  been  previously  made  by 
the  engineering  department,  and  each  day  during  the  stay  of  the 
troops  problems  of  varied  characters  were  proposed  ;iud  the  solu- 
tion of  them  wrought  out  on  the  field.  Ceremonies  Avere  cut  down 
to  the  lowest  limit  and  the  actual  practice  work  was  pursued  with 
vigor  and  great  benefit  to  the  troops  engaged  in  this  maneuver. 

This  encampment  was  under  the  command  of  Brig.  Gen. 
Walter  Howe,  and  in  honor  of  Capt.  Bruce  E.  McCoy,  of  Sparta, 
who  with  his  son,  Colonel  ]\IcCoy,  had  been  so  instrumental  in 
establishing  the  reservation.  General  HoAve  on  the  ]st  day  of 
August  issued  an  order  naming  the  camp  "Cam])  Hruc(^  E. 
IMcCoy."  Captain  ]\IcCoy  was  a  captain  in  the  Civil  War,  and  for 
years  was  the  OAvner  of  the  old  Lafayette  mill  property  and  of 
the  laud  on  Avhich  the  maneuver  camp  itself  Avas  located.  The 
folloAving  named  officers  Avere  detailed  for  service  at  this  camp: 
i\Iaj.  Sanmel  D.  Sturgis,  General  Stalf  Corps;  :\Iaj.  AValter  H. 
Gorton,  Inspector  general;  Capt.  Douglas  Settle,  counuissary; 
Lieut.  Col.  William  B.  Bannister,  Medical  Corps;  Maj.  Thomas  C. 
Goodman,  paymaster;  Capt.  Charles  W.  Castle,  paymaster;  ('apt. 
Dana  T.  ]\Ierrill,  TAventy-eighth  Infantry. 

During  the  month  of  August  the  range  Avas  visited  by  Gen. 
Robert  ShaAV  Oliver,  Assistant  Secretary  of  War,  who  gave  it  a 
thorough  inspection.  Governor  Carroll,  of  loAva,  also  Adsited  the 
maneuver  camp  on  the  19th  of  August  and  revicAved  the  loAva 
Brigade  on  the  afternoon  of  the  19th.  The  maneuvers  of  1910 
Avere  very  successful  and  demonstrated  beyond  question  that  this 
big  reserA'ation  Avas  Avell  adapted  for  the  purpose,  as  the  range 
used  by  the  troops  around  the  maneuver  camp  did  not  extend 
more  than  four  miles,  so  that  there  is  ample  room  for  the  camping 
of  several  brigades  on  different  portions  of  the  reservation 
Avherever  Avater  may  be  provided.  And  the  best  of  Avater  is  ob- 
tained by  sinking  artesian  Avells,  from  Avhich  a  fioAV  of  Avater  is 
obtained  at  a  A^ery  moderate  depth  and  easily  carried  to  any 
distance  by  piping. 

Early  in  1910  Lieutenant  Gilmore  of  the  regular  service  Avas 
detailed  as  constructing  quartermaster  and  moved  to  Sparta  Avith 
his  family,  Avhere  he  remained  during  1910  and  up  until  about 


August,  1011.  He  h;i(l  lull  charge  of  the  constructing  of  the 
rifle  range  of  tlic  reservation,  for  Avlilch  an  approx)riation  of 
!}>40,000  had  been  made  by  congress.  The  work  was  very  tlior- 
oughly  done  niid  thei-c  is  now  constructed  rifle  i)its  built  of  con- 
crete with  ample  stoi'c  rooms  sunk  into  tlie  embankment  of  hills, 
Targets  and  various  supplies,  and  the  range  is  equipped  with 
something  like  two  hundred  of  the  most  modern  targets  to  be  pro- 
cured. A  large  concrete  office  building  ami  storehouse  has  been 
constructed,  ami  the  grading  and  seeding  of  the  tiring  points 

All  effort  was  made  to  secure  the  national  rifle  competition  of 
this  range  in  1911,  and  the  "War  Department  was  entirely  friendly 
toward  the  proposition  providing  the  range  was  in  condition  for 
holding  such  a  contest,  and  a  board  of  officers  Avere  ordered  here 
early  in  the  summer  for  the  purpose  of  inspecting  and  looking 
the  range  over  thoroughly.  They  finally  decided  it  would  be 
best  not  to  attempt  to  hold  the  competition  on  the  range  that  year 
in  order  to  allow  the  seeding  to  take  root  and  be  in  good  shape 
another  year. 

Through  the  eflforts  of  Colonel  McCoy  the  town  board  of  Angelo 
during  the  month  of  January  and  after  considerable  contest  have 
laid  out  a  road  through  the  town  of  Angelo  to  the  range,  which 
Avill  shorten  the  distance  from  this  city  considerably,  and 
that  road  will,  undoubtedly,  be  completed  and  in  good  shape  for 
travel  by  the  time  this  history  is  published.  The  only  disadvan- 
tages have  been  the  poor  roads,  as  they  go  through  sandy  country, 
but  with  that  remedied  the  great  benefit  which  Avill  be  received 
to  the  citizens  of  Sparta  and  the  city  of  Tomah  and  vicinity, 
through  the  purchase  of  needed  supplies,  cannot  be  very  well  esti- 
mated, as  the  benefit  Avill,  undoubtedly,  grow  greater  as  the 
ef|nipment  on  the  reservation  is  perfected.  The  railroad  facilities 
are  now  very  ample  as  the  North  AVestern  railway  has  con- 
structed a  spur  track  leading  directly  to  the  rille  range,  and 
there  is  also  placed  a  track  constructed  liy  the  St.  Paul  company 
to  tile  same  place,  and  aiiijile  sidetrack  facilities  are  in  existence 
at  the  point  where  the  main  storehouse  is  located.  The  St.  Paul 
company  has  constructed  a  new  station  known  as  "McCoy,"  and 
built  a  tasty  little  depot  not  far  from  the  artillery  camp.  The 
North  AVesttM'ii  company  has  also  erected  a  small  depot  on  the 
line  of  the  Alilwaukee,  Sj)arta  &  North  Western  Railway  (^ompany 
so  that  during  the  existence  of  maneuvers  railroad  facilities  are 
now    provided  for. 

This  chapter  would  not  be  complete  without  mentioning  the 


indefatigable  work  of  t'ol.  R.  B.  jMcCo.y,  which  has  been  mainly 
instrumental  in  the  establishment  of  this  great  enterprise.  While 
interested  somewhat  personally  in  some  of  the  land  which  was 
bought  by  the  government,  yet  in  addition  to  that.  Colonel  McCoy 
spent  a  large  amount  of  his  time  in  acquiring  options  on  the 
entire  tract,  using  a  diplomacy  and  patience  which  was  indeed 
remarkable,  and  bringing  to  a  successful  conclusion  a  task  whicli 
looked  almost  impossible.  His  energy  and  perseverance  have 
brought  great  results,  such  as  only  a  man  of  his  ability  can  bring 


CIRCinT  jrDGP:s. 

Fitting  indeed  it  is  to  spread  upon  these  pages  the  tributes  of 
respect  Jind  aft'eetion  froni  his  brothers  of  the  legal  i)rofession,  to 
tlic  itieniory  of  "Joe"  Morrow;  for  "Joe''  he  was.  The  name 
was  used  not  in  the  sense  of  familiarity,  but  in  that  sense  which 
so  strongly  indieates  the  friendly  respect  wliich  a  good-hearted 
man  i-eceives  from  his  fellows.  Tniformly  kind,  courteous  and 
gentlemanly,  mild  of  manner  and  speech,  yet  his  personality  was 
one  which  attracted  attention  wherever  he  wenl.  His  strong 
face,  full  of  character,  his  straightforward  method  of  dealing 
with  the  mailer  in  hand,  commanded  attention  and  gave  weight 
to  those  things  which  in  others  nuglit  have  seemed  coiiimonplace. 
Always  kind  and  helpful  to  Ihi'  your.ger  members  of  tlu^  l)ar.  a 
generous  opponent  in  any  case,  he  licld  tlie  fi'iendship  of  his 
fellow  attorneys  to  the  end. 

Oil  Ihe  loth  of  October,  IS!*!),  at  the  fall  term  of  the  CiiTuit 
Court,  -ludge  O.  B.  AVyman  ])residing,  memorial  exercises  were 
held  and  the  courl  adjourned  for  that  day  as  a  mark  of  respect. 
A  resolution  signed  by  liie  members  of  the  bar  of  ^Monroe  county 
w;is  introduced  and  adopted  as  follows: 

"On  motion  of  llie  bar  of  ]\Ionroe  county,  the  Circuit  Court  of 
this  county  has  set  apart  this  day  to  be  devoted  to  memorial 
exercises  in  honor  of  our  deceased  brother.  Tlon.  J.  ^\.  ^lorrow. 
formei-ly  -Judge  of  this  Circuit. 

■"In  his  (k'atli  the  members  of  this  bar  share  with  the  bar  of 
the  state  of  AVisconsiu  a  loss  that  is  great,  but  to  us  the  coni- 
panioiis  of  his  daily  life,  his  death  was  a  sliock  and  a  loss  that  was 
irreparable.  Stri(d\eii  down  in  the  ripe  \igor  of  his  intellectual 
manhood  in  the  noon  of  his  ])rofessional  activit.y,  and  ;it  a  time 
when  his  moral  intluence  with  us,  his  associates,  was  most  potent 
for  good,  for  us  bis  i)lace  cannot  be  filled  and  our  sori'ow  is  daily 

""We  bis  brothers  of  the  bar  of  ]\Iouroe  county,  desii-e  to  i)lace 



permanently  upon  the  records  of  this  court  and  to  have  it  entered 
as  a  part  of  the  proceedings  of  this  term  the  following: 

"We  admire  in  him  the  industry,  learning,  wisdom  and  ability 
that  placed  him  in  the  front  rank  of  lawyers  of  this  state.  We 
honor  in  him  as  a  lawyer  and  hold  up  for  emulation  to  those  who 
come  after  him,  an  integrity,  zeal  and  devotion  to  his  client's 
interests  that  made  his  good  faith  beyond  suspicion,  a  professional 
honor  that  made  his  word  and  his  implied  obligations  better  than 
written  stipulations,  a  courtesy  to  his  associates  and  antagonists 
alike  that  softened  any  asperities  of  legal  conflict,  a  sunny  temper 
and  genial  humor  that  robbed  defeat  of  its  sting  and  bound 
closer  in  friendship  his  antagonists,  and  above  all,  that  delicate 
sense  of  personal  integrity  that  kept  his  professional  zeal  within 
those  limits  that  hold  the  gentleman. 

"We  reverence  in  his  career  on  the  bench  in  an  eminent 
degree,  the  cjualities  that  have  adorned  th(^  judicial  office  of  this 
circuit  since  its  organization,  reinforced,  ripened  and  broadened 
by  an  experience  at  the  bar  exceptional  in  its  scope.  As  an 
official  he  brought  to  the  discharge  of  his  duties  the  same  great 
zeal  and  alnlity  that  marked  his  professional  life.  As  a  citizen 
he  had  the  respect  and  esteem  of  all,  and  his  advice  was  sought 
in  all  important  afifairs.  As  a  man  w'e  loved  him.  Geo.  Graham, 
C.  M.  Masters,  Sev.  Button,  D.  F.  Jones,  H.  C.  Spaulding,  R.  B. 
Graves,  Chris.  Maxwell.  AVm.  B.  Naylor,  Jr.,  R.  A.  Richards.  R.  B. 
McCoy,  H.  C.  Altizer,  H.  B.  Clark." 

The  remarks  were  made  by  several  members  of  the  bar  from 
different  counties  as  follows : 

H.  AV.  Barney,  of  Mauston,  said — "May  it  please  the  Court:  I 
have  no  set  speech  to  make.  .  Brother  Hughes  and  myself  come 
here  to  represent  Juneau  county — one  of  the  counties  in  the  .judi- 
cial circuit  over  which  Judge  MorroAV  presided — at  this  me- 
morial service.  I  am  here  to  say  that  the  people  and  bar  of 
Juneau  county  entertained  the  greatest  respect  for  Judge  Morrow 
as  a  lawyer,  a  .judge  and  a  man.  He  had  an  extensive  practice  in 
our  county  and  for  more  than  thirty  years  he  attended  nearly, 
if  not  all,  our  terms  of  the  Circuit  Court.  He  attended  many 
cases  there  in  justices'  courts.  The  day  before  he  died,  July 
27th  last,  I  nu't  him  in  Elroy,  where  we  adjourned  several  cases 
over  into  September — engagements  that  death  prevented  him  from 
fulfilling.  It  seems  to  us  that  he  belonged  to  our  county  as  much 
as  he  did  to  this  county. 

"When  our  court  meets  in  November  he  will  be  missed  as 
much  (u-  more  than  ar.y  of  oui'  resident  attorneys,  and  the  loss 


"will  be  felt  in  Jiuicau  county  as  keenly  as  in  any  locality  in  the 
state.  Jnneaii  coiinly  seconds  the  adoption  of  memorial  pre- 
sented and  endorses  all  that  has  been  said  here  today  in  eulogy  of 
Judge  ^Morrow." 

Remarks  of  A.  E.  Bleekman.  of  LaCrosse — "]\Iay  it  i>lease 
the  Court:  1  have  not  come  with  a  prepared  speech  for  this  occa- 
sion. Yet  if  I  do  not  respond  to  these  resolutions  and  speak 
somcAvhat  of  my  feelings,  I  shall  be  derelict  in  my  duty  to  the 

"I  knew  our  brother,  and  I  knew  him  well.  I  first  became 
acquainted  with  liim  tliirty  years  ago  the  coming  winter,  at  the 
office  of  the  Hon.  George  Graham,  of  this  l)ar,  where  I  was  then 
a  student.  He  came  to  Tonuih  in  tlie  interest  of  a  client,  Mr. 
John  Maxwell,  one  of  the  oldest  settlers  of  the  county.  I  remem- 
ber that  meeting  as  well  as  if  it  were  yesterday,  even  the  clothes 
he  wore,  for  he  Avas  not  a  man  of  the  passing  hour,  hut  made  an 
impression  upon  those  he  met.  He  was  thou  the  same  mild, 
gentlemanly,  even-tempered  nmii  he  always  Avas.  I  next  heard 
of  him  at  Tunnel  City  in  his  professional  duties,  Avhere,  Avheu 
presented  Avitli  a  decision  of  our  oaa'u  Supreme  Court,  exactly 
opposite  the  position  he  Avas  contending  for,  he  arose  and  gravely 
asked  the  court  if  he  Avas  going  to  make  a  fool  of  himself  because 
the  Supreme  Court  had — and  Avon  his  ease. 

"As  the  years  pased  on  and  our  business  relations  extended, 
Ave  met  oftener  in  the  trial  of  causes  and  our  acquaintance 
ripened  into  strong  personal  friendship.  He  Avas  the  soul  of 
honor,  aliove  euA'y  and  jealousy,  one  of  the  fcAV  Avho  possess  the 
ability — almost  a  genius — to  surpass  and  subdue  and  not  have  to 
look  doAvn  upon  the  liate  of  those  beloAV.  For  over  eleven  years 
Ave  practiced  side  l>y  side  Avithout  a  Avritiug  betAveen  us.  all  tlu' 
interests  of  our  clients  and  our  individual  interests  resting  upon 
the  Avord  of  each.  In  all  that  time  he  never  hesitated — he  never 
forgot  liis  Avord.  AVhen  he  said  lu^  Avould  do  so  and  so  at  such  a 
tinu',  that  Avas  the  end  of  it.  and  he  did  it  Avithout  having  to  be 
reminded  of  his  agreement.  He  h)\  id  liis  profession  and  he  clier- 
ished  liis  honor.  He  Avas  genial  and  happy  in  the  labors  of  that 
profession  and  in  his  intercourse  Avitli  his  felloAvmcu. 

"At  his  otTic(>  he  Avas  industrious,  studious  and  thoughtful  in 
his  Avork  :  ])]ain.  kind,  just  ami  consci(Mitious  Avith  his  clients,  and 
at  the  bar  a  strong,  able,  sagacious,  courteous  and  eloquent  advo- 
cate. I  sometimes  thought  he  did  not  grasp  legal  ]>ropositions  as 
easily  and  clearly  as  some,  but  required  more  study  and  deeper 
thought  to  arrive  at  correct  conclusions,  Avhich  he  usually  did. 


but  in  the  gathering,  accumulating,  selection  and  presentation  of 
facts  he  was  a  master.  He  despised  technicalities  and  went  to 
the  very  merit  and  root  of  his  cause.  As  a  lawyer  he  seemed  to 
be  a  connecting  link  between  the  old  and  the  new,  possessing  the 
honor,  the  integrity  and  the  love  of  the  profession  which  marked 
the  old  school  lawyer,  and  he  regarded  the  commercialism,  as  I 
have  often  heard  him  call  it,  that  seemed  to  be  usurping  and 
taking  the  place  of  these  high  ideas  in  the  new,  with  disfavor.  In 
his  social  life  he  thoroughly  believed  in  a  part  of  that  counsel  of 
Polonius  to  Laertes,  'The  friends  thou  hast  and  their  adoption 
tried  grapple  them  to  thee  with  hoops  of  steel,'  but  he  cast  to  the 
wind  the  remainder  of  that  counsel,  'but  do  not  stop  to  dull  thy 
palm  with  each  new-hatched  unfledged  comrade,'  and  few  men 
were  nearer  and  warmer  to  so  many  people  as  he.  I  know  of  no 
other  attorney  at  the  bar  in  this  state  who,  going  where  he  might, 
alighting  from  the  train  where  he  would,  would  meet  so  many 
warm  hearts  and  have  his  hand  clasped  by  so  many  warm  hands 
in  kindness,  in  friendship  and  in  respect  as  he.  And  yet  all  was 
not  sunshine  with  him.  He  had  his  gloomy  hours  as  well  as  others. 
I  remember  well  of  a  time  when  he  and  I  took  the  train  at  the 
depot  here  in  the  morning,  went  to  Kendall,  tried  a  law  suit  all 
day  and  into  the  night,  returning  early  the  next  morning  to  Nor- 
walk,  then  going  by  team  to  Ontario  and  trying  a  lawsuit  all  that 
day  and  into  the  night.  AVhen  he  retired  we  occupied  the  same 
room,  with  separate  beds.  In  the  morning  as  we  were  preparing 
for  breakfast  he  turned  to  me  and  said:  'This  is  a  hard  life;  is 
it  worth  living?'  And  yet  no  one  thought  more  of  his  life,  en- 
joyed it  or  desired  to  continue  it  than  he. 

"I  was  with  him  in  that  memorable  contest  of  Judge  Newman's 
for  the  Supreme  Bench,  both  before  Judge  Newman  became  a 
candidate  and  subsequently.  I  had  an  opportunity  to  test  his 
loyalty,  fidelity  and  breadth  of  mind.  He  was  no  mere  partisan, 
although  a  Democrat.  He  was  as  attentive  and  Avatchful  of  the 
interests  of  his  friends  as  of  his  own.  There  are  none  of  us  but 
know  how  faithful  and  attentive  he  was  to  those  dear  ones  at 
home,  and  how,  during  the  later  years  of  his  life,  he  managed  his 
])usiness  affairs  when  away  to  reach  home  as  speedily  as  possibU 
We  know  full  well  how  attentively  and  affectionately  he  watched 
over  them,  and  hoAV  solicitous  he  was  for  their  welfare. 

"The  bar  of  this  state  has  lost  one  of  its  strongest  members. 
Especially  is  this  true  of  the  bar  of  this  district,  and  at  his  home, 
the  place  where  he  lived,  for  he  was  indeed  a  loyal  Spartan.  His 
death  caused  us  universal  sorrow.     A  half  century  Avill  not  pro- 


ducc  nnotlicr  wlio  will  fill  the  pliirc  lie  filled.  Some  of  tlie  bright- 
est and  the  luippicst  hours  of  my  life  have  been  spent  in  eonverse 
with  him.  As  the  years  roll  on  and  time  dims  this  hour,  I  expect 
to  live  over  these  hours  I  passed  with  him,  and  say  as  Burns  said: 

"  'Still  o'er  these  scenes  my  nicnioi-y  wak(^s. 
And  fondly  broods  witii  miser  eare, 
Time  but  the  imi)ression  deeper  makes, 

As  streams  their  channels  deeper  wear.'  " 

Remarks  of  AVyatt  II.  Graves,  of  LaCrosse  county — "]May  it 
please  the  Court:  The  custom  in  accordance  with  which  we  are 
today  assembled,  is  appropriately  and  wortliily  observed,  only 
when  the  surviving  associates  of  the  tmc  whose  \irtues  are  to  be 
commemorated,  in  a  S])irit  if  candor  and  truth  record  their  testi- 
mony to  his  worth.  It  is  with  feelings  of  sincere  sadness  that  I 
come  on  this  occasion  to  pay  humble  tribute  to  the  memory  of  the 
lamented  dead.  To  me  it  is  a  sad  and  sacred  pleasure,  but  the 
burden  of  the  duty  is  nuide  lighter  by  the  consciousness  that  it 
can  be  best  discharged  ])y  simple,  truthful  reference  to  the  char- 
acter of  him  in  whose  honor  I  would  speak.  It  seems  fitting  that 
we  should  turn  from  active  duties  of  the  hour  and  pause  during 
tlie  all-absor])ing  cares  of  life  to  pay  our  respects  to  one  who 
honored  us  by  his  presence  as  a  mend)er  of  this  bar  and  won  our 
respect  and  admiration  by  liis  iioble  life. 

"AVlien  the  announeement  was  made  that  the  summons,  Aviiich, 
sooner  or  later,  must  come  to  us  all,  had  called  from  our  midst  our 
friend  and  brother,  Hon.  Joseph  I\I.  ]\Iorrow,  it  ])rought  with  it  a 
shock  inexpressibly  sad.  The  sun,  Avarm  and  bright,  was  pouring 
his  flood  of  life  and  glory  on  field  and  laughing  brook,  on  the  aii* 
was  the  smell  of  roses,  and  in  the  trees  the  songs  of  birds,  and 
all  the  Avorld  was  beautiful,  when  the  darkness  canu^ — a  quick, 
sudden,  endless  eclipse,  just  after  no(Uitide.  Though  we  often 
bend  over  the  bier  and  look  on  the  face  of  the  dead,  yet  the  de- 
])arture  of  our  friends  at  an  unexpected  moment  shocks  us  indccil 
and  overwhelms  us  with  sorrow,  and  when  our  good  and  our 
loved  ones  die,  the  memory  of  their  just  deeds,  like  moonbeams 
on  the  stormy  sea.  liglits  u|)  oui-  darkened  hearts  and  lends  to  the 
surrounding  gloom  a  beauty  so  sweet  and  sad,  that  we  would 
not  if  we  could  dispel  the  darkness  that  environs  it. 

"I  hardly  know  of  one  whose  death  could  suntU-r  mon-  or 
dearer  ties:  one  who  could  leave  so  much  behind  him  and  a  path- 
way lighted  ])y  a  fairer  radiance.  A  more  modest,  unassuming 
man;  a  finei-  iuid  a  truer  gentleman,  a  better  and  a  nobler  friend 


I  never  kneAv.  The  more  I  saw  and  knew  of  him  the  more  warmly 
I  loved  and  honored  him  for  his  many  noble  traits.  I  will  not 
indulge  in  what  might  be  construed  to  be  fulsome  adulation;  I 
Avill  speak  of  him  as  he  actually  was.  He  was  in  its  truest  and 
fullest  sense  a  'born  gentleman.'  He  was  conscientiously  and 
thoroughly  honest,  honorable  and  candid  in  all  his  dealings  and 
transactions  with  his  fellow  men,  personally,  financially  and  po- 
litically. He  won  the  admiration  and  respect  of  his  professional 
brethren  by  the  open  fairness  of  his  contests.  He  attached  him- 
self to  his  client  and  his  cause  with  a  loyalty  that  knew  no 
shadow  of  turning.  He  threw  his  whole  soul  into  the  case  on  trial. 
He  abandoned  no  cause  when  it  lacked  numbers.  He  deserted 
no  friend  in  the  minority.  He  feared  no  opposition  when  he  be- 
lieved himself  right,  and  he  espoused  no  cause  that  he  believed 
unjust.  His  manliness  and  fairness  not  only  won  clients,  but 
commanded  the  respect  of  adversaries,  the  confidence  of  judges, 
and  the  admiration  of  the  public.  He  was  a  wonderful  advocate, 
armed  with  eloquence  so  enchanting  that  jurors  became  his  cap- 
tives. Always  frank  and  candid,  he  was  utterly  free  from  even 
the  appearance  of  demagogy.  He  hated  shams  and  despised  pre- 
tensions. He  never  disappointed  a  friend ;  he  never  ignored  an 
obligation ;  he  never  forfeited  a  confidence.  His  will  was  in- 
vincible ;  his  motives  pure.  His  purposes  were  definite,  but 
exemplary  and  lofty.  His  self-respect  was  intense ;  therefore  he 
strove  for  justice  to  others.  He  sought  no  mean  advantage,  being 
jealous  of  his  own  honor. 

"  'To  thine  own  self  be  true. 
Thou  canst  not  then  be 
False  to  any  man' 

"When  I  say,  as  I  do  with  all  my  heart,  that  our  dead  brother 
whose  life  we  commemorate  today,  illustrated  this  simple  but  ex- 
alted philosophy  to  which  I  have  made  reference,  in  all  his  rela- 
tions to  life,  I  have  said  everything  that  need  be  spoken,  even  for 
the  lam.ented  dead,  by  the  partial  lips  of  sincere  affection,  and 
have  paid  to  him  the  proudest  tribute  which  honest  merit  ever 
won  from  unobsequious  homage.  He  was  a  model  in  all  the  tender 
relations  of  domestic  life.  As  a  husband  he  was  exemplary — 
faithful,  loving  and  tenderly  devoted  to  his  noble  and  worthy 
invalid  companion  in  life.  In  him  the  living  have  lost  a  kind  hus- 
band, a  tender  father  and  faithful  friend;  his  state  a  true  son, 
but  he  has  left  them  that  richest  of  all  treasures,  a  spotless  repu- 
tation, the  memory  of  earnest  deeds  well  done.    This  much  have 


1  felt  impelled  to  say  of  Joseph  M.  ]\Iorrow.  I  feel  exalted  that  I 
knew  him;  1  revere  his  memory;  I  rejoice  tliat  he  was  my  coun- 

Kemarks  of  G.  AV.  AVoodard,  of  LaCrosse  county — "^May  it 
please  your  honor:  But  little  can  be  added  in  commemoration 
of  Judge  Joseph  ]\Iorrow  to  what  has  already  been  said,  but  in 
view  of  my  long  acquaintance  Avith  him  it  is  proper  for  me,  in 
l)ehalf  of  the  bar  of  the  county  of  LaCrosse  and  of  the  circuit,  to 
join  with  others  in  moving  the  adoption  of  the  memorial  which 
has  been  read. 

"In  1857  I  made  the  acquaintance  of  ]\Ir.  L.  AV.  Graves,  then 
young,  but  a  leader  of  the  bar  of  this  county,  in  trial  work,  and 
within  a  year  or  two  thereafter  I  met  i\Ir.  IMorroAV,  his  student, 
and  from  that  time  on  we  were  always  firm  friends.  Among  ilie 
elements  entering  into  the  early  settlement  of  this  part  of  the 
state,  one  of  the  strongest  and  most  potent  was  the  intiuence  and 
power  of  the  lawyers  who  gave  tone  and  character  to  the  bar  of 
the  circuit  and  of  the  state.  Among  these  were  Daniel  Reid 
"Wheeler,  Mr.  L.  AV.  Graves,  AVilliam  Denison,  James  I.  Lyndes, 
Alonzo  Johnson. .  Hugh  Cameron,  Angus  Cameron,  AVilliam  II. 
Tucker,  P^dwin  Flint  and  George  Gale.  These  men  were  then  in 
the  vigor  of  their  maidiood,  Avell  equipped  for  their  labors,  dili- 
gent and  faithful  in  their  duties,  and  loyal  to  the  principles  and 
traditions  of  their  profession.  Among  such  men  at  the  bar  of 
this  eourt,  and  contemporaneous  with  many  of  them,  and  as  one 
of  them  ]\Ir.  Morrow  (then  very  young)  took  his  place,  and  for 
many  years  as  a  trial  lawyer  was  regarded  and  recognized  as  one 
of  the  ablest  and  shrewdest  who  ever  practiced  in  the  circuit. 

*'AIr.  ]\IorroAv  became  the  legal  adviser  of  many  business  men 
in  this  and  other  connuunitics,  and  I  venture  to  assert  that  no 
man  ever  went  from  his  office  with  advice  to  do  anything  which 
when  done  would  reflect  on  his  lionor  and  integrity,  or  on  the 
lionor  and  integrity  of  the  man  to  whom  he  gave  it.  In  tlie  ]ier- 
formance  of  his  duties  as  a  lawyer  he  was  honest  because  he 
believed  in  it.  and  not  because  of  policy.  The  spring  of  success 
in  liifi  work  was  the  perfect  control  he  exercised  over  his  powers, 
his  complete  understanding  of  himself,  and  his  limitations,  his 
minute  and  thorough  perception  of  cause  and  effect  in  the  art  of 
trying  cases,  and  his  consummate  skill  in  so  presenting  his  case 
as  to  hide  its  defects  and  make  what  bore  for  it  conspicuous.  He 
tried  a  case  with  the  ease  of  second  nature,  which  makes  jurors 
and  courts  oblivious  to  the  effort  and  skill  which  can  produce 
such  effects.    lie  was  successful  in  his  profession  because  of  his 


knowledge  of  men,  liis  tact,  his  honesty  to  his  client,  his  fairness 
to  his  opponent,  and  the  impression  he  made  that  he  fully  be- 
lieved, and  was  sincere  in  liis  belief,  that  his  client  should  pre- 
vail. He  was  powerful  in  his  profession  and  never  struck  a  blow 
without  leaving  his  mark.  lie  was  an  acute  and  sound  lawyer. 
He  possessed  good  common  sense.  His  amiable  and  unassuming 
deportment,  and  his  uniform  courtesy  made  him  popular  and  well 
liked.  His  kindness  and  courtesy  to  all  was  a  part  of  himself. 
His  industry  was  most  untiring,  and  his  zeal  in  behalf  of  his 
clients  deserving  of  the  highest  praise.  No  man  was  ever  found 
quicker  than  lie  to  appreciate  merit  and  to  forgive  frailty,  or 
palliate  a  defect.  It  was  part  of  his  nature.  His  impulses  were 
sympathetic.    His  temper  was  good. 

"After  practicing  in  the  county  and  circuit  courts  for  more 
than  thirty  years,  he  was  called  to  the  bench  by  the  practically 
unanimous  consent  of  the  members  of  the  bar  of  the  circuit.  They 
knew  him  and  recognized  his  merit.  He  occupied  the  bench  for 
a  period  of  about  eighteen  months,  scarcely  time  to  give  him  an 
opportunity  to  show  fully  what  has  capabilities  as  a  .judge  were, 
but  his  judgment  was  clear  and  calm,  and  his  decisions  gave  gen- 
eral satisfaction.  As  judge  he  bore  in  mind  the  doctrine  of 
Socrates:  'Three  things  belong  to  a  judge;  to  hear  courteously, 
consider  soberly,  and  give  judgment  without  partiality.'  He  was 
a  man  of  his  w^ord  and  kept  it  absolutely  on  all  occasions.  In 
his  home  he  developed  that  highest  of  human  virtues— self-sacri- 
fice— and  his  devotion  to  an  invalid  Avife  was  touching  and  beauti- 
ful. His  first  and  greatest  impulse  was  sympathy.  This  displayed 
itself  in  a  constant  solicitude  for  the  comfort  of  those  around 
him,  and  in  a  thousand  courtesies  adorning  his  conduct.  The 
work  of  the  advocate  is  not  enduring.  It  too  often  perishes  with 
the  occasion.  Judge  Morrow  rests  from  his  labors,  l)ut  his  mem- 
ory will  live  while  the  people  who  knew  liim  live,  and  in  the 
hearts  of  those  Avho  loved  him." 

Remarks  of  D.  F.  Jones,  of  Sparta — "May  it  please  the  Court : 
AVhile  my  acquaintance  with  Judge  Morrow  does  not  extend  over 
as  wide  a  period  as  many  of  his  professional  brethren,  it  never- 
theless covers  nearly  twenty  years  of  time,  and  was  marked  with 
some  degree  of  intimacy.  Comencing  as  a  law  student  in  his 
office  I  had  unusual  opportunity  to  observe  his  manners  and 
method  as  a  lawyer,  his  habits  as  a  man,  and  his  standard  of  pro- 
fessional ethics  and  conduct ;  and  thereafter  in  the  active  practice 
of  the  law,  in  almost  daily  intercourse,  both  within  and  without 
the  courtroom,  I  observed  him  closely,  and  he  w^as  to  me  a  con- 


staiit  inspiration  and  an  object  of  admiration  and  esteem.  Ilis 
natnral  ability,  his  skill  as  an  advocate,  and  his  engaging  per- 
sonality ^von  him  a  large  clientage  and  made  him  easily  one  of  the 
recognized  leaders  of  the  Wisconsin  bar.  For  more  than  a  qnarter 
of  a  century  his  services  were  in  almost  constant  demand,  covering 
a  large  field  of  activity.  For  many  years  he  -was  identified  with 
nearly  all  imi)ortant  litigation  in  the  western  AVisconsin  courts. 
It  is  speaking  within  bounds  to  say  that  during  his  long  career 
at  tiie  bar  he  tried  as  many,  if  not  more,  cases,  and  tried  them  as 
well  as  any  attorney  within  this  state.  Ilis  presence  in  an  action 
was  a  toAver  of  strength  to  his  client  and  often  brought  hope  to 
the  despairing,  and  nerved  the  arm  of  the  weak.  To  him  life 
was  a  legal  warfare  and  the  courtroom  his  chosen  field  of  action. 
There,  amidst  the  clash  of  contending  reason,  he  seemed  to  find 
his  greatest  pleasure  and  made  his  most  enduring  fame. 

"Though  eminently  successful  in  the  conduct  of  civil  actions, 
trying  Avith  equal  facility  damage  suits  for  railroad  corporations, 
questions  involving  the  complexities  of  tax  title,  and  simple  action 
of  replevin  for  personal  property;  while  apparently  engaging 
with  equal  zest  in  an  argument  in  the  Supreme  Court,  in  a  trial 
to  a  jury  in  Circuit  Court  or  a  general  scramble  in  justice  court, 
it  was  as  a  criminal  lawyer  he  made  his  greatest  reputation.  In 
the  practice  of  the  criminal  law  his  triumphs  were  many,  and 
there  his  greatest  victories  Avere  won. 

■"While  it  could  not  be  said  of  him,  as  AYendcll  i'liillips  once 
remarked  of  Rufus  Choate,  'that  the  murderer,  as  he  sharpened 
his  knife  for  the  fatal  blow,  first  paused  to  inquire  for  the  health 
of  Rufus  Choate,'  yet  it  may  be  said  that  many  an  unfortunate 
malefactor  trembling  Avithin  the  shadoAV  of  the  penitentiary 
turned  to  him  for  helj)  and  found  succor  in  the  hour  of  need. 
Paradoxical  as  it  may  seem,  hoAvever,  even  as  a  criminal  laAvyer, 
his  reputation  rests  not  so  nuich  upon  the  cases  he  Avon  as  the 
cases  he  lost.  And  for  the  same  reason,  doubtless,  given  by  Jus- 
tice Ryan  to  Judge  Dixon,  in  ansAver  always  sought  the  highest 
order  of  talent.  To  my  mind  his  principal  characteristics  Avere 
fertility  of  resources,  tenacity  of  purpose,  unfailing  good  nature, 
and  abounding  common  sense.  Though  not  learned  in  the  bnv. 
in  the  sense  of  the  great  jurists  of  the  past,  and  not  gifted  Avith 
the  charm  of  eloquence  that  Avarps  the  judgment,  ravishes  the 
ear,  he  nevertheless  possessed  a  knoAvledge  of  legal  principles,  an 
intuitive  sense  of  equity,  and  a  mastery  of  the  practice  and  pro- 
cedure, born  of  his  enormous  experience  in  the  court,  that 
frequently  extricated  him  from  desperate  situations  and  snatched 


victory  from  the  very  jaws  of  defeat.  And  as  he  marshalled  his 
reasons  and  massed  his  argument,  he  sometimes  seemed  over- 
poweringly  eloquent  to  the  opposing  counsel  in  the  case. 

"His  tenacity  in  the  trial  of  a  case  is  a  matter  of  common 
knowledge  to  us  all.  I  can  almost  see  him  now,  I  can  almost 
catch  the  echo  of  his  voice  as  he  stood  before  the  jury,  pleading 
for  the  righteousness  of  his  cause.  And  when  he  appealed  to  the 
court  for  the  exercise  of  its  discretion,  or  contended  for  a  de- 
batable principle  of  law,  he  reminded  one  of  Jacob  wrestling  with 
the  angel,  refusing  to  let  go  until  he  had  received  the  blessing. 
He  evidently  proceeded  upon  the  theory  that  courts,  like  the 
kingdom  of  heaven,  were  sometimes  taken  bj^  violence. 

"His  serene  good  nature  impressed  everyone  with  whom  he 
came  in  contact.  It  was  the  same  qualitj^  that  endeared  Lincoln 
to  the  people  and  was  the  predominant  trait  of  his  character. 
With  charity  toward  all  and  malice  toward  none,  he  seemed  to 
regard  the  faults  and  foibles  of  his  associates  with  good-natured 
tolerance,  and  to  pity  even  while  he  condemned.  His  heart  was 
void  of  envy  and  hate.  We  can  all  recall  instances  in  the  trial 
of  cases  when  the  relation  between  counsel  and  court  was  strained 
to  the  point  of  breaking,  and  the  atmosphere  of  the  courtroom  sur- 
charged with  threatening  storms,  how  by  a  timely  word,  a  ges- 
ture, or  a  quick  repartee,  he  cleared  the  air  and  scattered  all  ill 
feeling  in  a  general  laugh.  Many  times  have  I  heard  him  say  that 
he  gave  his  client  his  skill  and  experience,  but  he  gave  no  man  his 
personal  feelings.  This  principle  governed  his  conduct.  His 
quarrels  he  left  in  the  courtroom,  while  his  friendship  he  carried 
with  him  everywhere.  And  thus  it  happened  that  when  he  died 
his  professional  brethren  felt  a  sense  of  personal  loss  and  mourned 
his  death  with  unfeigned  sorrow. 

"To  some  men  are  given  talent,  to  others  genius,  but  to  few  is 
given  the  saving  grace  of  common  sense.  This  he  possessed  in 
an  uncommon  measure.  It  marked  his  words  and  actions,  and 
gave  him  broadness  of  mind  and  catholicity  of  spirit.  This 
quality  was  impressed  upon  his  work  as  a  lawyer,  and  every  case 
initiated  and  prosecuted  by  himself  was  sure  to  have  elements 
of  merit  in  law  or  in  fact.  It  left  its  mark  upon  his  administra- 
tion as  district  attorney  of  this  county,  an  office  he  held  so  many 
years,  and  his  sound  judgment  made  him  not  only  an  ideal  prose- 
cuting officer,  but  the  trusted  advisor  of  the  county  board.  It  is 
no  disparagement  of  others  to  say  that  his  conduct  of  this  office 
is  the  standard  whereby  the  people  may  measure  the  excellence 
of  his  successors  and  ascertain  their  worth.     This  same  equality 


stamped  his  brief  career  upon  tlic  bench,  and  had  lie  coiitiimed 
to  enjoy  its  honors,  there  is  littk'  d()id)t  that  his  distinction  as  a 
jurist  would  have  rivaknl  his  fame  as  an  advocate  at  the  bar. 

"But  he  Avas  not  alone  a  lawyer.  The  same  qualities  that  gave 
his  success  at  the  bar  made  him  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  field 
of  politics,  and  for  many  years  he  was  hioh  in  the  councils  of  his 
party.  lie  was  honored  Avith  the  nomination  for  attorney  general, 
was  chairman  of  its  state  conventions,  and  collector  of  internal 
revenue.  And  it  is  safe  to  say  lliat  had  his  lot  been  cast  with 
the  dominant  political  party  he  wonh!  have  graced  the  halls  of 
congress  and  left  the  impress  of  his  ability  upon  our  national  life. 
As  a  citizen  his  life  was  worthy  of  emulation.  He  felt  the  duties 
and  responsibilities  of  citizenship,  and  had  a  keen  sense  of  civic 
pride.  In  all  public  enterprises  making  toward  the  betterment  of 
the  people  and  the  progress  of  his  city,  county  and  state,  he  made 
his  intiuence  felt.  He  served  the  village  as  its  president,  and 
gave  seven  years  of  his  time  to  the  schools  as  a  member  of  the 
board.  He  was  not  above  holding  the  office  of  supervisor  of  his 
ward,  and  at  times  sat  upon  the  county  board  as  one  of  its  trusted 
members.  And  to  his  influence  in  a  measure  is  due  the  beautiful 
edifice  wherein  we  connnemorate  his  virtues  this  day. 

"In  this  city  and  county  he  had  passed  his  life  and  among 
his  own  peo])le  he  passed  away.  His  name  was  known  to  all  its 
people,  and  by  all  he  was  well  1)eloved.  His  form  was  a  familiar 
iigure  on  the  streets,  and  when  his  death  was  announced  it  came 
as  a  shock  and  moistened  many  a  cheek  with  tears.  The  com- 
munity was  in  mourning,  his  family  in  tears,  and  the  shadow  of 
death  settled  over  all  like  a  pall.  For  of  him,  as  of  another  3,000 
years  ago,  could  it  be  said,  'There  was  sore  lamentation  for  a 
great  man  had  fallen  in  our  midst  that  day.' 

"The  Persian  writer  Laasi  tells  the  story  of  three  sages — a 
Greek,  an  Indian,  and  a  Persian — Avho  once  discussed  before  the 
Persian  monarch,  the  (juestion,  'Of  all  the  evils  incident  to  hu- 
manity, which  is  the  greatest?'  The  Greek  answered,  'Old  age. 
o])pressed  with  poverty.'  The  Indian  said,  'Pain  without  con- 
tentment,' while  the  Persian  answered,  bowing  low,  'The  greatest 
evil  I  can  imagine,  youi-  majesty,  is  tiie  couch  of  death  without 
one  gooil  deed  of  life  to  light  the  dai'ksome  way.'  None  of  these 
evils  were  incident  in  his  life.  His  age  was  not  oppressed  Avith 
poverty.  He  was  not  afflicted  with  jiain  and  discontent.  And 
knowing  him  as  we  do,  we  may  confidently  l)elieve  that  the  many 
noble  deeds  of  his  life,  unrecorded  and  nidvUOAvn,  made  luminous 


his  path,  even  in  the  darkness  of  the  valley  of  the  shadow  of 
death,  through  which  he  made  his  solitary  way." 

Remarks  by  Judge  0.  B.  AVyman:  "In  the  death  of  the  late 
Judge  Joseph  M.  ^Morrow  the  profession  has  lost  a  learned,  a 
skillful,  a  successful  and  an  honest  lawyer;  the  people  have  lost 
a  prominent  citizen  and  a  safe  counsellor  and  an  able  advocate ; 
this  beautiful  city,  that  he  delighted  to  call  his  home,  whose 
streets  lie  traveled  for  the  greater  part  of  his  active  life,  and 
whose  people  he  loved  and  served  so  well,  has  lost  a  warm  friend, 
his  neighbors  have  lost  a  genial  associate,  an  enterprising  and 
leading  citizen ;  his  family  has  lost  a  kind  and  devoted  husband 
and  loving  and  "considerate  father;  this  court  has  lost  one  of  its 
prominent  practitioners  at  the  bar  of  justice,  an  attorney  of 
recognized  ability  and  integrity,  possessed  of  extended  experi- 
ence and  of  acute  legal  knowledge  and  perception,  and  the  senti- 
ments expressed  in  the  memorial  presented  and  in  the  eulogies 
pronounced  by  the  gentlemen  who  have  just  spoken  of  his  char- 
acter, life  and  memory  are  endorsed  by  the  court.  From  a  pro- 
fessional as  well  as  from  the  popular  standpoint,  he  was  a  suc- 
cessful laAvyer. 

"The  masses  usually  judge  of  a  lawyer's  capability  from  his 
ability  to  make  a  pleasing  address  to  court  and  jury,  or  from  his 
readiness  at  retort  in  the  trial  of  cases  in  the  forum  of  justice. 
The  members  of  our  profession  judge  of  a  lawyer's  ability  not 
from  his  use  of  language  alone,  but  from  his  knowledge  of  the 
law,  the  great  system  of  jurisprudence  that  has  grown  through 
the  centuries  past,  formed  in  part  from  long-established  custom 
and  usage,  in  part  from  legislative  exactments  and  in  part  from 
judicial  decisions,  for  the  purpose  of  guarding  and  securing  the 
protection  of  life  and  property  to  all  the  citizens  of  the  common- 

"The  profession  judge  of  a  lawyer's  ability  from  his  knowl- 
edge of  the  intricate  rules  and  precedents  of  this  system  by  which 
individual  rights  are  maintained,  and  wrongs  are  redressed  by 
his  ability  to  draw  correct  pleadings,  to  make  briefs,  and  to  prop- 
erly prepare  for  the  trial  of  his  case,  his  ability  to  examine  wit- 
nesses and  direct  the  testimony  towards  the  controlling  issues 
which  determine  the  decision  of  the  ease  at  the  trial,  by  his 
ability  to  eliminate  from  his  pleadings,  and  from  the  testimony, 
the  irrelevant  and  unimportant  elements,  and  to  clearly  state  and 
make  prominent  only  the  essential  facts  which  pertain  to  the 
cause  of  action  or  to  the  defense,  by  his  ability  to  concentrate  his 


mind,  his  mental  strength  and  vigor  upon  the  case  in  hand,  so 
that  his  client  may  never  sutfer  from  inadvertance  or  failure  to 
fully  protect  his  legal  rights,  by  his  abilit}'^  to  advise  his  client 
fully  and  properly  before  he  engages  in  litigation,  as  to  his  legal 
riglits  and  the  proper  course  to  secure  the  same. 

"From  all  these  considerations,  as  well  as  the  ability  of  the 
lawyer  to  make  a  pleasing  address,  is  he  judged  by  the  members 
of  his  profession  in  considering  the  question  of  his  qualifications, 
al)ility  and  success  as  a  practicing  attorney,  and  from  all  these 
standpoints  it  can  truly  be  said  that  the  late  Judge  Morrow  was 
a  capable  and  successful  lawyer.  It  is  a  matter  of  common  ex- 
perience with  all  attorneys  that  they  do  not  gain  all  the  cases 
witli  which  they  are  connected.  In  their  contention  for  their 
client's  cause  they  may  sometimes  censure  courts  and  juries  when 
the  decision  is  adverse,  still  no  client  has  just  cause  for  complaint 
towards  his  counsel,  when  he  has  done  his  full  duty  in  the  man- 
agement of  the  client's  case. 

"In  Judge  ]\Iorrow's  extended  career  as  a  practicing  attorney 
he  did  not  always  succeed  in  gaining  his  client's  contention. 
Sometimes  a  client  after  the  trial  had  ended  would  have  to  hear 
the  bars  of  the  prison  door  grate  behind  him,  and  be  shut  in  from 
freedom  of  life  for  a  term  of  years.  But  such  unfortunate  clients 
had  the  satisfaction  of  knowing  that  all  legal  and  honoralile 
means  had  been  employed  for  his  defense  during  the  trial  as 
conducted  by  industrious,  competent  and  efficient  counsel. 

"Sometimes  in  the  defense  of  civil  actions  after  the  legal  pro- 
ceedings were  ended,  a  judgment  for  damages  would  be  entered 
against  the  client  for  a  legal  liability  shown  to  exist  between  the 
parties,  but  in  such  cases  the  client,  if  intelligent  and  fair- 
minded,  wellknew  that  the  cause  had  been  ably  defended  with 
legal  talent  and  ability  of  high  rank  during  the  litigation  of  the 
case  and  that  the  facts  and  law  entitled  the  recovery  against  him. 
In  the  practice  of  his  profession  numy  legal  A'ictories  were  won 
by  liis  untiring  industry,  his  knoAvledge  of  the  law  and  his  wide 
and  extended  experience  in  the  trial  of  cases. 

"lie  was  ever  known  to  be  faithful  to  Iiis  client's  cause, 
faithful  1o  his  client  in  the  office  as  counselor,  faithful  to  his 
client  and  to  the  court  during  the  trial  of  the  ease,  faithful  in 
ni^holding  the  dignity  nnd  high  standing  of  the  profession  of  the 
law.  ITo  was  successful  in  winning  many  a  legal  contest  when 
ojiposed  l)y  able  and  eminent  counsel,  as  the  court  records,  the 
trial  courts  and  our  Supreme  Court  fully  shoAV.  From  a  profes- 
sional point  of  view,  he  was  truly  a  successful  attorney.     He  is 


known  to  the  legal  profession  and  to  the  entire  people  oi  his  ex- 
tended acquaintance,  not  only  to  have  been  a  skilled  and  success- 
ful pvacticing  attorney,  but  he  is  known  to  have  possessed  the 
judicial  temperament,  the  legal  knowledge  and  ripe  experience 
which,  combined,  eminently  fitted  and  qualified  him  to  preside 
over  the  court  of  this  circuit  to  the  general  satisfaction  of  the 
entire  bar. 

"He  was  quick  to  grasp  the  controverted  points  in  issue  in  the 
trial  of  causes  as  a  judicial  officer.  He  was  ever  kind,  courteous 
and  attentive  to  counsel  at  the  trial  of  cases  during  his  term 
upon  the  bench,  and  was  ever  governed  by  that  high  sense  of 
honor  and  fair  dealing  that  marked  his  career  as  a  lawyer  at  the 
bar.  He  preserved  and  maintained  the  dignity  and  high  standing 
that  the  court  has  theretofore  long  sustained,  during  the  terms  of 
his  eminent  predecessors  upon  the  bench.  He  was  an  honest,  con- 
scientious, impartial  and  worthy  judge.  He  possessed  and  culti- 
vated the  qualities  of  integrity  and  industry  in  the  study  and 
practice  of  his  profession,  cfualities  which,  more  than  any  others, 
marked  his  success  as  an  attorney  at  the  bar  and  a  judicial  officer. 
It  is  a  mistaken  idea,  sometimes  entertained,  that  lawyers  suc- 
ceed by  tricks  and  artifice  in  the  practice  of  their  profession. 

"The  truly  successful  lawyer  is  as  high  above  such  devising 
schemes  as  the  noonday  sun  is  high  above  the  horizon.  Judge 
Morrow's  marked  success  in  the  profession  was  gained  by  his 
continued  practice  of  fair  legal  methods,  by  honest,  upright  deal- 
ings with  his  clients,  with  opposing  counsel,  and  with  the  court. 
Such  was  liis  character,  and  be  has  left  the  rich  heritage  of  an 
honorable  career  in  the  practice  of  his  profession,  extending  to 
the  day  of  his  death  over  a  third  of  a  century  in  the  courts  of 
this  state. 

"In  his  family — ever  kind  and  attentive  to  a  loving  wife  and 
an  atfectionate  daughter.  In  the  church  of  his  choice — a  frecpient 
attendant  and  attentive  member  and  a  liberal  supporter.  In  the 
city  of  his  chosen  home — always  among  the  leaders  in  advancing 
popular  education,  joublic  interests  and  public  improvements.  He 
was  public  spirited  on  all  occasions.  He  w^atched  with  pride  the 
erection  of  this  beautiful  courthouse.  With  others,  advised  with 
the  authorities  having  the  same  in  charge,  and  on  its  completion 
was  master  of  ceremonies  at  the  formal  opening. 

"In  reply  to  a  remark  made  to  him  concerning  the  substan- 
tial manner  in  which  the  building  was  built  with  fireproof  vaults, 
complete  in  all  their  parts  and  of  sufficient  capacity  to  safely 
keep  the  records  of  the  county  for  years  to  come,  he  said:  'Yes, 


this  ])nil(lin«r  will  outlive  us  all.'  The  statement  is  likely  true, 
but  "\ve  little  thontjht  then  that  in  so  short  a  time  he  would  be 
stricken  down  by  the  angel  of  death  in  the  strength  of  his  mature 

"lie  was  ever  kind  and  eonsiderati'  lowards  the  unfortunate 
and  his  liand  was  often  opened  towards  the  relief  of  distress. 
Ilis  neighbors  and  friends  in  tlie  eomnuinity  Avhere  hi-  lived,  llic 
stranger  whom  he  chanced  to  meet  in  the  pathway  of  life,  all 
learned  to  admin>  and  esteem  him  foi-  his  genial  social  qualities, 
his  kindly  good  nature,  his  sympathy  for  distress  and  his  good- 
ness of  heart  as  a  citizen.  He  will  long  bo  missed  by  his  many 
friends — there  will  be  a  vacant  chair  at  the  sessions  of  this  court 
— and  in  honor  of  his  memory  we  here  commemorate. 

"It  is  ordered  that  the  memorial  presented  by  the  connnittee 
of  the  bar  be  approved  and  spread  ui)on  the  records  of  the  court. 
The  clerk  is  requested  to  present  a  copj^  of  the  same  to  the  family 
of  the  deceased  and  to  the  local  press  for  publication.  Further 
ordered  that  court  be  now  adjourned  in  respect  to  the  memory  of 
the  late  Judge  Joseph  'M.  ]\forrow." 


Judge  Bunn  Avas  born  in  Otsego  county.  New  York  September 
24,  1829.  He  studied  law  at  Elliottville,  New  York  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  at  that  i)lace  in  1853.  He  w^as  married  in  1854 
to  Sarah  Purely,  of  Rome,  Ncav  York,  and  came  to  AVisconsin  in 
September  of  the  same  year. 

He  stopped  for  a  few  months  in  the  very  small  new  town  of 
Sparta,  going  from  there  to  Trempeleau  county  Avhere  he  entered 
a  quarter  section  of  government  land.  After  living  on  this  claim 
six  months  he  moved  to  Galesville,  then  the  county  seat.  He  was 
elected  mend)er  of  assembly  for  Trempeleau  county  in  1850. 

In  1861  he  formed  a  law  partnership  with  Carlton  E.  Rice,  an 
old  New  York  friend.  He  Avas  soon  after  elected  district  attorney 
for  Slonroe  county,  lii  1868  he  was  elected  Circuit  «Tudge  of  the 
then  Sixth  Judicial  Ciiciut.  comprising  the  counties  of  ]Monroe, 
La  Crosse,  Jackson,  Clark,  Trempeleau.  Buffalo  and  Vernon,  be- 
ing re-elected  in  1874  by  unanimous  endorsements  of  the  bar  of 
the  district.  This  i)osition  he  held  until  1877  when  he  was  ap- 
pointed United  States  District  Judge  for  the  AVestern  District  of 
AVisconsin,  succeeding  Janu's  C.  Hopkins,  who  died  September  8, 
of  that  year.  He  held  this  position  for  almost  thirty  years,  retir- 
ing January  6,  1005,  at  the  age  of  seventy-five.  During  this  time 
a  vast  amount  of  important  litigation  came  before  him,  both  in 


his  position  of  district  judge  and  also  as  associate  justice  of  the 
Court  of  Appeals;  his  duties  in  the  latter  position  taking  up  a 
considerable  portion  of  his  time. 

Judge  Bunn  took  a  leading  position  among  the  federal  judges 
of  the  country.  He  occupied  the  bench  during  the  period  when 
federal  jurisprudence  was  developing,  and  new  and  important 
questions  were  constantly  coming  up  for  decision.  His  opinions 
have  been  widely  quoted  and  followed  by  the  courts  of  other 
circuits,  and  successful  appeals  were  taken  from  but  a  small 
number  of  his  decisions.  In  the  court  room  he  was  quick  and 
decisive  in  his  rulings,  grasping  the  true  point  at  issue  and  giving 
his  decisions  on  that  point  alone.  At  the  time  of  his  retirement 
from  the  bench.  Judge  Francis  E.  Baker  of  the  Court  of  Appeals 
said  of  him: — "He  has  shown  the  patience  to  hear  with  fulness 
and  impartiality  and  the  comprehension  to  understand  the  issues 
in  all  their  bearings  and  the  wisdom  to  find  the  right  and  the  un- 
faltering honesty  to  declare  and  enforce  it — not  the  common 
honesty  that  may  have  regard  for  what  is  the  best  policy,  but  the 
fearless  honesty 'that  dares  to  be  knowingly  nnpolitic — these, 
I  take  it,  are  the  attributes  of  a  great  and  just  judge." 

Judge  Bunn  was  for  several  years  professor  of  federal  juris- 
prudence in  the  law  school  of  the  University  of  Wisconsin,  and 
for  two  years  was  special  lecturer  on  the  same  subject  in  the 
law  department  of  Northwestern  University  at  Evanston,  111.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Madison  Literary  Club,  and  frequently  con- 
tributed to  its  programs.  He  was  a  lover  of  the  English  classics 
and  a  remarkably  strong  Shakespearian  scholar. 

His  death  occurred  at  his  home  in  jNIadison,  AYis.,  on  the 
twenty-fifth  of  January,  1909,  in  the  eightieth  year  of  his  age. 



It  took  a  good  many  years  of  experience  and  the  efforts  of  some 
farmers  more  progressive  than  others  of  the  general  run  to  l)ring 
to  the  fore,  as  a  commercial  proposition,  the  dairying  industry. 
Cattle,  almost  from  the  earliest  settlement  down  to  within  the  last 
fifteen  years,  were  raised  mostly  for  beef,  with  occasionally  a 
"cheese  factory"  which  would  spring  up  and  flourish  for  a  time 
and  then  quit  business,  for  the  well  developed  farming  of  the  East 
could  more  than  successfully  compete  with  the  ^Middle  West  in 
"cream  cheese;"  every  farmer  who  kept  cows,  made  more  or 
less  dairy  butter,  usually  a  department  presided  over  by  the  good 
wife,  who  presided  at  the  churn  and  had  her  regular  days  for 
turning  out  butter  for  the  market ;  but  with  the  development  of 
this  section  and  the  steady  increase  in  population  of  villages  and 
cities  came  the  demand  "more  butter;"  and  with  this  demand 
from  the  markets  developed  the  raising  of  better  cattle,  the 
establishment  of  creameries  and  the  application  of  scientific 
modern  methods  to  the  making  and  marketing  of  butter. 

]\Ionroe  county  farmers  have  more  than  kept  ]iace  with  other 
sections  of  the  state,  and  the  very  profitable  dairy  induslry  has 
been  highly  developed  in  almost  all  parts  of  the  country ;  farmers 
are  and  have  been  studying  the  breeds  of  dairy  rattle;  they 
send  their  sons  to  the  university,  some  of  them  taking  the  short 
and  some  the  long  course  in  agriculture,  and  come  out  fitted  to 
manage  stock  farms  successfully.  There  are  one  or  two  associa- 
tions of  men  Avho  breed  a  certain  kind  of  dairy  cattle,  and  stock 
farms  Avith  modern  sanitary  barns  and  apparatus  for  handling 
milk  and  cream  are  Fountl  in  every  toAvnship;  and  not  only  that, 
but  nearly  every  township  has  its  creamery,  generally  a  cooper- 
ative concern,  owned  and  operated  by  the  farmers  in  its  vicinity, 
where  butter  fat  is  innicd  into  cash  with  scientific  regularity, 
and  from  this  oik>  industry  alone  has  come  a  great  increase  in 
land  values  all  over  the  county. 

The  early  eflforts  in  this  line  were  isolated  in  different  sections 
.Tud  no  record  is  available  of  the  amount  of  money  invested  in 
this  great  industry  and  its  results,  and  not  until  1908  was  there 


if' t     ■    '•   ^ 





any  system  in  use  for  collecting  information  on  the  subject,  but 
since  that  time  the  county  clerk  of  each  county  is  required  by 
law  to  get  certain  information  as  to  general  agricultural  matters 
and  dairying  and  these  reports  for  Monroe  county  are  given  in 
detail  in  this  chapter.  They  show  also  an  astonishing  amount  of 
progress  in  general  farming  lines  and  exhibit  a  most  satisfactory 
condition,  one  which  is  alluring  to  the  invester  in  farm  lands, 
for  beyond  a  question  this  county  is  rich  in  lands  suitable  for 
dairying  and  diversified  farming  and  is  fast  developing  into  one 
of  the  richest  counties  in  this  great  state,  offering  many  opportu- 
nities to  the  farmer  of  pluck,  intelligence  and  perseverance. 

One  glance  at  the  foUoAving  tables  tells  of  progress  and  profit. 
For  the  year  ending  April  30,  1911,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  total 
amount  received  from  the  dairy  business  alone  was  the  enormous 
sum  of  $1,071,086.52 ;  over  a  million  dollars  in  cash.  With  eight- 
een creameries,  Avorth  nearly  $50,000,  in  operation  the  year 
around,  using  the  product  of  25,871  cows,  a  record  is  made  that 
established  the  county  well  to  the  front  in  this  industry  in  com- 
parison with  other  counties  of  the  state. 

Following  are  given  the  official  tables  covering  this  industry 
and  farm  products  and  property  generally  for  each  year,  begin- 
ning with  1908: 



1908— Number  of  creameries,  19 ;  value,  $39,950 ;  number  of 
patrons,  2,817 ;  number  of  cows,  24,407 ;  number  of  pounds  of 
milk  received  during  the  year,  18,424,772;  cream,  12,992,607; 
luunber  of  pounds  of  butter  or  cheese  made  of  condensed  milk 
produced  during  the  year,  3,655,615 ;  number  of  cheese  factories, 
2;  value,  $800;  number  of  patrons,  33;  number  of  cows,  460; 
number  of  pounds  of  milk  received,  1,504,500 ;  number  of  pounds 
of  butter  or  cheese  made,  14,000.  Amount  of  money  received  for 
products  sold  during  the  year,  $1,020,207.68  from  creameries,  and 
from  cheese  factories,  $1,350.  Number  of  pounds  made  on  farms, 
butter,  60,800;  value,  $12,612;  number  of  gallons  sold  other  than 
that  sold  to  creameries,  cheese  factories  and  milk  condensing 
factories,  2,000. 

1909 — Number  of  creameries,  19 ;  value,  $48,331 ;  number  of 
patrons,  2,546 ;  number  of  cows,  $23,840 ;  number  of  pounds  of 
milk  received  during  the  year,  12,261,492.  Cream,  12,330,556; 
number  of  pounds  of  butter  or  cheese  made  during  the  year, 
4,188,145.  The  amount  of  money  received  for  products  sold  dur- 
ing the  year,  $1,090,695.08.    Number  of  cheese  factories,  1 ;  value, 

20(3  IIISTOKV  OF  ,M()NU()K  COrXTY 

.$500;  number  of  patrons,  1(1:  nunilx'r  of  cows,  180;  number  of 
pounds  of  milk,  523,099 ;  number  pounds  of  butter  or  clieese, 
47,000.  Amount  of  money  received,  $4,067.92;  number  of  pounds 
of  butter  nuide  on  farm,  39,303;  value,  $8,379.40.  Number  of 
gallons  sold  other  than  that  sold  to  creameries,  cheese  factories 
and  milk  condensing  factories.  259,901. 

1910 — Xundjer  of  creameries,  19;  value,  $42,590;  numlxT  of 
patrons,  2.483 ;  number  of  cows,  23,820 ;  number  of  pounds  of 
milk,  10,964,774.  Cream,  7,581,792;  number  of  pounds  of  butter 
or  cheese  made  or  condensed  milk  produced,  3,518,668.  The 
amount  of  money  received  during  the  year,  $959,763.19.  Number 
of  pounds  of  butter  made  on  the  farm,  86,350.  Value,  $22,274. 
Number  of  gallons  other  than  that  sold  to  creameries,  cheese 
factories  and  milk  condensing  factories,  18,650. 

1911 — Number  of  creameries,  18;  value.  $46,795;  number  of 
patrons,  2.791  ;  number  of  cows.  25,871 ;  number  of  pounds  of 
milk,  8,846,256.  Cream,  27,819,573 ;  number  of  pounds  of  butter. 
3,728,634.  Amount  of  money  received  for  products  sold  during 
the  year,  $1,071,086.52.  Number  of  ])()unds  of  butter  made  on 
farms,  20,929;  value,  $5,068.50;  number  of  gallons  sold  other 
than  sold  to  creameries,  cheese  factories  and  milk  condensing 
factories,  2,931. 



Number  of  bushels— AVheat,  43,862;  corn.  463,275;  oats.  1.028,- 
704;  barley,  170,809;  rye,  51.893;  tiax  seed,  62;  potatoes.  192,447; 
beans  66;  cranberries,  6,587;  apples,  15,319;  strawberries,  21.051; 
raspberries,  2,744;  blackberries,  3,868;  currants.  15;  grapes.  192; 
clover  seed,  507;  timothy  seed,  91. 

Xuiuhei'  of  tons — Sugar  beets,  183;  hay.  54.205. 

Xumbcr  of  pounds — Tobacco.  648.8()9 ;  hops,  300. 

Acres  hai-vested  for  seed — Clover,  264. 


Xuiiilx-r  of  bushels — AVheat.  4ti.527 :  corn.  512,469;  oats. 
1,153,803:  barley.  263.475;  rye,  50,397;  flax  seed,  180;  potatoes, 
167.109;  beans,  233;  cranl)erries,  2.989;  apples,  10,789;  straw- 
berries, 19,840;  raspberries,  2,043;  blackberries,  3,396;  currants, 
2;  grapes,  1.540;  clover  seed.  4,963;  timothy  seed,  308. 

Xumbcr  of  tons — Sugar  beets,  310;  hay,  65,726. 

Xumber  of  i)ounds — Tobacco,  555.700. 

Acres  harvested  for  seed — Clover,  3,004;  timothy,  126. 




Number  of  bushels— Wheat,  50,727;  corn,  394,988;  oats,  1,397,- 
192;  barley,  333,888;  rye,  57,899;  flax  seed,  360;  potatoes,  230,238; 
beans,  88;  cranberries,  12,845;  apples,  42,583;  strawberries,  16,- 
051;  raspberries  1,915;  blackberries,  4,031;  currants,  16;  grapes, 
26;  clover  seed,  1,762;  timothy  seed,  186. 

Number  of  tons — Sugar  beets,  347 ;  hay,  64,386. 

Number  of  pounds — Tobacco,  519,700. 


Number  of  bushels — AVheat,  55,619 ;  corn,  458,482 ;  oats, 
791,673;  barley,  186,777;  rye,  64,566;  flax  seed,  145;  potatoes, 
263,429;  beans,  748;  cranberries,  4,905;  apples,  326;  strawberries, 
6,652;  raspberries  520;  blackberries  1,109;  grapes,  1;  clover 
seed,  881 ;  timothy  seed,  3. 

Number  of  tons — Sugar  beets,  82 ;  hay,  33,450 ;  cabbages,  2. 

Number  of  pounds — Tobacco,  203,260. 




Number  of  acres— Wheat,  3,036;  corn,  22,795;  oats,  42,987; 
barley,  9,720 ;  rye,  5,056 ;  flax  seed,  117 ;  potatoes,  2,165 ;  sugar 
beets,  50 ;  cranberries,  92 ;  apple  orchard,  555 ;  strawberries,  334 ; 
raspberries,  58 ;  blackberries,  369 ;  grapes,  4 ;  hops,  4 ;  tobacco, 
227 ;  hay,  44,857 ;  growing  timber,  68,691 ;  number  of  growing 
apple  trees,  21,035. 

Number  and  value  of  livestock — IMilch  cows  22,010,  value 
$483,505;  all  other  cattle  16,139,  value  .$151,592;  horses  of  all 
ages  9,343,  value  $627,369 ;  sheep  and  lambs  13,251,  value  $39,- 
495;  swine  four  months  old  or  over  11,387,  value  $55,007. 


Number  of  acres— AVheat,  2,906;  corn,  21,557;  oats,  45,092; 
barley,  13,154;  rye,  5,166;  flax  seed,  83;  potatoes,  2,604;  sugar 
beets,  62;  beans,  13;  cranberries,  153;  apple  orchard,  591;  straw- 
berries, 334;  raspberries,  63;  blackberies,  76;  grapes,  8;  flax  seed, 
3;  Tobacco,  244;  hay,  46,172;  growing  timber,  77,605;  number 
of  growing  apple  trees,  22,044. 

Number  and  value  of  livestock — Alilch  cows  22,164,  value 
$483,076;  all  other  cattle  16,883,  value  $190,939;  horses  of  all 


ages  ] 0.065,  valuo  ij^711,671  ;  sheep  and  lambs  14,222,  value  $50,- 
070;  swine  four  uioiitlis  old  or  over  8,190,  value  $52,327. 


Nuiulier  of  acres — AVlieat,  3,98G;  corn,  22,464;  oats,  47,lti7; 
barley,  10,751;  rye,  6,878;  flax  seed,  15;  potatoes,  2,573;  sugar 
beets,  34;  cranberries,  149;  apple  orchard,  685;  strawberries,  692; 
raspberries,  72;  blackberries,  70;  grapes,  2;  flax,  20;  tobacco,  153; 
grasses  cultivated  for  hay,  43,328;  growing  timber,  82,892;  num- 
ber of  growing  api)le  trees,  28,303. 

Number  and  y;\]\u'  of  livestock — Milch  cows  23,752,  value 
$555,229;  all  other  cattle  16,307,  value  $190,273;  horses  of  all 
ages  9,96],  value  $721,956;  sheep  and  lambs  11,603,  value  $54,782; 
swine  four  months  old  or  over  8,217,  value  $79,172. 


Number  of  acres — Wheat,  5,074;  corn,  27,584;  oats,  45.820; 
barley,  10,656;  rye,  11,608;  flax  seed,  23;  potatoes,  2,495;  sugar 
beets,  10;  beans,  182;  cranberries,  110;  apple  orchard,  696; 
straw'berries,  448;  raspberries,  76;  blackberries,  90;  grapes,  5; 
tobacco,  270;  grasses  cultivated  for  hay,  41,562;  growing  timber, 
89,678;  number  of  apple  trees,  33,680. 

Acres  harvested  for  seed — Clover,  564. 

Number  and  value  of  livestock — ]\Iilch  cows  22,7]  1,  value 
$524,861 ;  all  other  cattle  14,178,  value  $165,265  ;  horses  of  all  ages 
10,366,  value  $803,882;  sheep  and  lambs  10,559.  value  $34,074; 
swine  four  months  old  or  over  8,815,  value  $61,203. 


A  great  many  years  ago  attempts  were  made  in  some  portions 
of  the  county  to  raise  apples  with  some  measure  of  success,  but 
the  farmers  of  that  period  did  not  have  the  advantage  which 
those  of  this  day  have  in  the  benefit  of  scientific  learning  and 
instruction  from  the  Agricultural  college  in  connection  with  the 
University,  which  has  investigated  all  sorts  of  subjects  which 
are  related  to  agriculture  in  any  way,  and  a  great  deal  of  atten- 
tion has  been  paid  to  the  subject  of  apple  raising,  and  as  to 
whether  or  not  the  soil  and  climate  conditions  in  this  part  of 
the  state  will  permit  of  apples  being  raised  on  a  large  scale.  In 
the  earlier  days  alluded  to,  occasionally  was  found  a  small 
orchard  which  was  planted  by  some  farmer  and  just  allowed  to 
grow  without  any  particular  attention,  except  that  in  some 
instances  the  science  of  grafting  was  gone  into  when,  perhaps, 
some  man  who  has  been  familiar  with  the  growing  of  apples  in 
some  eastern  state  knew  the  method  of  grafting  apple  trees; 
but  that  in  no  locality  in  the  county  was  a  determined  effort  made 
to  raise  apples  as  a  commercial  proposition,  although  many 
varieties  were  in  fact  raised  of  good  quality  and  flavor,  but  with 
the  lack  of  attention  these  little  orchards  gradually  went  into- 
decay  and  the  trees  died  off,  more  for  the  want  of  proper  care 
and  attention  than  on  account  of  any  conditions  in  the  soil  or 

With  the  awakening  all  along  the  line  in  agricultural  subjects 
has  come  a  movement  in  this  county  in  the  last  few  years  to 
experiment  with  the  growing  of  apple  orchards,  and  with  the 
great  assistance  which  has  been  rendered  by  the  agricultural 
department  of  the  University,  and  also  the  officials  of  the  State 
Horticultural  Society,  we  are  able  in  this  chapter  to  record  the 
result  of  experiments  which  prove  beyond  any  cpiestion  that 
within  the  limits  of  ^lonroe  county  there  is  just  as  good  fruit 
lands  as  can  be  found  anywhere  in  the  United  States  for  the  rais- 
ing of  certain  varieties  of  apples.  The  authorities  of  the  Uni- 
versity and  of  the  Horticulture  Society  had  their  attention  called 
a  year  or  two  ago  to  the  orchard  maintained  by  Mr.  Fred  Mueh- 
lenkamp  upon  his  farm  in  the  town  of  Wells,  where  this  gentle- 



man  has  seven  acres  of  as  fine  apple  trees  as  can  be  found 
anywhere.  Some  of  the  trees  in  this  orchard  were  more  than 
thirty  years  okl  and  it  originally  was  a  small  orchard,  planted 
just  as  farmers  iilaiited  twenty  or  thirty  years  ago;  but  for 
many  years  Mr.  Muehlenkamp  has  made  a  study  of  the  problem 
of  fruit  culture,  paying  particular  attention  to  the  raising  of 
varieties  of  apples  best  adapted  for  profitable  culture  in  this 
climate,  and  he  is  today  a  recognized  authority  on  this  subject. 
Particularly  so  with  regard  to  tree  grafting,  and  the  result  of 
his  study  and  experiments  are  shown  in  his  orchard,  where  there 
are  many  trees  bearing  more  than  one  kind  of  apples,  and  some 
producing  four  or  five  different  varieties. 

Working  in  conjunction  with  the  ofiRcers  of  the  State  Horti- 
cultural Society  this  veteran  apple  grower  opened  his  home. 
Avhich,  by  the  Avay,  is  a  fine  brick  mansion,  upon  his  farm  and 
invited  all  who  desired  to  come  to  attend  a  field  day  fruit  dem- 
onstration and  meeting  at  his  farm  on  August  23,  1911.  Secre- 
tary Cranefield,  of  the  State  Horticultural  Society,  was  present, 
together  with  D.  E.  Bingham,  president  of  the  socity;  \V.  II. 
Hanchett,  of  Angel o,  and  a  commission  merchant  by  the  name  of 
Merrill,  of  Chicago,  were  present,  together  with  about  two  hun- 
dred people  from  a  number  of  different  towns  in  the  county.  At 
this  meeting  addresses  were  delivered  by  the  gentlemen  named 
and  by  ]\Ir.  IMuehlenkamp,  and  it  was  demonstrated  not  only  ])y 
tile  orchard  upon  this  farm,  but  in  the  addresses  delivered  at 
the  meeting  that  there  were  no  better  lands  and  no  better  condi- 
tions anywhere  in  the  United  States  for  successful  cultivation 
of  apples  than  exist  in  Monroe  county,  especially  on  the  ridge 
lands,  which  are  well  adapted  for  that  purpose.  It  was  shown 
that  an  average  orchard  ten  years  old,  which  is  properly  culti- 
vated and  cared  for,  could  be  depended  upon  to  yield  an  annual 
income  of  $250  per  acre,  which  is  better  than  can  be  done  with 
iuiy  ordinary  crop  at  this  time. 

It  is  generally  agreed  that  the  most  profitable  varieties  of 
apples  to  grow  in  this  county  were  the  jMc^Mann,  Northwestern 
Greenings,  AVealtiiy.  Salome  and  IMalinda;  and  as  a  matter  of  fact 
it  had  ])vvn  shown  that  winter  apjiles  could  be  raised  in  this 
county  and  in  various  othei'  poitions  of  the  state  at  ]ii-ici's  Avhich 
would  more  than  successfully  (•omi)ete  with  the  New  York 
apjih's.  This  meeting  gave  to  this  industry  a  standing  which 
was  to  the  great  satisfaction  of  those  who  were  present,  and 
U7idnubtedly  tlie  future  will  see  good  results  from  it.  As  the 
cominereial    advantage    of   having   an   orchard    of   several    acres 


properly  cared  for  is  so  evident  that  the  farmers,  in  the  ridge 
country  especially,  will  undoubtedly,  in  the  future,  give  special 
attention  to  this  branch  of  horticulture. 

If  anything  else  was  needed  to  complete  the  demonstration 
and  to  establish  beyond  any  question  that  apple  growing  in 
Monroe  county  can  be  successfully  accomplished,  and  not  only 
apples,  but  grapes,  plums  and  cherries,  it  has  been  most  con- 
clusively furnished  in  the  results  accomplished  by  J.  "W.  Leverich 
at  his  fruit  farm  in  the  town  of  Angelo.  ]\Ir.  Leverich,  who  now 
is  acknowledged  one  of  the  authorities  on  small  fruits,  started 
in  1904  an  experimental  orchard  of  five  acres,  which  he  planted 
in  May  of  that  year.  In  order  to  demonstrate  to  his  own  satis- 
faction whether  these  fruits,  apples,  grapes  and  cherries  could 
be  successfully  raised  if  handled  scientifically,  his  trees  were 
selected  with  the  greatest  care  and  planted  upon  a  piece  of  land 
which  was  carefully  selected  for  the  purpose,  and  his  long  expe- 
rience in  small  fruit  raising  gave  him  the  knowledge  necessary 
to  select  the  particular  land  which  he  did  for  this  orchard.  The 
tract  is  protected  on  the  north  and  west  by  growing  timber  from 
the  winds ;  to  the  south  and  east  are  hills  which  protect  the  trees 
from  wind  blowing  from  that  direction.  There  are  sixteen  rows 
of  fruit  trees  and  two  rows  of  grapes.  The  trees  are  set  twenty- 
two  in  a  row,  and  the  two  row^s  of  grapes  about  four  hundred  feet 
in  length  each,  in  which  there  are  seven  distinct  varieties. 

At  the  time  of  setting  this  five-acre  tract  into  an  orchard  in 
the  spring  of  1904,  Mr.  Leverich  placed  between  the  rows  of 
trees  either  raspberries,  red  raspberries  or  blackberry  brush. 
These  berry  brush  have  been  thoroughly  cultivated  and  cared 
for,  as  the  trees  and  vines  of  the  orchard  were,  and  as  a  conse- 
quence there  has  been  a  crop  of  berries  each  year  commencing 
with  1905.  In  1906  the  first  returns  from  the  orchard  proper 
were  secured,  being  ten  baskets  of  grapes.  The  plum  trees  com- 
menced bearing  in  1907,  and  the  apples  in  1908,  while  the  first 
cherries  were  secured  in  1911,  and  it  is  the  opinion  of  IMr.  Lev- 
erich that  this  locality  in  the  town  of  Angelo  is  not  adopted  to 
the  culture  of  cherries.  But  his  experiment  has  demonstrated 
beyond  a  doubt  that  the  valley  soil  of  Monroe  county,  as  well  as 
the  ridges,  is  suitable  and  just  as  well  adapted  naturally  for  the 
culture  of  fruits  as  the  ridge  lands.  It  only  needs  the  intelli- 
gence, industry  and  perseverance,  which  are,  of  course,  all 
necessary  in  an  industry  of  this  character  to  put  into  a  paying 
proposition  an  orchard  bearing  apples,  plums  and  grapes.  During 
the  fall  season  of  1911  IMr.  Leverich  exhibited  in  one  or  two  store 


windows  in  tlie  city  of  Sparta  baskets  containing  the  varieties  of 
fruit  and  grapes  raised  in  this  orchard,  and  they  made  a  tempting 
picture,  indeed,  and  we  here  have  tlie  record  which  was  kept  by 
him  from  the  time  beginning  with  the  ])hinting  of  the  orchard 
up  until  the  market  of  1911,  showing  in  detail  the  number  of 
l)askets,  eases  or  bushels,  as  the  case  may  be,  of  fruit  Avhich  was 
raised  upon  this  five-acre  tract  of  land  from  ]\Ia.v.  1004,  up  lo 
and  including  the  crop  of  1911,  giving  tlie  total  amount  realized 
upon  the  entire  tract : 


am.  24  cases.  Jj^l.i:)  per  case,  $28.50;  190(),  152  cases.  .^1.47  per 
ease,  $223.44;  1907,  207  cases,  ^l.Gl  per  case,  $405.69;  1908,  288 
cases,  $1.59  per  case,  $557.92;  1909,  239  cases,  $1.54  per  case, 
$368.06;  1910,  124  cases,  $1.93  per  case,  $239.32;  1911,  155  cases, 
$1.64  per  case,  $254.20.     Total,  1,190  cases;  total,  $2,077.19. 


1905,  54  cases.  $1.21  per  ease,  $65.34;  1906,  421  cases,  $1.46 
per  ease,  $614.66;  1907,  305  cases,  $1.60  per  case,  $488;  1908,  235 
cases,  $1.89  per  case,  $445.25;  1909,  145  cases,  $2.05  per  case. 
$297.25;  1910,  76  cases,  $1.95  per  case,  $148.20;  1911,  111  cases, 
$1.56  per  case,  $173.16.    Total.  1.342  cases:  total,  $2,231.86. 


1905,  10  cases,  $1.21  per  case,  $12.10;  1906,  154  cases,  $1.47 
per  case,  $226.38;  1907.  125  cases,  $1.68  per  case,  $200;  1908,  215 
cases,  $1.75  per  case,  $376.25;  1904,  54  cases,  $1.85  per  case, 
$99.90;  1910,  10  cases,  $1.98  per  case,  $19.80.  Total,  568  cases; 
total,  $934.43. 


1906,  10  baskets;  1:)()7.  100  l)askets;  1908,  200  baskets:  1909, 
20  baskets;  1910,  10  baskets;  1911,  175  baskets.  Total,  505 
baskets,  at  25c  per  basket,  $126.25. 

Cherries — 20  cases,  $1.50  per  case,  $30. 

Apples— 1908,  5  bushels;  1909,  10  bushels;  1911,  75  bushels. 
Total,  90  bushels,  at  75c  per  bushel,  $67.50. 

IMums— 1907,  5  cases;  1908,  30  cases;  1909.  50  cases:  1911, 
130  cases.  Total,  215  cases,  $1.25  per  case.  $268.75.  Plants  sold, 
$500.    Grand  total  of  all  sales,  $6,235.98. 

These  figures  are  for  cases  of  24  jnnts  each  of  l)lackl)erries 
and  l)hick  and  red  raspberries,  and  16  quarts  of  plums  and 


This  tract  being  largely  in  the  nature  of  an  experimental 
orchard,  ^Ir.  Leverich  has  set  in  a  greater  variety  of  trees  than 
he  probably  would  have  if  he  was  to  now  set  it  out  with  the 
knowledge  he  now  possesses  after  seven  years  of  experimenting. 
Some  of  the  varieties  have  done  better  than  others,  but  it  is  not 
the  object  of  this  article  to  specifj^  particularly  in  regard  to  that, 
but  to  tell  of  the  orchard  as  we  found  it.  It  consists  of  the  fol- 
lowing trees,  vines  and  berry  brush : 

Apples — 88  Northwestern  Greening,  44  Wealthy,  11  Tolman 
Sweet,  11  Mcintosh  Red,  11  Milwaukee,  11  Wolf  River,  11  Scott's 
Winter,  11  Longfield,  11  Patten's  Greening,  11  McMahan.  11 
Duchess,  11  Plumb  Cider. 

Plums— 22  Wyant.  22  Cheney,.  1  Grittlewood,  11  Surprise,  11 
Hawkey e,  11  Forest  Garden,  11  DeSoto. 

Cherries — 11  Early  Richmond.  Total  number  of  trees  set, 

Grapes — 20  Moore's  Early,  10  Campbell's  Early,  10  Brighton. 
10  Concord,  10  Moore's  Diamond,  10  AVorden,  10  Wilder. 

Berries — 1,584  Eldorado  blackberries,  2,575  Gregg  black  rasp- 
berries, 1,957  Cuthbert  and  Marlboro  red  raspberries.  Total, 

The  handsome  returns  of  over  $6,000  upon  five  acres  of  land 
certainly  places  this  industry  upon  the  footing  with  the  lands 
anywhere,  as  those  in  Oregon  and  AYashington,  which  sell  as 
high  as  $2,000  per  acre.  The  ciuestion  arises  as  to  how  a  person 
contemplating  fruit  growing  should  get  anything  out  of  his  young 
orchard  before  it  begins  to  bear  apples,  and  the  answer  is  here 
given  most  definite  and  positively,  for  between  the  rows  of  trees 
were  raised  bush  berries  to  the  value  of  $207.86  per  acre,  showing 
that  the  income  begins  almost  at  once  wdth  the  very  first  year's 
planting  by  using  the  space  between  the  rows,  which  should 
always  be  done  for  producing  an  income. 

AVhile  at  the  time  of  the  publication  of  this  work  this  industry 
has  not  begun  to  develop  to  a  great  extent,  there  is  no  cpiestion 
but  that  this  county  is  capable  of  supporting  more  than  double 
its  population,  and  that  fruit  raising  and  intensified  farming 
will  be  in  effect  during  the  next  decade,  and  will  double  and 
treble  the  varieties  of  fruit,  and  any  farmer  properly  located  who 
will  study  the  question  of  apple  growing  will,  undoubtedly,  make 
it  a  success.  But  success  will  only  come  with  study  and  the  use 
of  intelligent  methods.  Let  us  hope  that  the  future  generations 
may  see  Monroe  county  one  of  the  garden  spots  of  this  country, 
rich  in  its  products  of  apples,  plums,  grapes  and  other  fruits. 



Wliilo  the  title  '"War"  may  seem  perhaps  a  little  harsh,  it  is 
used  in  the  sense  that  it  is  commonly  used  today  to  designate  a 
contest  or  a  struggle  for  supremacy;  for  all  along  the  years,  ever 
since  the  county  was  first  organized,  we  timl  running  through 
the  proceedings  of  the  county  board,  cropping  out  at  intervals, 
the  disposition  on  the  part  of  different  portions  of  the  county 
to  remove  the  county  seat  from  Sparta,  and  the  disposition  on 
the  part  of  the  inhabitants  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  county,  par- 
ticularly, to  use  every  means  in  their  power  legitimately  to  have 
the  county  government  located  at  Tomah.  This  has  been  a  cause 
of  more  or  less  bitterness  between  the  tAvo  cities,  but  this  finally 
has  been  allayed  to  a  great  extent  during  the  last  few  years  as 
the  establishment  of  permanent  buildings  has  almost  made  it  out 
of  the  question  that  any  move  of  the  kind  would  now  be  con- 
sidered. But  it  has  been  purely  from  a  sense  of  loyalty  to  tlie 
home  location  and  to  the  interests  of  the  home  town  that  this 
spirit  has  been  manifested.  This  is  entirely  right  and  proper  and 
has  furnished  a  good  many  exciting  incidents,  both  in  and  out  of 
the  sessions  of  the  county  board,  at  various  times.  It  Avas  mani- 
fested at  the  very  outset  in  the  organization  of  the  county. 
AVhile  the  bill  was  pending  before  the  Legislature  the  citizens  of 
Leon,  which  was  then  quite  a  little  settlement,  endeavored  to 
have  the  county  seat  estal)lished  there  in  the  act  wliioh  organized 
the  county,  and  that  is  where  the  "war"  began.  Sparta  people 
were  up  in  arms  and  representatives  were  undoubtedly  sent  to 
the  Legislature  by  both  sides  in  the  interests  of  the  two  different 
villages,  but  the  Legislature  in  its  wisdom  finally  deeided  tliat 
Sparta  was  the  proper  place  for  the  county  seat,  and  the  law 
was  passed  making  it  such  temporarily.  But  when  it  became 
necessary  to  spend  money  for  county  buildings  the  disposition 
to  avoid  erecting  any  permanent  public  buildings  in  Sparta,  and 
undoubtedly  with  a  hope  tliat  the  future  would  l)ring  some 
developments  along  the  line  of  placing  the  county  seat  elsewhere, 
led  members  of  the  county  board,  particularly  from  Leon  and 



from  the  eastern  side  of  the  county,  to  vote  down  appropriations 
for  this  purpose  and  to  put  obstructions  in  the  way  of  any  such 
move.  At  the  session  of  the  county  board  held  August  15,  1857, 
the  absolute  necessity  for  a  county  jail  being  apparent,  the  fol- 
loAving  resolution  was  introduced  by  Supervisor  Esau  Johnson, 
to-wit : 

"Resolved,  That  we  appropriate  a  sufficient  sum  of  money  to 
build  a  jail  at  Sparta." 

Mr.  Ringer,  of  Little  Falls,  offered  the  following  amendment 
to  the  resolution,  to-wit : 

"That  the  amount  termed  be  $1,500." 

The  amendment  was  lost  by  the  following  vote :  Ayes — Hunt- 
ley, Ringer,  Isham,  Alice,  Stacy.  Noes — Foster,  Johnson,  Miller, 
Gibbs,  Butterfield,  Lyon.  The  original  resolution  was  then  taken 
up  and  lost  by  a  vote  of  the  supervisors  present,  all  of  the  mem- 
bers voting  "no."  W.  W.  Jackson,  of  Adrian,  then  offered  the 
following  resolution,  to-wit : 

"Resolved,  That  we  deem  the  title  to  the  ground  on  which 
the  courthouse  stands  insufficient,  and  that  we  are  unwilling  to 
appropriate  any  money  to  the  erection  of  any  more  buildings 
thereon,"  which  was  adopted  by  a  vote  of  nine  to  five,  and  this 
ended  the  first  round. 

On  November  26,  1859,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  board  of 
supervisors  the  following  resolution  was  introduced : 

"Resolved,  That  the  sum  of  $1,500  be  raised  by  the  county  to 
build  a  suitable  jail  for  Monroe  county,  no  part  of  said  money  to 
be  expended  until  after  a  vote  by  the  people  of  the  county,  be 
taken  on  a  permanent  location  for  county  seat ; ' '  and  this  resolu- 
tion on  being  put  to  yea  and  nay  vote  was  lost  by  a  decisive  vote. 

As  has  already  been  narrated  elsewhere,  the  first  county 
building  was  erected  at  the  moderate  cost  of  $600,  in  block  4 
of  Damman's  addition  to  Sparta,  and  that  this  site  was  after- 
wards deeded  back  to  Mr.  Damman  and  the  present  block  was 
selected  by  the  county  board  for  county  buildings.  The  necessity 
for  doing  something  to  provide  a  courthouse  came  up  at  the  meet- 
ing of  the  county  board,  which  began  on  the  13th  day  of 
November,  1860.  A  committee  on  public  buildings  was  appointed 
consisting  of  Peter  DeCoursey,  J.  A.  Gillman  and  W.  T.  Stevens, 
and  the  following  resolution  was  presented  to  the  board  by  Mr. 
DeCoursey : 

"Resolved,  That  the  sum  of dollars  be  raised  by  tax  on 

taxable  property  of  the  county,  to  be  applied  in  building  a  suit 
able  building  for  a  courthouse  in  and  for  said  county."     This 


resolution  Avas  referred  to  the  committee  on  public  buildings 
and  at  a  later  date  in  the  session  the  committee  reported  in  favor 
of  the  resolution  and  J.  E.  Ensign  moved  that  the  blank  in  the 
report  be  filled  by  inserting  $5,000.  E.  A.  Rice  moved  an  amend- 
ment striking  out  the  figures  $5,000  and  inserting  five  mills  on 
the  dollar  on  the  taxable  property  of  the  county.  ]Mr.  Rice's 
amendment  was  lost  and  after  some  parliamentary  sparring  ^Ir. 
Gillman  offered  an  amendment  that  $4,000  be  inserted  in  the 
blank,  which  was  carried ;  and  then  E.  A.  Rice  moved  the  adop- 
tion of  the  report,  and  strange  to  say  it  was  lost  by  the  following 
vote :  Yeas — J.  E.  Ensign,  ]\lead,  ]\Iathews,  Gillman.  Noes — 
Hanford,  Campbell,  Cole,  W.  T.  Stevens,  Tolls,  Enderby,  DeCour- 
sey,  Baker,  Gary,  G.  F.  Stevens,  Haywood,  Rowen  and  Rice,  and 
the  committee  was  discharged.  Thus  ended  the  third  round.  At 
that  time  there  were  nineteen  supervisors  on  the  board  and  the 
votes  in  favor  of  the  courthouse  came  from  the  towns  of  Port- 
land. Angelo.  Eaton,  Little  Falls  and  the  village  of  Sparta,  and 
the  votes  against  it  came  from  Glendale,  Wellington.  "Wilton, 
Ridgeville,  Leon,  LeRoy,  Tomah  (town),  Adrian,  Greenfield, 
Lafayette  and,  strange  to  say,  the  town  of  Spai-ta.  Tt  will  be  seen 
by  the  distribution  of  this  vote  that  several  localities  still  hatl 
hopes  and  the  combination  was  quite  strong  against  the  village 
of  Sparta.  But  the  need  of  a  courthouse  and  jail  became,  as  time 
passed,  a  great  necessity,  and  a  move  was  made  in  186;^  to  call  a 
special  session  of  the  county  board.  A  re(|uest  having  been 
signed  by  the  majority  of  the  board  of  supervisors  a  special  meet- 
ing was  called  September  4,  1863,  and  met  at  the  village  of 
Sparta,  at  which  the  following  resolution  was  presented  by  ]\Ir. 
J.  Covey,  who  was  then  the  chairman  of  the  county  board  : 

"Resolved,  That  the  district  attorney  be  reciuested  to  report 
to  this  board  in  writing  what  title  the  county  has  to  the  site 
upon  which  the  building  now  stands  and  which  is  used  for  a  jail :"' 
and  this  resolution,  upon  a  vote,  was  duly  adopted,  and  it  was 
subsequently  moved  and  carried  that  the  district  attorney  be 
instructed  to  put  in  no  defense  to  the  suit  of  J.  D.  Damman 
against  the  county  of  ]\lonroe  to  recover  the  site  on  which  the 
jail  now  stands,  and  accordingly,  as  has  been  related,  the  county 
clerk  was  authorized  to  deed  back  the  property,  and  at  this  meet- 
ing of  the  board  a  resolution  was  adopted  by  which  the  interests 
of  AV.  F.  Bard  in  the  public  square,  opposite  the  Warner  house, 
were  to  be  purchased  and  have  the  same  conveyed  to  the  county. 
Soon  after  providing  for  the  reconveyance  of  the  old  courthouse 
square  back  to  J.  D.  Damman  and  providing  for  the  purchase  of 


the  public  square,  where  the  buildings  now  stand,  the  county 
board  again  adjourned  without  having  made  any  provision  for 
the  erection  of  a  l)uilding,  but  had  gone  to  the  extent  of  procur- 
ing a  site.  But  at  the  regular  session  of  the  board  that  fall,  which 
began  on  the  10th  day  of  November,  the  matter  was  brought  up 
and  furnished  anununition  for  considerable  debate  and  parlia- 
mentary tactics.  ]Mr.  J.  Covey  again  offered  a  resolution,  which 
was  as  follows : 

"While  the  county  of  jMonroe  for  want  of  proper  public  build- 
ings has  leased  annually,  at  a  large  expense,  a  place  for  holding 
courts,  and  often  to  the  very  great  annoyance  of  all  parties  con- 
cerned ;  that  for  the  punishment  of  criminals  a  still  greater  outlay 
has  been  necessary,  the  present  jail  being  wholly  insecure,  un- 
wholesome and  a  disgrace  to  the  age  in  which  we  have  lived ; 

"Therefore,    resolved.    That    there   be   levied   on   the   taxable 

property  of  the  county  the  sum  of dollars  for  the  purpose 

of  erecting  a  suitable  building  or  buildings  for  a  courthouse  and 

"Resolved,  That  in  order  to  carry  out  the  foregoing  resolu- 
tion, lessen  the  burden  of  taxation  that  niust  necessarily  arise 
from  it,  the  sum  of thousand  dollars  be  raised  in  the  year 

1863,  the  sum  of thousand  dollars  be  raised  in  the  year 

1864,  and  the  sum  of  — thousand  dollars  be  raised  in  the 

year  1865." 

It  will  be  seen  by  the  vigorous  language  used  in  this  resolu- 
tion even  in  this  day  the  spirit  of  "reform"  was  in  the  air,  and 
"progress"  was  not  to  be  denied.  Supervisor  Kendall,  in  order 
to  settle  things,  moved  to  fill  the  first  blank  in  this  resolution  by 
inserting  the  sum  of  $22,500.  This  was  seconded  by  Mr.  Covey 
and  the  yeas  and  noes  were  called  for.  It  will  be  remembered 
that  at  this  time  the  county  board  system  had  been  abrogated 
by  the  Legislature  and  that  the  system  of  county  commissioners 
was  then  established  and  the  affairs  of  the  county  were  governed 
by  three  commissioners  or  supervisors  elected  from  the  three 
supervisor  districts  in  the  county.  The  board  at  this  time  con- 
sisted of  E.  Kendall  J.'  Covey  and  J.  Rood.  The  vote  on  this 
resolution  was  Kendall  and  Covey  in  favor  and  ]\Ir.  Rood  against 
it,  so  that  it  was  declared  carried,  and  then  Kendall  moved  to 
insert  the  sum  of  $7,000  in  the  first  blank  in  the  second  part  of 
the  resolution,  and  this  was  also  carried  by  the  same  vote.  Move 
was  then  made  by  Kendall  to  put  the  sum  of  $8,500  in  the  second 
blank  in  the  resolution,  which  was  carried  by  the  same  vote,  and 
then  also  moved  to  put  $7,000  in  the  last  blank.    Then  the  whole 


resolution  was  adoptod  by  tlio  same  vote:     Kendall  and  Covey, 
yes ;  and  Rood,  no. 

The  raising  of  funds  being  tlius  provided  for  the  building  of 
the  tirst  real  courthouse  in  the  county.  A  special  meeting  of  the 
county  board  Avas  called  December  16,  1863,  at  which  the  bids  for 
the  erecting  of  a  courthouse  and  jail  were  opened,  the  matter 
having  been  previously  advertised.  The  contract  was  let  to  one 
W.  AY.  Allis  for  $20,848.50. 

The  erection  of  the  combined  courthouse  and  jail,  which  was 
a  substantial  brick  building,  settled  the  county  seat  matter  for 
some  years.  AYith  the  increase  in  population  and  consequent  in- 
crease in  the  number  of  prisoners,  at  times,  the  attention  of  the 
county  board  members  was  called  to  the  fact  that  the  jail  was  too 
small,  was  "behind  the  times"  in  appliances;  so  that  the  old 
spectre  which  would  not  down,  "Remove  the  county  seat,"  again 
raised  its  head  and  the  trouble  began.  In  1883  and  1884  there 
had  been  considerable  fault  found  witli  the  oil  jail  by  the  State 
Board  of  Charities  and  Reforms,  which  correspond  to  the  State 
Board  of  Control  at  the  present  time,  and  while  no  direct  action 
has  been  taken  to  condemn  the  old  jail  portion  of  the  building, 
still  the  situation  became  quite  acute  as  far  as  the  location  of  the 
county  seat  was  concerned,  and  eastern  IMonroe  county  realized 
that  in  order  to  accomplish  anything  it  was  necessary  that  a 
move  be  made  to  call  a  special  election,  as  provided  by  the  stat- 
utes, to  remove  the  county  seat  from  Sparta  before  any  more 
expensive  liuildings  were  erected,  thus  making  it  a  permanent 
location.  The  citizens  of  Tomah  in  1885  determined  to  make  one 
grand  effort  towards  getting  the  county  seat  removed  to  Tomah 
from  Sparta,  and  a  committee  of  citizens  was  appointed  whose 
business  it  was  to  procure  names  to  a  petition  addressed  to  the 
county  board  asking  that  an  election  be  called,  and  tliat  the 
question  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  from  the  city  of  Sparta 
to  the  city  of  Tomah  l)e  submitted  to  tlie  qualitied  voters  of  the 
county,  as  provided  by  law.  This  Avork  was  undertaken  in  the 
spring  and  sununer.  A  thorough  canvas  was  made,  particularly 
on  the  eastern  side  of  the  county,  and  feeling  l)egan  to  run  high 
with  regard  to  the  matter  as  the  time  approached  for  the  meeting 
of  the  county  board.  The  session  in  November  was  made  mem- 
orable by  reason  of  the  fact  that  this  contest  was  then  to  be  taken 
up.  The  members  of  the  county  board  were  at  that  time  as  fol- 

Adrian,  George  P.  Stevens;  Angelo,  E.  AY.  Babcock;  Byron. 
George  A.  Boynigton ;  Clifton,  A.  N.  Anthony;  Glendale,  Leonard 


Johnson ;  Greenfield,  J.  II.  Gill ;  Jefferson,  A.  Heiser ;  Lafayette, 
George  E.  Hancliett ;  Lincoln,  L.  N.  Sweet ;  Little  Falls,  H.  H. 
Atchison ;  Ncav  Lyme,  J.  B.  Scott ;  Oakdale,  H.  Rogge ;  Leon, 
Thomas  Hobson ;  Portland,  E.  M.  Adams;  Sheldon,  D.  M.  Fulmer; 
Sparta,  P.  H.  Moss;  Tomah,  AV.  B.  Cassels;  Wellington,  J.  P. 
Rice ;  Wells,  James  Wells ;  AYilton,  F.  Gnewikow ;  city  of  Sparta, 
H.  H.  Childs,  N.  W.  Huntley,  L.  S.  Fisher  and  W.  E.  Lee ;  city  of 
Tomah,  L.  S.  Benjamin,  E.  Bartels  and  I.  H.  Fish. 

The  session  of  the  board  opened  with  the  lines  tensely  drawn 
upon  this  proposition,  and  it  was  not  until  Tuesday  morning, 
November  ITtli,  in  the  second  week  of  the  session,  that  the  peti- 
tion for  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  was  presented  by  L.  S. 
Benjamin.     It  was  as  follows: 

"To  the  Honorable  Board  of  Supervisors  of  Monroe  county, 
Wisconsin :  The  undersigned  legal  voters  of  the  county  of  Mon- 
roe, state  of  Wisconsin,  whose  names  appear  on  some  one  of  the 
poll  lists  on  the  last  general  election  held  in  such  county  of 
Monroe,  do  respectfully  petition  your  honorable  body  and  ask 
that  the  county  seat  of  Monroe  county  be  changed  from  the  city 
of  Sparta  to  the  city  of  Tomah,  in  said  county ;  and  that  the 
question  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  be  submitted  to  a  vote 
of  the  qualified  voters  of  ]\Ionroe  county,  as  provided  by  law." 
Dated  September  1,  1885. 

This  petition  was  signed  by  about  2,400  names,  and  was  re- 
ferred to  the  committee  on  petitions  and  elections,  Fred  Gnewi- 
kow, L.  S.  Benjamin,  E.  Bartels,  George  P.  Stevens  and  L.  S. 

Prior  to  the  session  of  the  board  the  Tomah  committee  had 
circulated  their  petition  over  in  the  towns  of  Little  Falls  and 
New  Lyme,  procuring  a  goodly  number  of  signatures.  This  paper 
mysteriously  disappeared,  or  rather,  was  never  presented  to  the 
board  with  the  other  petitions.  A  petition  was  also  circulated  in 
Glendale  and  Wellington  and  vicinity,  under  the  charge  of 
Leonard  Johnson.  AVhen  Johnson  brought  it  to  the  board  session 
the  paper  had  been  badly  water  soaked,  Johnson  claiming  he  had 
fallen  in  the  mill  pond  with  it  in  his  pocket.  The  names  on  this 
paper  were  in  many  instances  undistinguishable,  and  the  commit- 
tee, after  working  with  microscopes,  were  compelled  to  discard  a 
large  number  of  names  which  were  not  legible.  This,  together 
with  the  petition  that  never  was  presented,  discounted  the  num- 
ber of  names  to  such  an  extent  as  to  make  the  action  of  the  board, 
which  followed,  possible.  No  report  was  made  by  the  committee 
upon  this  petition  until  the  next  to  the  last  day  of  the  session. 


ami  tlicn  it  came  up  for  the  final  struggle  in  the  shape  of  a  ma- 
jority and  a  minority  report.  Tlic  itia.joriiy  i-('])(U't  of  the  com- 
mittee was  as  follows: 

"To  the  Honorable  Board  of  Supervisors  of  Monroe  county, 
Wisconsin — Gentlenu'n  :  AVe,  the  connnittee  to  whom  was  re- 
ferred the  petition  for  the  removal  of  the  county  scat  of  ]\lonroe 
county,  do  report  as  follows: 

"That  we  have  carefully  examined  therein  the  signatures  of 
2,604  legal  voters  of  Monroe  county. 

"That  of  sucli  number  the  names  of  2.107  appear  on  some 
one  of  1li('  ])oll  lists  of  the  last  previous  general  election  held  in 
said  county  on  the  4th  day  of  November.  1884,  being  more  than 
two-fifths  of  the  legal  voters  of  said  county  of  ]\Ionroe  as  dctei- 
mined  by  the  poll  lists  of  said  last  previous  election. 

"That  under  the  law  by  reason  of  the  said  petition  it  is  the 
duty  of  the  county  board  of  supervisors  of  Monroe  county,  to  sul)- 
mit  the  question  of  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  of  ]\Ionroe 
county  to  the  city  of  Tomah,  to  a  vote  of  the  qualified  votei's  of 
said  I\Ionroe  county  at  the  next  general  election, 


"Dated  November  24,  1885.  "Committee. 

)  5 

The  minority  of  the  committee,  during  Ihe  lime  whieli  elai)si'd 
between  the  introduction  of  the  resolution  and  the  handing  in 
of  the  majority  report,  had  evidently  l)eeii  busy  endeavoring  to 
find  a  loop  hole  in  the  {)roceedings.  The  minority  of  the  commit- 
tee consisted  of  one  man,  that  doughty  old  warrior,  L.  S.  Fislu^-. 
who  nuide  the  minority  report  to  the  petition  as  follows: 

"To  th(>  Honorable  County  Board  of  Supervisors  of  .Monroe 
comity,  AVisconsin :  The  minority  of  the  committee  upon  The 
petition  for  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  would  respectfully 
report  that  they  have  carefully  examined  the  ])etition  and  find 
on  it  Ihe  names  of  2.107  persons  whose  names  appear  on  the  j)oll 
lists  of  the  several  towns  and  cities  in  Monioe  county  for  the 
election  oi"  1884. 

"Tlie  minority  of  your  committee  would  further  report  in 
favor  of  a  postponenuMit  of  the  subject  of  the  removal  ol*  the 
county  seat  for  the  following  reasons: 

"1.  There  are  several  petitions,  whereas  the  law  requires 
only  one  petition. 


"2.  There  are  a  large  number  of  names  appearing  on  the  peti- 
tion which  have  been  counted  ])y  your  committee  in  order  to 
make  the  total  number  2,107,  not  less  than  300  in  all  that  were 
not  signed  by  the  persons  they  represent. 

"3.  There  are  a  sufficient  number  of  names  on  the  petition 
that  have  been  counted  that  did  not  agree  with  the  names  on  the 
poll  lists  to  reduce  the  total  number  below  the  aggregate  required 
by  law. 

"4.  That  if  an  election  is  ordered  it  would  be  void  for  the 
foregoing  reasons  and  subject  the  county  to  unnecessary  costs 
and  probably  expensive  litigation. 

"L.  S.  FISHER. 

"Dated  Sparta,  November  24,  1885." 

]Mr.  Fisher  then  moved  that  the  report  of  the  committee  on 
petitions  and  elections  be  referred  to  the  district  attorney,  and 
it  was  so  referred  with  the  understanding  that  the  district  attor- 
ney should  report  on  the  following  morning. 

The  following  resolution  was  then  presented: 

''AVhereas  the  petition  signed  by  2,604  of  the  legal  voters  of 
Monroe  county,  of  which  number  the  names  of  2,107  appear  on 
some  one  of  the  poll  lists  of  the  last  previous  general  election 
held  in  said  county  on  the  4th  day  of  November,  1885,  said  last 
mentioned  number  being  more  than  tw^o-fifths  of  the  legal  voters 
of  Monroe  county,  as  determined  by  the  poll  lists  of  the  said  last 
previous  general  election,  said  petition  asking  the  change  of  the 
county  seat  of  IMonroe  county  from  the  city  of  Sparta  to  the  city 
of  Tomah ;  therefore,  be  it 

"Resolved,  That  the  question  of  the  removal  of  the  county 
seat  of  Monroe  county  to  the  city  of  Tomah  be  submitted  to  a 
vote  of  the  qualified  voters  of  said  county  at  the  next  general 
election,  to  be  held  in  said  county  on  the  2nd  day  of  November, 
1886."  _ 

The  board  then  adjourned  until  the  next  day  and  on  the 
morning  of  November  25th  the  district  attorney  gave  his  opinion 
in  writing  upon  the  petition  presented  for  the  removal  of  the 
county  seat.  AVhile  the  records  of  the  meeting  of  the  board  do 
not  contain  the  opinion,  it  undoubtedly  was  in  favor  of  the 
minority  report,  for  we  find  that  Mr.  Fisher  moved  that  the 
opinion  be  received  and  placed  on  file,  and  then  came  the  tug 
of  war. 

Mr.  Cassels,  of  the  town  of  Tomah,  moved  that  the  majority 
report  of  the  committee  on  petitions  and  elections  be  adopted. 
Mr.  Fisher  moved  that  the  minority  report  be  substituted  for  the 


majority  ropoi-t.  and  upon  llic  call  of  ayes  and  noes  it  was 
carried  by  the  following  vote:  Babcock,  Boyington,  Ileiser, 
Hanehett,  llohson,  Atchison,  Scott.  Ilaimkee,  Adams,  Fulmer, 
]Moss,  Wells,  Childs,  Huntley,  Fisher  and  Lee,  a  total  of  sixteen 
ayes.  Noes — Stevens,  Anthony,  Johnson,  Gill,  Sweet.  Spooner, 
Rogge,  Cassels,  Rice,  GnewikoAV,  Bartels,  Benjamin  and  Fish,  a 
total  of  thirteen.  ]\Ir.  Fisher  then  moved  the  adoption  of  the 
minority  report,  which  was  carried  by  the  same  vote  precisely, 
sixteen  to  thirteen.  It  will  be  noticed  that  the  votes  which  were 
against  the  petition  came  from  Angelo,  Byron,  Jeflferson,  Lafay- 
ette, Leon,  Little  Falls,  New  Lyme,  Portland,  Ridgeville,  Sheldon, 
town  of  Sparta,  "Wells  and  city  of  Sparta;  the  votes  in  favor  of 
the  petition  came  from  Adrian,  Clifton.  Glendale,  LaGrange,  Lin- 
coln, Greenfield,  Oakdale,  town  of  Tomah,  AVellington,  AVilton 
and  the  city  of  Tomah,  so  that  the  votes  were  lined  up  Avith 
regard  to  location  principally,  only  that  George  A.  Boyington,  of 
the  town  of  Byron,  did  not  vote  with  the  eastern  side  of  the 

And  after  some  other  matters  of  business  this  board  ad- 
journed, and  thus  closed  another  chapter  of  the  struggle  over 
the  county  seat.  It  does  not  appear  that  the  citizens  of  Tomah 
attempted  in  any  way  to  invoke  the  aid  of  the  courts  or  to  make 
any  further  move  at  that  time  in  the  matter. 

The  proceedings  were  instituted  under  the  provisions  of  sec- 
tion 655  of  the  revised  statutes,  and  we  tiiul  in  the  session  of  the 
Legislature  of  the  year  1887  an  amendment  to  that  section  was 
passed  known  as  chapter  35  of  the  laws  of  1887,  which  was,  no 
doubt,  a  part  of  the  plan  to  for  all  time  settle  the  controversy 
as  to  the  removal  of  the  county  seat  in  this  or  any  other  county. 
The  amendment  provided  that  where  the  county  seat  had  l)een 
established  for  a  pei-iod  of  fifteen  years  or  more  and  that  the 
county  has  erected  permanent  buildings  of  the  value  of  not  less 
than  $10,000,  that  the  same  should  not  be  removed  nor  should 
any  application  for  the  removal  thereof  be  submitted  to  a  vote 
of  the  electors  of  the  county  unless  a  petition  signed  by  at  least 
one-half  of  the  resident  freeholders  of  the  county,  as  evidenced 
by  recorded  deeds  in  the  office  of  the  register  of  deeds  of  the 
county,  in  favor  of  such  removal  shall  be  presented  to  the  county 
board:  and  it  furthei-  provided  that  no  election  to  change  the 
county  seat  should  be  held  for  a  period  of  five  years  after  the 
year  in  which  a  courthouse  or  other  county  buildings  costing 
$3,000  or  more  shall  have  been  built  and  occupied  for  county  pur- 
poses.    In  the  provisions  of  this  law  it  is  not  diflficult  to  see  the 


"fiue  Italian  hand,"  to  use  a  slang  phrase,  of  that  staunch  friend 
of  Sparta,  Hon.  J.  j\I.  IMorrow,  who  was  at  that  time  one  of  the 
"third  house"  in  the  Wisconsin  Legislature  and  a  prominent 
man  in  the  affairs  of  the  state.  It  can  very  readily  be  seen  that 
a  petition  of  this  character  cannot  be  obtained  in  the  county  of 
Monroe  or  any  other  county  without  great  difficulty  in  searching 
records  and  procuring  names  qualified  to  sign  such  a  petition. 

The  old  controversy,  however,  would  not  down,  and  in  1890 
the  State  Board  of  Charity  and  Reform,  after  considerable  fault 
found  heretofore  with  the  old  jail,  issued  an  order  condemning  it 
as  unsanitary  and  unfit  for  use  for  the  purpose,  and  this  caused 
the  revival,  somewhat,  of  the  old  feeling  over  the  county  seat.  In 
order  to  bring  it  to  a  head  a  petition  was  circulated  in  the  spring 
of  1890  and  signed  by  a  majority  of  the  county  board,  calling  a 
special  meeting  of  the  board  on  May  7,  1890.  At  that  session  the 
county  clerk  read  a  notice  served  upon  him  by  the  State  Board  of 
Charity  and  Reform  regarding  the  jail,  and  on  motion  of  Super- 
visor J.  M.  IMorrow,  a  committee  was  appointed  consisting  of 
Supervisor  Morrow ;  Earl,  of  Tomah ;  Gill,  of  Greenfield ;  AVells, 
of  Wells,  and  Abbott,  of  Sheldon,  and  this  committee  on  the  fol- 
lowmg  day  rendered  this  report: 

"To  the  County  Board  of  Supervisors  of  IMonroe  County:  The 
undersigned  members  of  your  committee,  to  whom  was  referred 
the  official  notice  of  the  State  Bard  of  Charity  and  Reform  re- 
lating to  the  condemnation  of  the  Monroe  county  jail,  etc.,  have 
had  the  same  and  matters  connected  thereunto  under  considera- 
tion, and  do  report  that  in  our  opinion,  and  for  the  reasons  stated 
in  said  notice,  and  the  law  in  relation  to  the  duties  and  obliga- 
tions of  the  county  under  such  circumstances,  it  is  necessary  to 
provide  for  a  new  jail,  and  to  accomplish  such  purpose  in  a 
seasonable,  proper  and  economical  manner  we  have  prepared  and 
report  herewith  an  ordinance  providing  for  the  construction  of 
a  jail  upon  the  courthouse  square,  and  providing  for  the  means 
to  pay  for  the  same  with  such  other  necessary  details  as  seemed 
to  your  committee  required  to  be  provided  for  the  action  of  this 
board,  and  we  recommend  the  adoption  of  said  ordinance,  which 
is  respectfully  submitted. 

"J.  M.  MORROW, 
"J.  H.  GILL, 
"J.  WELLS, 



Here  again  appears  the  same  old  split,  but  this  time  the  ma- 
jority of  the  committee  were  in  favor  of  the  Avestern  side  of  the 
county,  and  again  we  ha-ve  the  minority  report  by  one  man, 
"Watson  Earle,  of  the  city  of  Tomah,  who  made  a  minority  report 
as  follows: 

"The  minority  of  your  committee  would  respectfully  report 
that  in  his  opinion  the  effect  of  the  improvements  made  in  the 
jail  last  fall  should  be  tried.  The  Board  of  Health,  although  they 
knew  that  the  improvements  were  contemplated,  could  have  no 
knowledge  of  what  the  effects  of  these  improvements  could  be. 
That  the  condition  of  the  jail  is  l)etter  than  it  has  been  at  any 
previous  time  in  twenty  years.  That  tlie  present  condition  of 
the  farming  portions  of  this  county  makes  it  advisable  not  to 
increase  the  burden  of  taxation  without  absolute  necessity.  For 
a  number  of  years  the  crops  have  been  wasted  by  drought,  and 
now  in  the  fall  the  markets  are  almost  worthless  by  reason  of  low 
prices.  Under  these  conditions  the  addition  of  >1^5,000  a  year  on 
this  county's  tax  for  three  successive  years  is  a  grievous  burden 
that  ought  not  to  be  lightly  laid.  That  the  course  of  the  present 
hasty  action  in  tliis  matter  is  purely  visionary,  being  based  not 
on  the  present  condition  of  the  jail,  but  on  the  assumption  that 
at  some  time  in  the  near  future,  perhaps,  eastern  ]\Ionroe  county 
may  demand  the  removal  of  the  county  seat;  and  that  the  num- 
ber of  prisoners  Avhicli  for  the  past  year  averages  three  and  one- 
third  per  cent  neither  calls  for  nor  justifies  such  expenditure." 

And  again  the  old  struggle  was  before  the  county  board  in 
this  form,  and  again  it  was  Supervisor  Fisher  who  moved  the 
adoption  of  the  majority  report  this  time.  Supervisor  AYood. 
from  the  city  of  Tomah,  moved  to  substitute  the  minority  report 
for  the  majority  report,  and  this  brought  on  a  test  vote.  The 
motion  was  lost  by  the  following  vote :  Ayes — Stevens,  Reynolds, 
Swanets,  Lyon.  AYoodland,  Coome,  Rogge,  Gehrke,  Cassels, 
Gnewikow.  Earle,  Tormey  and  AYood,  thirteen;  and  nayes,  Lev- 
erich,  Gill,  liarry.  Jones,  Atchison,  Hoard,  Hannkee,  Abbott, 
Beckler,  Alarsden,  AYells,  Alorrow,  Huntley,  Fisher  and  Brandt, 
fifteen.  The  localities  voting  in  favor  of  the  minority  report 
were  these:  Adrian,  Byron,  Clii'ton,  Glendale,  Lincoln, 
LaGrange,  Oakdale,  Ridgeville,  town  of  Tomali.  AYilton  and  the 
city  of  Tomah,  and  against  it  were  Angelo,  Greenfield,  Lafayette, 
Leon.  Little  Falls,  New  Lyme,  Portland,  Sheldon,  town  of  Sparta, 
AYellington,  AYells  and  the  city  of  Sparta,  so  that  we  find  the 
alignnu'ut  of  this  vote  almost  what  it  was  as  far  as  territory  is 
concerned,  when  the  vote  on  that  famous  county  seat  resolution 


in  1885  was  taken,  only  that  this  time  Greenfield  on  the  eastern 
side  seems  to  have  changed  places  with  Byron. 

Mr.  Wood,  of  Tomah,  then  moved  that  the  consideration  of  the 
majority  report  be  postponed  and  an  adjonrnment  taken  for  two 
weeks  so  that  the  members  of  the  board  might  have  an  oppor- 
tunity to  confer  with  their  constituents,  and  upon  a  call  for  the 
ayes  and  noes  this  motion  was  lost  by  practically  the  same  vote, 
thirteen  ayes  and  sixteen  noes.  This  time  H.  H.  Cremer,  it  ap- 
pears, voted  with  the  noes.  It  was  then  moved  to  adopt  the  ma- 
jority report,  which  was  carried  by  the  same  old  vote,  sixteen  to 
thirteen.  An  ordinance  providing  for  the  building  of  the  county 
jail  was  then  passed  by  the  same  vote,  sixteen  to  thirteen,  and 
the  following  committee,  on  motion,  was  appointed  by  the  chair 
as  required  by  the  ordinance  passed,  as  the  building  committee, 
to-wit :  N.  AV.  Huntley,  of  Sparta ;  H.  H.  Atchison,  of  Little 
Falls;  J.  H.  Gill,  of  Greenfield,  and  AA^illiam  Hannkee,  of  Port- 
land. Subsequently  the  building  committee  carried  out  its  in- 
structions in  full,  contracts  were  let  and  the  present  county  jail 
and  sheriff's  residence  w^as  erected.  As  time  went  on  the  old 
courthouse  building  became  more  and  more  insufficient  for  the 
uses  of  the  various  county  officers  and  courtrooms,  and  again  the 
matter  of  additional  county  buildings  was  presented  at  a  session 
of  the  country  board.  In  1894  an  ordinance  was  introduced  by 
Supervisor  J.  R.  Lyon  at  the  November  session  of  the  board  pro- 
viding for  the  building  of  a  new  courthouse  in  the  city  of  Sparta 
to  cost  not  to  exceed  the  sum  of  $50,000.  It  was  apparently  a 
hopeless  task  on  the  part  of  the  supervisors  from  the  eastern  side 
of  the  county  to  prevent  the  passage  of  this  ordinance,  and  it  was 
carried  by  a  vote  of  twenty-five  to  five.  Supervisor  Coome  being 
excused  from  voting.  Later  in  the  session,  under  the  provision  of 
the  ordinance,  the  chairman  of  the  county  board  appointed  the 
following  building  committee :  Supervisors  N.  AY.  Huntley,  of 
Sparta;  J.  R.  Lyon,  of  Glendale ;  H.  H.  Cremer,  of  Jefiferson;  H. 
Gnewikow,  of  AYilton,  and  D.  AY.  Sowle,  of  Lincoln. 

In  pursuance  of  this  ordinance  the  present  Courthouse  was 
constructed  and  furnished.  The  county  was  fortunate  in  having 
it  erected  at  a  time  when  building  materials  were  cheaper  than 
at  any  time  since  so  that  for  the  sum  of  between  $50,000  and 
$60,000  it  has  a  commodious  and  substantial  building,  completely 

The  erection  of  these  permanent  buildings  of  such  great  value 
has  probably  ended  for  all  time  any  effort  to  renew  the  '^county 
seat  Avar."     The  eastern  side  of  the    county    has    now    become 


reconciled  to  the  situation,  as  was  very  appropriately  expressed 
by  a  member  of  the  board  at  the  time  the  building  of  a  new  jail 
was  voted,  the  boys  in  Tomah  concluded  that  "they  couldn't  get 
the  courthouse  tlirough  the  Tunnel  anyhow,"  so  they  gave  up. 
]\rany  interesting  incidents  undoubtedly  happened  outside  of  the 
recorded  procedure  in  this  famous  struggle  during  all  these  years 
M'hich  are  now  lost,  but  on  the  whole  the  record  itself  furnishes 
many  dramatic  climaxes  which  are  lacking  in  the  present  day 
sessions  of  the  county  board. 




No  history  of  the  county  would  be  complete  that  did  not  in- 
clude at  least  a  few  references  to  the  only  source  of  education 
that  most  boys  and  girls  have  access  to,  namely,  the  common 
schools.  No  attempt  will  be  made  to  go  into  an  exhaustive 
record  of  the  schools  since  the  establishment  of  the  county,  but 
rather  to  give  the  reader  an  idea  of  the  first  schools  in  the  county 
and  the  progress  that  has  been  made  through  legislation  and 
methods,  etc.,  up  to  the  present  time. 


As  soon  as  a  few  settlements  were  formed  the  people  began  to 
make  preparations  for  schools.  The  settlements  were  far  apart 
at  first  and  pupils  were  obliged  to  travel  long  distances,  three, 
and  even  four,  miles.  The  first  school  buildings  were  usually 
crude,  temporary  concerns,  designed  to  meet  the  immediate  needs 
of  the  people  until  the  settlements  became  more  numerous  and 
financially  stronger. 

The  following  were  among  the  early  buildings  which  were 
more  or  less  typical  of  the  buildings  throughout  the  county. 
District  No.  2,  town  of  LaGrange — School  house,  12x16  feet ;  shed 
roof.  District  No.  2,  town  of  Sheldon — Small  building  made  of 
unhewn  logs  of  uneven  length,  some  extending  two  or  three  feet 
beyond  the  end  of  building.  This  building  was  roofed  with  slabs 
to  match  the  logs,  that  is,  some  of  them  terminated  at  the  edge  of 
the  roof  and  others  projecting  downward  three  or  four  feet,  and 
some  even  projected  upward  above  the  ridge  of  the  roof.  This 
building  was  banked  with  clay  about  two  feet  high  all  around, 
except  at  the  door,  to  keep  out  the  cold.  In  order  to  save  labor 
the  banking  was  allowed  to  remain  during  the  summer  months 
so  that  it  would  be  on  hand  for  the  next  winter.  The  door  was 
home-made  and  so  low  that  full-grown  boys  and  girls  were 
obliged  to  stoop  to  get  in  and  out.  It  is  not  known  why  the  door 
was  made  this  size  unless  it  was  to  teach  the  pupils  to  stoop  so 


228         lUSTOKY  OF  .MUXKOE  COUNTY 

tht'V  iniglit  not  forget  to  bow  to  tlic  master  on  entering  the  build- 
ing, or  perhaps  it  was  to  teaeli  them  that  tliey  must  stoop  in  order 
to  avoid  many  liard  knocks  in  life's  journey.  No  doubt  some  of 
the  first  school  buildings  Avere  better  than  those  above  described 
and  some  worse  in  some  respects.  Generally  the  first  school  build- 
ings were  small,  cheap,  poorly  lighted,  with  no  ventilation  and 
little  or  no  regard  for  appearances. 


The  desks  were  made  of  Avhite  pine  and  long  enough  to  seat 
from  twelve  to  sixteen  pupils.  In  one  school  that  the  writjer  has 
in  mind  there  were  only  two  long  desks  in  the  school  house.  They 
were  about  sixteen  feet  long,  extending  lengthwise  of  the  build- 
ing, one  on  each  side,  with  a  seat  in  front  of  each  desk  for  the 
little  folks.  The  larger  pupils  occupied  the  seat  behind  the 
desks.  Usually,  hoAvever,  the  desks  Avould  seat  from  six  to  eight 
pupils,  and  extended  crosswise  of  the  room.  Arranged  in  two 
rows,  with  one  end  of  each  desk  against  the  wall,  leaving  only 
one  aisle  in  tlie  middle  of  the  room.  This  arrangement  made  it 
very  unhandy  to  get  and  out  of  seats,  as  the  pupils  frequently 
were  obliged  to  pass  four  or  five  others  in  order  to  get  out  of 
their  seat  to  go  to  the  recitation  and,  of  course,  go  through  the 
same  process  to  get  back  to  their  places.  The  desks  Avere  all  of 
the  same  size,  no  alloAvance  being  made  for  different  sizes  of 

Later  the  desks  Avere  made  to  accommodate  the  various  sizes 
of  pupils.  A  fcAv  samples  of  those  desks  may  still  be  found  in  the 
schools,  but  most  of  llicni  are  factory  made  double  desks,  and 
eA'en  those  are  giving  Avay  to  the  single  desk. 


Reading.  Avriting,  aritlmicti.'  and  spelling  Aveie  carried  l)y  all 
of  the  pupils,  and  grammai-,  geography  and  history  by  some  of 
the  larger  ones.  In  teaching  reading  the  A,  B,  C  method  Avas 
used,  that  is,  the  pupils  had  to  go  through  the  long,  tedious  proc- 
ess of  learning  the  alphabet  before  they  began  to  read.  Spelling 
Avas  mostly  oral  and  at  least  two  trials  Avere  given  on  a  Avord. 
Since  the  pupils  did  not  carry  many  studies  they  made  up  for 
this  to  some  extent  by  reciting  in  reading  and  spelling  four  times 
a  day.  Some  schools  had  reading  of  the  Bible  and  prayer  CA'ery 
morning.  History  Avas  sometimes  used  as  a  reader,  the  teacher 
asking  a  few  questions  after  the  lesson  Avas  read.  Pupils  that 
read  in  the  history  Avere  looked  upon  by  the  other  pupils  as  being 


good  scholars.  There  was  no  classification  of  the  school  by  forms 
or  grades,  and  as  a  rule  no  record  was  kept  of  the  work  done  by 
the  pupils,  and  of  course  no  record  left  for  the  guidance  of  the 
new  teacher.  Not  unfrequently  the  pupils  were  started  in  at  the 
beginning  of  the  books  they  brought  with  them  the  first  day, 
regardless  of  what  they  covered  the  year  before.  This  seems  like 
a  great  waste  of  time,  and  it  was,  but  there  was  one  redeeming 
feature,  namely,  that  some  subjects  were  reviewed  so  often  that 
they  were  firmly  fixed  in  the  pupils'  minds.  Perhaps  manual 
training  should  have  been  added  to  the  branches  taught  in  those 
early  days. 

This  was  pursued  by  the  larger  boys  who  happened  to  pos- 
sess good  pocket  knives,  without  the  aid  or  consent  of  the  teacher. 
The  white  pine  desks  being  excellent  material  to  carve  in,  pupils 
would  sometimes  cut  the  forms  of  horses  and  other  objects  in 
the  desk  and  carve  their  names  also.  This,  of  course,  was  not 
sanctioned  bj^  the  teacher,  yet  it  was  common  to  find  desks  bear- 
ing such  marks. 


The  inside  of  the  school  buildings  as  a  rule  were  in  keeping 
with  the  outside  appearance.  There  was  no  library  or  reference 
books  of  any  kind.  Webster's  unabridged  dictionary  was  the 
only  book  outside  of  texts,  and  that  was  furnished  free  by  the 
state.  There  was  usually  a  partial  supply  of  maps,  and  occasion- 
ally a  reading  chart.  The  blackboard  was  composed  of  boards 
nailed  together  and  painted.  This  was  as  a  rule  poor  in  quality 
and  very  insufficient  in  quantity.  A  piece  3x4  feet  was  all  that 
some  schools  had.  Ciphering  and  sometimes  writing  exercises 
were  performed  with  slate  and  pencil.  It  was  a  rare  thing  to  see 
a  pupil  using  pencil  and  paper. 


During  the  first  ten  or  fifteen  years  after  the  county  was 
organized,  the  teachers  boarded  around,  that  is,  the  teacher 
boarded  free  of  charge  with  the  various  families  in  the  district 
that  sent  children  to  school.  The  teacher  stayed  with  each  fam- 
ily in  proportion  to  the  number  of  pupils  that  attended  school, 
usually  one  M^eek  for  each  pupil.  Boarding  around  had  some 
advantage  over  the  present  system,  as  it  afforded  the  teacher  an 
opportunity  to  get  acquainted  with  the  parents  and  home  life  of 
the  children,  thus  enabling  the  various  parties  to  understand 
each  other  better.    The  parents  and  pupils  looked  forward  to  the 


teaelier  coming  as  an  important  event,  and  you  may  be  sure  the 
teacher  got  the  best  the  family  att'orded.  But  there  was  another 
side  to  the  boarding  ai'oiiiid  lliat  was  not  so  pleasant  for  the 
teacher,  namely,  the  accommodations  were  not  always  what  was 
desirable  and  the  teacher  was  expected  to  entertain  or  be  enter- 
tained to  such  an  extent  that  she  had  little  time  that  she  could 
call  her  own  or  devise  plans  for  presenting  the  various  subjects. 
The  teacher  was  looked  upon  as  the  most  important  personage 
in  the  district,  and  no  Avedding  or  other  social  event  was  consid- 
ered complete  unless  the  teacher  was  present.  The  teacher  was 
supposed  to  be  tiie  best  informed  person  in  the  whole  district. 
The  following  lines  from  the  "Desertetl  Village''  portrays  the 
opinion  of  his  knowledge  held  by  the  country  folks: 

"  'Twas  certain  he  could  write  and  cipher,  too; 
Lands  he  could  measure,  terms  and  tides  presage, 
And  e'en,  the  story  ran,  that  he  could  gauge; 
In  arguing,  too,  the  parson  owned  his  skill. 
For  e'en  though  vanquished,  he  could  argue  still; 
AYhile  words  of  learned  strength  and  thundering  sound, 
Amazed  the  gaping  rustics  ranged  around ; 
And  still  they  gazed  and  still  the  wonder  grew, 
That  one  small  head  could  carry  all  he  knew." 


The  schools  of  each  town  were  in  charge  of  a  man  known  as 
township  superintendent.  The  duties  of  the  town  superintendent 
were  to  supervise  the  schools  and  grant  licenses  to  teachers. 
Those  ofificers  were  usually  paid  $1.50  a  day  Avhen  in  service  of 
the  town.  The  teacher's  examination  comprised  much  fewer  sub- 
jects than  at  the  present  time.  The  examination  Avas  mostly  oral 
with  enough  writing  to  give  the  applicant  an  opportunity  to  show 
her  writing.  This  .system  was  abolished  in  18G2  and  the  county 
superintendenc}^  established. 


In  those  early  days  there  were  a  much  larger  proportion  of 
male  teachers  than  at  the  present.  The  male  teachers,  as  a  rule, 
taught  only  the  winter  term  and  did  not  make  teaching  a  busi- 
ness. The  spring  terms  were  usually  taught  by  ladies.  As  a  rule 
the  teachers  of  this  early  period  were  not  up  in  professional  and 
academic  knowledge  with   the  t(>achers  of  the  present   tinu\  but 


from  the  standpoint  of  maturity  they  were  ahead.  They  were 
men  and  women,  as  a  rule,  out  of  their  teens.  The  frequent  change 
of  teachers  and  poor  attendance  were  among  the  main  obstacles 
to  progress.  "Wages  varied  very  much  as  at  the  present  time. 
They  ranged  from  $1.50  a  Aveek  to  $16  or  $20  a  month,  and  the 
teachers  boarded  around  and  taught  every  other  Saturday.  In 
some  instances  the  wages  were  as  high,  or  higher,  then  as  at  the 
present  time,  but  those  were  exceptions. 


In  the  early  history  of  the  county  school  government  was  a 
much  bigger  proposition  than  it  is  today.  This  was  due  to  sev- 
eral things,  namely,  to  size  of  pupils,  lack  of  sufficient  employ- 
ment, and  to  the  general  attitude  of  the  people  regarding  punish- 
ment. In  those  days  boys  and  girls  attended  school,  especially 
during  the  winter  months,  until  they  were  grown  up,  eighteen 
and  twenty  years  of  age.  Many  of  them  carried  only  a  few 
branches,  and  of  course  were  not  busy  all  of  the  time,  and  there- 
fore were  harder  to  control.  Then,  too,  many  of  the  parents 
seemed  to  think  that  punishment  was  a  necessary  part  of  the 
child's  education,  and  in  some  way  a  knowledge  of  the  "three 
R's"  should  be  seasoned  and  worked  into  the  individual  by  a 
liberal  use  of  the  rod.     The  words: 

"Schooldays!     Schooldays! 

Dear  old  Golden  Rule  days; 
Reading,  'riting  and  'rithmetic. 
Taught  to  the  tune  of  a  hickory  stick," 

were  based  on  the  methods  and  beliefs  of  those  days.  The 
schoolmaster  that  did  not  do  considerable  punishing  was  not 
thought  to  be  doing  his  full  duty.  However,  many  of  them 
measured  up  to  the  expectations  of  the  district.  As  a  rule  there 
was  plenty  of  timber  near  the  schoolhouses  and  the  teacher 
usually  knew  enough  about  foresting  to  be  able  to  select  the 
toughest  switches,  and  he  knew  also  that  by  laying  them  on  the 
heated  stove  for  a  while  it  would  add  to  their  elasticity.  Several 
of  these  w^ell-seasoned  switches  were  generally  on  hand  and 
placed  in  a  conspicuous  position,  usually  over  the  blackboard. 
Sometimes  those  switches  would  mysteriously  disappear  and  no 
one  could  account  for  their  whereabouts.  However,  a  new  supply 
was  easily  secured,  seasoned  and  put  up.  Should  the  master's 
supply  of  switches  become  exhausted  during  the  session  periods 


of  the  day,  he  would  souu'tiines  send  one  of  the  small  l)nys  after 
a  new  supply. 

The  prevailing  method  of  punishment  Avas  striking  witii  the 
rod  on  the  palm  of  the  hand  and  on  the  finger  tips.  This  was 
rather  severe  and  much  dreaded  by  the  small  and  middle-sized 
boys,  for  the  boys  got  most  of  the  punishment.  But  to  the  lull- 
grown  boys  it  was  considered  a  game  in  which  it  was  the  teacher's 
part  to  strike,  and  the  boy's  part  to  catch  the  rod  before  the 
teacher  pulled  it  back.  If  the  rod  was  caught  it  was  broken 
and  then  the  stub  was  used,  and  the  game  went  on  till  the  rod 
became  too  short.  It  is  only  fair  to  say  that  the  above  methods 
of  bringing  the  refractory  pupils  to  time  was  practiced  chiefiy 
by  the  male  teachers,  but  w^as  by  no  means  unknown  to  the 
gentler  sex.  About  the  most  dreaded  punishment  meted  out  to 
the  boys  was  to  have  a  boy  sit  between  two  girls  for  an  hour  or 
so.  This  would  cause  the  bashful  country  boy  to  blush  profusely, 
and  usually  it  was  not  necessary  to  repeat  the  punishment  very 
soon.    The  following  lines  illustrate  this  fairly  well : 

"Some  playful  wight  perchance  was  doomed  to  sit 
Between  two  girls,  as  retribution  fit 
For  his  crimes;  and  so  he  learned  e'en  then 
The  truth  that  comes  in  time  to  all  young  men : 
'Tis  more  than  twice  as  hard  for  Adam's  son 

•To  sit  with  two  girls  as  to  sit  with  one." 

Other  methods  of  punishment  which  were  more  or  less  gen- 
eral, were  pulling  the  ears,  slapping  the  face,  and  taking  by  the 
collar  and  given  a  shaking,  etc.  Corporal  punishment  seemed  to 
be  more  freely  used  at  home  and  at  school  than  at  the  present 
time.  Those  having  the  training  of  children  in  charge  have  found 
out  that  it  is  possible  to  train  children  properly  with  little  or  no 
corporal  punishment.  Perhaps  it  should  not  be  dispensed  with 
all  together,  but  should  be  rai'cly  used. 

It  is  possible  in  most  cases  to  keep  a  pupil  under  control 
through  fear,  hut  that  is  not  the  proper  way,  for  it  destroys  the 
confidence  and  affection  the  pupil  should  have  for  the  teacher, 
without  which  it' is  impossible  to  get  the  best  results.  The  good 
teacher  who  possesses  sufficient  knowledge  and  ability  to  teach 
and  whose  heart  is  in  the  work  will  generally  have  no  difficulty 
witli  government.  On  the  other  hand  the  teacher  who  is  una])le. 
on  account  of  academic  or  professional  knowledge,  to  interest  her 
school  will  find  government  (juitc  a  problem. 



One  feature  of  the  eountrV  school  that  has  about  gone  out  of 
practice  is  the  old-fashioned  spelling  school.  These  spelling- 
schools  were  held  frequently  during  the  winter  term,  and  were 
participated  in  by  old  and  young  alike.  Sometimes  one  school 
Avould  spell  against  another,  but  occasionally  two  persons  were 
appointed  to  choose  sides,  regardless  of  schools,  and  everyone  in 
the  room  was  given  an  opportunity  to  spell,  but  only  those  that 
considered  themselves  good  spellers  accepted.  Those  in  the  con- 
test would  take  a  position  by  the  side  of  the  leader  and  two  lines 
were  formed  that  would  reach  around  the  room. 

Those  that  missed  took  their  seats  and  of  course  the  one  that 
stood  last  won.  Usually  the  winner  was  expected  to  spell  three 
M'ords  after  the  others  were  down.  After  the  spelling  contest 
there  were  reading  and  speaking.  The  spelling  school  was  looked 
upon  as  quite  a  social  event  and  was  attended  by  people  for  miles 
around.  Another  means  of  enjoyment  and  intellectual  improve- 
ment were  the  debates  which  were  usually  held  during  the  win- 
ter terms  also.    The  questions  were  usually  practical  and  simple. 

The  men  and  large  boys  took  part  in  the  discussions.  The 
interest  taken  in  those  discussions  may  be  shown  by  stating  t!iat 
it  was  common  for  people  to  walk  three  or  four  miles  to  hear 
and  take  part  in  the  discussion.  ]\Iany  a  farmer  and  town  official 
will  own  today  that  the  foundation  for  expressing  his  thoughts 
clearly,  to  think  logically  when  standing  before  people,  was  laid 
in  the  old-fashioned  debating  society.  A  literary  society  in 
which  debates  receive  a  prominent  part  should  be  a  part  of  every 
country  school  where  there  are  a  sufficient  number  to  carry  it 
on  successfully. 


During  the  early  history,  as  has  been  stated  before.  a])out 
the  only  book  found  in  the  school  house  outside  of  the  text  books, 
was  Webster's  Unabridged  Dictionary.  In  1887  there  was 
enacted  a  township  library  law.  This  law  provided  that  10  cents 
should  be  reserved  from  the  school  fund  for  each  pupil  between 
four  and  twenty  years  in  the  district,  the  money  to  be  used  in 
purchasing  books.  But  for  the  first  eight  years  of  this  law  it  Avas 
optional  with  the  town  treasurer  whether  or  not  the  money  was 
set  aside  for  this  purpose. 

Many  of  the  treasurers  did  not  see  fit  to  do  tliis  and  for  a 
while  the  growth  of  the  district  lil)raries  Avas  slow.  In  189.5  tlie 
law  was  made  mandatory  and  since  then  there  has  been  a  rapid 


additiun  to  the  JiuiiihiT  oL'  l)ooks  in  llic  libraries.  I'nlil  about 
seveu  years  ago  the  town  elei-ks  bad  the  i)Ower  to  select  the 
books  and  since  that  official  usually  did  not  know  just  what  books 
to  select.  Ju'  did  not  alwaj's  make  the  best  selections  and  there 
were  nuuiy  duplications. 

The  county  or  district  superintendent  noAV  makes  the  selecr 
tion  I'oi-  ail  the  schools  under  his  jurisdiction.  He  usually  asks 
the  teachers  to  recommend  the  books  they  desire  and  1)y  this 
method  suitable  books  are  generally  ])rocured.  At  first  the  law 
provided  that  the  books  pass  from  one  district  to  another  so  that 
all  the  pupils  might  get  the  benefit  of  the  books.  This  was  nice 
in  theory  but  did  not  work  out  so  well  in  practice  for  no  one 
felt  or  could  be  held  responsible  for  the  books  and  the  card  cata- 
logue would  be  ineflt'ective. 

Now  the  books  are  selected  for  the  needs  and  conditions  of  a 
particular  district  and  are  not  changed.  It  is  really  a  district 
system  now,  but  the  name  township  is  still  retained.  "When  the 
library  books  were  first  introduced  in  the  schools,  as  a  rule  there 
were  no  book  cases  and  the  books  were  kept  at  the  district  clerk's 
home,  a  part  or  all  of  the  time,  which,  of  course,  Avas  not 

Now  every  district  has  a  book  case  and  the  books  are  left  in 
the  school  house.  There  is  a  card  catalogue  made  of  the  books 
so  that  the  material  they  contain  is  available.  These  libraries, 
besides  being  available  for  reference  work  in  connection  with 
various  subjects,  contain  interesting  and  instructive  stories  for 
all  grades  of  pupils  and  also  for  the  adult  population  of  the  dis- 
trict. Under  the  township  library  law,  ^Monroe  county  spends 
about  $1,000  a  year  for  library  books. 

These  books  are  distributed  among  the  Ho  districts  of  the 
county  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  children  between  four 
and  twenty  years  in  each  district.  Each  district  has  a  library 
ranging  from  seventy-five  to  200  books.  The  thing  needed  now 
is  to  make  better  use  of  these  books,  both  for  reference  and  gen- 
eral reading  and  develop  in  llie  boys  and  girls  a  desire  for  good 



In  1005  there  was  a  law  enacted  requiring  each  county 
superintendent  to  call  a  convention  of  the  school  board  members 
of  county  annually.  About  every  district  in  the  county  was  rep- 
resented in  those  conventions,  and  in  addition  to  the  local  pro- 


gram,  the  state  educational  department   always  sent  a  man  to 
discuss  one  or  more  subjects  chosen  by  that  department. 

Those  conventions  have  proven  to  be  a  very  important  factor 
in  improving  the  rural  schools.  They  have  been  the  means  of 
acquainting  the  board  members  more  fully  with  their  duties, 
powers  and  responsibilities,  have  increased  their  interest  in  the 
schools  and  emphasized  the  importance  of  sufficient  apparatus, 
and  the  necessity  of  obtaining  good  teachers.  These  meetings 
were  held  in  school  buildings  that  were  models  with  respect  to 
seating,  black  boards,  light  and  general  apparatus,  thus  giving 
a  good  idea  of  suitable  building  and  equipment.  These  meetings 
also  helped  standardize  the  schools  of  the  county.  At  first  some 
objected  to  the  law  on  the  ground  that  it  was  a  useless  expense 
without  producing  any  good  results,  but  time  has  proven  that 
the  objections  were  unfounded.  There  is  no  question  whatever 
regarding  the  benefit  of  this  law  and  the  trifling  cost  of  the  dis- 
tricts is  insignificant  when  compared  with  the  benefits. 


For  a  great  many  years  there  has  been  a  compulsory  school 
law,  but  until  recently  it  has  been  practically  a  dead  letter,  for 
the  reason  that  the  school  board  was  to  enter  complaints  against 
parents  or  guardians  that  were  not  sending  their  children.  The 
board  was  not  compelled  to  report  and  there  was  no  penalty  for 
not  reporting,  and  for  the  further  reason  that  the  board  did  not 
like  to  make  enemies  of  their  neighbors  l)y  informing  on  them, 
they  did  not  report.  About  five  years  ago  the  Compulsory  Attend- 
ance Law  was  changed  and  made  it  the  duty  of  the  teacher  to 
enter  the  complaint  instead  of  the  school  board.  It  is  man- 
datory on  the  part  of  the  teacher  to  enter  the  complaint,  with  a 
penalty  if  it  is  not  done.  At  present  pupils  between  seven  and 
fourteen  years  and  not  more  than  two  miles  from  the  school 
house  by  the  traveled  road  are  required  to  attend  school  at  least 
six  months. 

Pupils  between  fourteen  and  sixteen  years  must  attend  the 
same  time  unless  they  are  regularly  employed.  The  law,  as  it 
now  stands,  is  quite  effective  and  has  been  the  means  of  giving 
many  neglected  children  the  opportunity  of  attending  school. 

Yet  the  law  is  not  enforced  as  rigidly  as  it  should  be,  and 
many  live  over  the  two-mile  limit  and  can  not  be  reached.  Dur- 
ing the  time  this  new  law  has  been  in  force  many  parents  have 
been  notified  by  the  truant  officer,  the  county  sheriff,  to  send 
their  children,  but  there  have  been  no  prosecutions.     It  is  not 


clear  to  school  people  why  any  parent  could  be  so  indiflfereut  to 
the  future  welfare  of  his  children  as  to  deny  them  tiie  oppor- 
tunity of  a  fair  chance  in  life  by  neglecting  to  give  the  benefits 
of  the  free  common  schools. 


There  is  quite  a  contrast  between  the  old  methods  and  those 
of  the  present  time.  For  instance,  the  child  was  obliged  to  go 
through  the  slow  and  tedious  process  of  learning  the  alphabet, 
A,  B,  C's,  before  beginning  to  read.  These  letters  were  to  be 
learned  in  order,  backward,  and  in  a  promiscuous  arrangement. 
Then  the  pupil  was  taught  to  pronounce  short  words  of  one.  two 
and  three  letters. 

This  lacked  interest  also  because  the  words  were  usually 
abstract  and  meant  nothing  to  the  child.  Yet  boys  and  girls 
learned  to  read  by  this  unpedagogical  system.  Now  the  cliild 
begins  to  read  by  being  introduced  to  a  familiar  word  repre- 
senting an  object  as — apple,  ball,  etc.,  or  perhaps  the  Avord  is 
used  in  a  sentence,  as  "Roll  the  ball,"  and  the  child  acts  it  out 
by  actually  rolling  the  ball  on  the  floor  or  on  the  teacher's  desk; 
thus  making  the  reading  interesting  and  instructive  from  the 
start.  The  books  for  primary  children,  especially  the  readers, 
have  been  greatly  improved  and  made  more  interesting  for  little 
folks.  The  old  text  books  were  written  mostly  on  the  question 
and  answer  plan,  and  if  the  pupils  gave  the  answers,  they  were 
not  usually  asked  to  go  into  an  explanation  as  to  the  meaning. 
There  has  been  quite  an  improvement  in  text  books  as  Avell  as  in 
the  methods  of  teaching. 


Years  ago  the  pupils'  scholarsliip  was  dctci-niincd  largely  l)y 
the  number  of  the  "Reader"  that  he  read  in,  and  if  a  boy  was 
asked  how  far  he  was  in  school  he  would  answer,  "Third  Reader" 
or  "Fourth  Reader,"  as  the  case  might  be.  Later  there  was  a 
course  of  study  gotlcii  oul  by  ttie  state  which  divided  the  work 
of  the  schools  into  three  parts,  called  forms,  and  were  known  as 
the  primary,  middle  and  upper  form. 

This  was  quite  an  improvement  on  the  old  way  and  led  to  a 
more  definite  classification  of  pupils  and  better  records  of  the 
work  done  by  the  individual  popils  and  was  also  the  means  of 
having  the  pupils  take  up  more  of  the  branches  in  the  course. 
Li  1906  the  graded  system  was  introduced.  This  system  divides 
the  course  into  eight  parts  called  grades,  and  it  is  supposed  that 


an  ordinary  pupil,  that  is,  a  pupil  of  average  ability,  good  health, 
that  attends  regularly  and  studies  well,  will  be  able  to  complete 
a  grade  in  a  year  and  finish  the  course  in  eight  or  nine  years. 

This  is  more  definite  than  the  three-form  system,  because  it 
marks  off  the  course  into  years  instead  of  bunching  it  into  three- 
year  parts.  This  system  is  the  same  as  is  used  in  state  graded 
schools  and  in  the  grades  below  the  high  school,  and  is  nothing 
new.  The  graded  system  works  nicely  in  the  country  schools  of 
the  county.  It  is  especially  helpful  to  the  young  and  inex- 
perienced teacher,  and  makes  the  work  more  definite  for  all, 
besides  pupils  moving  from  one  district  to  another  can  readily 
find  their  place  in  the  new  school.  The  graded  system  is  not 
yet  generally  adopted  by  the  counties  of  the  state.  In  fact,  it  is 
not  known  that  any  of  them  outside  of  Monroe  county  uses  it. 
However,  it  is  believed  that  it  will  be  generally  adopted  before 
many  years  as  the  manual  of  the  course  of  study  outlines  some 
of  the  work  by  years  which  is  about  the  same  thing.  A  year's 
work  corresponding  to  a  grade. 


Some  twenty  years  ago  a  law  was  passed  which  permits  pupils 
holding  common  school  diplomas  to  attend  any  high  school  in  the 
state  free  of  tuition.  That  is,  the  pupil  did  not  have  to  pay  it, 
but  the  town  in  which  the  pupil  resides  pays  the  tuition,  which 
is  $2  a  month.  This  free  tuition  law  stimulated  many 
country  people  that  would  not  have  done  so  if  they  had  to  pay 
the  tuition  directly,  to  send  their  children  to  high  school.  Thus 
it  may  be  seen  that  many  a  boy  and  girl  get  a  high  school  educa- 
tion through  the  merits  of  this  law. 



About  four  years  ago  a  law  was  passed  off'ering  each  school 
$50  each  year  for  three  years  on  condition  that  the  dis- 
trict would  make  certain  improvements  in  apparatus,  chief 
among  them  was  to  put  in  an  approved  heating  and  ventilating 
plant.  It  was  claimed  for  this  system  that  it  would  heat  the 
room  uniformly  and  keep  the  air  fresh. 

Whether  those  plants  will  heat  as  quickly  and  as  cheaply 
as  the  injacketed  stove  is  a  question  that  there  is  a  difference 
of  opinion  on.  However,  it  is  certain  that  the  ventilation  is 
much  improved  and  the  room  more  healthful  and  conditions 
for  study  much  better.  Nearly  every  district  in  the  county 
took   advantage   of   the  law  which   shows   that   board   members 


were  ready  to  make  use  of  opportunities  for  llie  betterment 
of  the  physical  and  nuMital  development  of  the  ehildren.  While 
tliese  plants  are  not  doing  all  that  was  elaimed  for  them  and 
the  usual  unfair  means  and  misrepresentations  were  practiced 
in  jnany  cases  in  order  to  make  sales,  the  law  has  proven  very 
helpful  for  it  lias  been  tlie  means  of  supplying  necessities  to 
the  school. 


One  of  tiie  most  important  subjects  and  the  one  that  has 
received  the  least  attention  or  no  attention  at  all  is  penmanship. 
Neither  the  time  nor  the  attention  has  been  given  to  this  sub- 
ject that  it  inerits.  There  are  several  reasons  for  this  but  the 
chief  one  is  that  the  teacher  has  received  no  special  training 
in  this  subject  and,  of  course,  could  not  impart  knowledge  that 
she  did  not  possess.  Usually  ten  or  fifteen  miiuites  was  devoted 
to  writing  each  day  but  as  there  was  no  system  to  follow,  it 
was  turned  into  a  go  as  you  please  exercise.  Yet  in  spite  of 
lack  of  method  of  system,  many  developed  into  fairly  good 
writers.  For  a  couple  of  years  this  subject  has  received  its 
share  of  attention  at  teachers  meetings  and  institutes  which 
has  paved  the  way  for  the  free  arm  movement  whidi  is  being 
introduced,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  school  will  turn  out  easy 
legible  writers.  To  be  a  good  writer  is  quite  an  accomplishment 
and  any  one  tliat  has  proper  control  of  his  muscles,  can  by 
careful  practice  under  proper  instruction  come  into  possession 
of  this  art. 

The  school  of  today  compared  witli  the  school  of  twenty 
years  ago. 

The  school  year  has  been  lengthened  at  least  one  fourth. 
The  building,  apparatus,  and  general  equipment  ai-e  inucli  im- 

The  teachers  on  the  whole  are  better  prepared  academically 
and  professionally,  although  many  of  our  teachers  are  too  young 
to  shoulder  the  great  responsibility  that  they  undertake;  in  fact 
some  of  them  do  not  reali/A'  the  enormity  of  the  undertaking. 
Years  ago  it  was  common  to  find  young  men  and  young  women 
attending   school   especially   in   the   winter  months. 

Now  if  you  would  travel  the  county  over,  you  would  not 
find  any  full  grown  boys  and  gii'ls  in  attendance.  The  average 
pupil  of  12  and  13  years  of  age  today  is  as  far  advanced  as 
the  18  and  20  year  old  pupil  was  20  years  ago.  But  where  are 
those  boys  and   girls  14  years  of  age  and  upwards.'     They  are 


not  in  the  country  school;  some  of  them  are  in  the  high  school 
but  most  of  them  are  out  of  school  altogether.  It  is  to  be 
regretted  that  the  boys  and  girls  leave  the  country  school  so 
early.  Our  Avhole  school 'system  has  been  severely  criticized 
lately  and  the  common  schools  came  in  for  their  share  and  no 
doubt  it  Avas  coming  to  them.  Yet  the  country  teacher  with 
her  multiplicity  of  duties  has  more  to  do  than  any  one  person 
can  do  well.  She  must  be  janitor,  nurse,  disciplinarian,  and 
mediator,    besides    teaching    all   the    branches. 

The  teacher  that  can  do  this  fairly  well  is  the  best  of  teachers, 
and  it  may  be  said  without  successful  contradiction  that  the 
country  school  gets  better  returns  for  the  amount  of  money 
invested   in   education  tlian   any  other   school   in  the   state. 



The  cariiiii;'  lor  the  poor  and  insane  oi'  any  eounty  is  a  problem 
to  whieh  sliould  be  brought  to  bear  level  headed  business  ability 
in  addition  to  the  mere  fact  of  providing  for  the  needs  of  such 
unfortunates;  that  this  department  of  municipal  atfairs  in  this 
founty  has  been  managed  with  business  acumen  having  in  view 
the  best  interests,  not  only  of  the  poor  and  insane  people,  but 
the  welfare  of  the  community  at  large ;  and  a  policy  inaugurated 
Avhich  accrues  to  the  benefit  of  the  taxpayers  is  very  apparent. 
In  1871  the  condition  with  regard  to  the  support  of  the  poor 
liad  become  so  hard  to  handle  without  a  central  home  or  place 
where  some  of  these  people  could  be  cared  for,  that  the  then 
eounty  board  was  compelled  to  consider  the  purchase  of  a  farm 
to  be  used  as  a  home  for  the  poor,  and  as  has  been  stated  in  a 
former  chapter  the  farm  of  David  Cole  of  two  hundred  acres, 
situated  in  the  town  of  Adrian,  Avas  purchased  in  that  year  for 
the  sum  of  $5,000,  but  as  the  county  grew  older  and  the  popula- 
tion more  dense  the  natural  increase  of  the  burden  of  caring 
for  the  poor,  so  developed  the  fact  that  this  farm  was  in  a 
poor  location,  being  quite  a  distance  from  the  county  seat, 
and  the  buildings  were  too  small  for  the  accommodation  of 
those  requiring  assistance;  the  county  board  finally  authorized 
the  sale  of  the  farm  and  purchased  one  lying  just  north  of  the 
city  of  Sparta  and  in  the  town  of  Sparta,  a  very  advantageous 
location  with  a' beautiful  building  site,  upon  Avhich  was  erected 
in  1900  a  large  brick  home  for  the  poor  with  modern  con- 
veniences at  a  cost  of  about  .$11,000.  It  l)ecame  evident  at  this 
time,  as  the  matter  had  been  discussed  eonsideral)ly  before, 
that  the  mHul)er  of  insane  with  which  this  county  was  charge- 
able, ])eing  cared  for  in  otlier  institutions  including  several  county 
asylums,  was  rapidly  increasing  and  the  burden  of  expenses  was 
growing  quite  rapidly;  a  committee  had  been  previously  ap- 
pointed to  investigate  the  subject  of  a  county  asylum  and  its 
report  created  quite  a  strong  sentiment  in  the  county  that  it 
would  be  advisable  for  this  county,  hnviiig  the  approval  of  the 












State  Board  of  Control,  to  build  a  county  asylum  for  chronic 
insane.  The  proposal  was  made  to  change  the  poorhouse  then 
erected,  to  an  insane  asylum,  and  to  subsequently  erect  another 
home  for  the  poor  upon  the  same  farm.  After  considerable 
agitation  in  which  the  two  sides  of  the  county  were  arrayed 
against  each  other  the  proposition  finally  was  carried  out  and 
in  1902  another  home  for  the  poor  was  erected  on  another  part 
of  the  farm  near  the  asylum.  The  farm  had  been  enlarged  and 
improved  since  then  by  the  purchase  of  an  additional  120  acres 
of  land  and  by  the  erection  of  a  separate  heating  plant  and 
also  of  a  complete  water  works  system  Avhich  Avas  put  in  in 
1907;  this  system  consists  of  a  steel  tower  ninety  feet  high  with 
an  eighteen  foot  tank  on  the  top  with  a  capacity  of  50,000 
gallons,  standing  on  a  solid  concrete  foundation,  and  from  it 
run  six-inch  pipes  for  the  asylum  and  for  the  poorhouse  and 
and  barns  and  out-buildings,  and  in  connection  with  it  is  a  power 
house  having  a  large  Gould  pump  of  ten  horse  power  and  the 
AVestinghouse  electric  motor.  The  barns  are  all  of  the  most 
modern  construction  and  a  herd  of  dairy  cattle  is  maintained 
upon  the  farm  which  is  kept  in  the  highest  state  of  cultivation 
and  now  produces  a  good  income.  Before  the  adoption  of  this 
system  the  county  was  compelled  to  pay  $3  a  week  for  the  main- 
tenance of  each  person  charged  to  it  in  any  of  the  institutions 
to  which  they  were  committed,  but,  of  course,  a  portion  of  this 
was  returned  by  the  state ;  almost  from  the  very  outset  it  be- 
came apparent  that  the  establishing  of  a  county  asylum  was 
a  good  business  venture,  for  not  only  were  the  patients  coming 
from  this  county  gradually  sent  here,  but  patients  from  other 
counties  are  committed  to  this  asylum  for  which  the  county 
receives  the  regular  amount  chargeable  by  the  law  for  the  main- 
tenance of  such  patients.  The  income  of  the  institution  from 
the  farm  and  from  other  sources  has  gradually  increased,  outside 
of  the  appropriation  made  by  the  county  board,  so  that  the 
receipts  of  the  sale  of  produce  from  $79-1:. 71  in  1904  increased 
to  $2,615.58  in  1911  and  at  the  last  report  of  the  trustees  for 
the  year  1910-1911  made  in  November,  1911.  it  is  shown  that 
the  permanent  investment  in  and  about  the  asylum  is  as  fob 
lows:  Farm,  $23,000;  buildings  less  2%,  $29,472.52;  live  stock, 
$5,715.50;  tools  and  implements  less  10%,  $1,449.86;  furniture 
and  furnishings  less  10%,  $1,775.88;  making  a  total  of  $61,415.76. 
The  home  for  the  poor  is  a  comfortable  brick  building  capable 
of  housing  thirty  inmates;  heated  by  steam  and  lighted 
by  electricity,  with  modern  conveniences,  surely  a  home  better 


fitted,  by  far,  than  the  great  mass  of  people  of  the  county  are 
al)le  to  afford;  the  asylum  at  the  last  report  had  a  total  popula- 
tion of  forty-five  nude  and  twenty-eight  female  patients.  .Mr. 
F.  J.  ]Mooney,  present  superintendent,  and  his  "svife  the  matron 
have  conducted  this  institution  very  successfully  for  the  last 
nine  years,  and  under  ]Mr.  ^looney's  management  the  farm  has 
been  brought  to  a  high  state  of  cultivation  and  is  a  model  institu- 
tion;  some  of  the  patients  assist  in  carrying  on  the  farm  opera- 
tions and  it  is  considered  a  good  thing  to  have  them  busily 
employed  Avhen  they  are  able,  under  the  proper  supervision. 
During  the  years  of  the  existence  of  this  institution  for  the 
insane  the  amount  of  the  appropriation  which  the  county  board 
makes  has  gradually  decreased  from  j|^5,000  to  about  $2,500  and 
l)elow  is  given  a  little  list  of  the  receipts  and  expenditures, 
beginning  Avith  1902,  showing  simply  the  gross  amounts. 


Year  ending  October  1st:  Receipts  from  the  county  board 
appropriation,  $4,500;  produce  from  farm  to  April  1,  1903, 
$108.69;  error  in  invoice.  $42.19;  balance  on  hand  in  county 
treasury  November  1,  1902,  $165.63.  Total,  $6,301.51.  Expendi- 
tures, total  of  $4,632.81 ;  leaving  a  balance  on  hand  October  1, 


Earnings  from  the  state  to  July,  1903,  $810;  receipts  from 
produce,  $794.71 ;  receipts  from  other  sources,  $1,869.67 ;  total, 
$3,474.38 ;  appropriations  from  county  board,  $5,000 ;  balance  in 
asylum  fund,  $85.34;  making  a  total  of  $8,559.72;  total  of  ex- 
penditures, $7,128.25;  leaving  a   1)alance  of  $1,431.47. 


Receipts — Balance  of  last  i-eport,  $1,431.47;  earnings  from 
state,  $4,233.31 ;  sales  of  produce,  $548.25 ;  collection  from  other 
sources,  $575.01  ;  balance  in  the  poor  fund  for  maintenance  of 
the  home  for  the  poor,  $1,434.41;  making  a  total  of  $8,248.45; 
total  expenditures,  $6,850.90;  leaving  a  balance  on  hand  of 
$1,397.55.  This  report  shows  that  tlie  cost  per  capita  of  the 
innuites  is  $1.99i/:i  a  week. 


Receipts — Balance  on  hand  from  last  report,  $1,397.55;  earn- 
ings from  the  state,  $4,587.05:  collection  for  district  attorney, 
$244 ;    sales   of   produce,    $599.28 ;    maintenance    of   poor   home, 


$1,497.94;  expenditures,  $7,550.42;  balance  on  hand,  $775.40. 
This  report  shows  a  cost  per  capita  of  the  inmates  of  $2,011/3 
a  week. 


Receipts — Balance  on  hand  from  last  report,  $775.40 ;  earn- 
ings from  the  state,  $5,794.16 ;  collection  from  district  attorney, 
$278.14 ;  Citizens  Insurance  Company,  $26 ;  sales  of  produce, 
$1,207.69 ;  maintenance  of  poor  home,  $1,712.77 ;  total  receipts, 
$9,794.16;  total  expenditures,  $9,459.63;  balance  on  hand,  $334.53. 
Cost   of  maintenance   per   capita  $2.22   per  week. 


Balance  on  hand  last  report.  $334.53;  earnings  from  the  state, 
$5,469.40;  collection  from  district  attorney,  $3,483.60;  sales  of 
produce,  $1,092.27;  maintenance  of  poor  home,  $2.122.98 ;  total 
receipts,  $12,502.78 ;  total  expenditures,  $11,456.96 ;  balance  on 
hand,  $1,045.82.     Cost  per  capita  per  week,  $2.72. 


Balance  on  hand  last  report,  $1,045.82 ;  earnings  from  state, 
$5,424.20 ;  collection  from  district  attorney,  $764.75 ;  sales  of 
produce,  $1,526.40;  maintenance  of  poor  home,  $1,978.22;  total, 
$10,339.59;  total  disbursements,  $11,758.04;  balance  overdrawn, 


Receipts — Cash  received  from  state,  $6,498.94 ;  cash  received 
from  farm  produce,  $2,392.96 ;  appropriation  by  the  county 
board,  $3,000;  special  appropriation,  $300;  cash  for  maintenance 
of  poor,  $2,576.09;  cash  miscellaneous,  $461;  total,  $15,228.99; 
total   disbursements,   $15,617.17 ;   balance   overdrawn,    $338.18. 


Receipts — Cash  received  from  state,  $5,663.76 ;  received  from 
sale  of  farm  produce,  $2,615.58 ;  appropriation  by  the  county 
board,  $2,500 ;  special  appropriation,  $1,715 ;  cash  for  main- 
tenance of  poor,  $2,777.27 ;  cash  miscellaneous,  $867.54 ;  total, 
$16,136.15;  amount  of  total  disbursements,  $13,798.46;  balance 
on  hand,   $2,337.69. 


Situated  in  a  fertile  valley,  surrounded  by  great  advantages, 
on  nearly  all  sides  farming  lands  as  good  as  are  to  be  found 
anywhere,   is   Sparta,   tlie   county   seat    of  this   county. 

Ever  since  it  became  a  village  of  any  appreciable  size  the 
beauty  of  the  location  and  surroundings  have  always  impressed 
itself  upon  visitors  and  at  the  outset  in  this  chapter,  perhaps, 
no  better  description  of  the  beauties  of  the  place  can  be  found 
than  is  contained  in  the  following  extract  which  was  written 
in  August,  1867,  by  a  special  correspondent  of  the  Chicago  Tri- 
bune. Parts  of  the  article  are  here  quoted  and  certainly  the 
description  is  beautifully  worded  and  will  apply  ;is  well  today 
as  it  did  forty-four  years  ago : 

"Imagine  a  beautiful  fertile  valley  through  which  tiows  a 
river  fed  by  numerous  trout  brooks  whose  soft,  clear  waters 
babble  of  the  spring  in  the  highlands  where  they  were  born. 
Surrounded  with  a  chain  of  blutfs,  some  near,  other  remote, 
among  Avhich  winds  the  river  and  its  tributaries  through  smaller 
valleys  which  arc  here  lost  in  the  greater  one.  Near  at  hand, 
scarcely  more  than  one  mile  away,  are  bluffs,  forest  covered, 
whose  well  divided  proportions  are  clearly  cut  against  the  blue 
sky.  On  each  side  of  the  retreating  valleys  the  bluffs  appearing 
on  the  opposite  side  are  confouiuled  in  the  distance  by  misty 
and  dim  lookiug  shadows  as  though  the  valley  was  entirely 
surrounded  by  a  coronal  of  hills. 

"The  flat  land,  smooth,  clcai-  and  grassy,  dotted  Avith  clusters 
of  graceful  trees;  thus  natui-e  planned  and  fashioned  it  and  now 
from  this  elevated  spot  where  I  stand  the  setting  sun  of  a  long 
August  day  illuminates  the  beautiful  village  with  its  din  and 
bustle,  and  tasty  residences  and  farmhouses  which  everyAvhere 
dot  the  landscape."  After  the  opening  of  the  state  roads  between 
Hudson  and  Prairie  du  Chien,  and  by  way  of  Sjiarta  to  Black 
River  Falls,  and  subsequently  from  Portage  to  LaCrosse  in  1849 
settlers  began  to  come  towards  the  western  part  of  the  state, 
particularly  in  what  was  then  LaCrosse  county.     As  has  been 



written,  IMonroe  county  was  at  one  time  a  part  of  LaCrosse 
and  was  detached  from  it  in  1854.  It  is  undoubtedly  authentic 
tluit  Frank  Petit  must  have  settled  here  in  1849.  "Sir.  Searle, 
who  was  clerk  of  the  court  at  Black  River  Falls  at  that  time, 
made  the  statement  that  he  and  a  man  in  his  employ  visited 
Black  River  Falls  in  September  of  that  year.  In  the  evening 
of  the  first  day  they  encamped  where  Tomah  now  stands,  pro- 
ceeding on  their  way  in  the  morning,  and  owing  to  a  terrific 
storm  they  had  lost  their  way  and  had  nothing  to  guide  them 
except  the  range  of  bluffs.  Their  only  chance  of  getting  out 
of  the  situation  was  to  follow  these  bluffs  and  l)y  them  reaching 
the  Mississippi.  They  had  no  provisions,  but  killed  game  to 
supply  their  needs ;  they  traveled  south,  as  they  thought,  until 
they  came  to  a  small  stream  and  some  small  timber,  where  they 
encamped  for  the  night  as  best  they  could  in  a  drenching  rain 
and  without  food,  as  their  ammunition  being  wet  they  could  not 
obtain  any  game.  The  next  day,  towards  night,  they  struck  a 
trail  near  the  stream  where  the  marks  of  shod  horses  evidenced 
that  some  white  man  had  crossed  there.  They  followed  this 
trail  hoping  to  find  a  human  being  somewhere.  That  night 
they  encamped  near  Castle  Rock  and  the  following  day,  in  a 
storm  which  had  continued  all  that  night,  the  party  struck 
Robinson's  mills,  where  they  obtained  the  first  food  they  had  had 
since  their  own  supplies  gave  out. 

Here  the  travelers  took  a  rest  for  two  days  and  began  their 
return  homeward.  At  the  point  where  the  two  crossed  the 
river  they  determined  to  ascertain  what  description  the  land 
bore  and  they  marked  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  twenty- 
four  in  township  seventeen,  range  four  west,  Avhicli  is  now 
included  in  the  site  of  the  city  of  Sparta. 

Having  discovered  a  chance  for  a  Avater  power  at  this  point, 
^Ir.  Searle  at  once  went  to  Baraboo  and  applied  for  a  warrant 
for  the  land.  On  his  return  he  took  teams  loaded  with  lumber 
and  a  few  men  to  help  him  and  came  to  a  road  over  a  big  ridge 
on  his  land,  but  on  his  way  hither  he  discovered  that  the  real 
mill  site  was  above  that  point,  and  leaving  his  lumber  he  im- 
mediately set  out  for  Baraboo,  and  applied  for  another  warrant, 
but  one  of  his  men  had  betrayed  his  intention  to  Dr.  Angle 
at  Baraboo  who  promised  the  man  a  half  interest  for  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  land  having  on  it  the  mill  site.  These  two  immediately 
set  out  for  Mineral  Point  in  order  to  go  through  the  usual  form 
necessary  to  make  an  entry  and  to  entitle  them  to  full  possession 
of  the  land.     Searle  took  the  stage  and  Angle  Avent  on  horseback 


Mild  tlnis  lijid  tile  advantage  of  speed  and  beat  Scarlc  by  one 
hour,  tlius  beeoiuing  the  owner  of  the  hind.  So  had  the  question 
been  settled  otherwise,  "Angelo"  wouhl  probably  have  been 
called  "Searlo"  or  something  of  the  kind.  Mr.  Kearle  having 
lost  tile  luiddle  site  and  not  knowing  that  a  city  was  to  spring 
up  on  that  forty  acres  took  no  farther  interest  in  this  claim  and 
sold  it  for  ^30.00.  He  also  states  that  upon  looking  for  iiis 
lumber  he  found  that  Petit  had  followed  the  rule  that  necessity 
knows  of  no  hiw.  and  had  used  it  in  building  a  house  for  himself 
near  Castle  Kock.  William  Petit  houglit  a  claim  of  160  acres 
of  land  near  the  crossing  of  these  two  state  roads,  and  Avhere 
the  site  of  the  city  now  is;  he  built  a  log  cabin  on  the  bank  of 
Beaver  creek  at  the  point  about  where  the  library  is  located ; 
when  his  cabin  Avas  completed  on  the  5th  day  of  July,  1851,  it 
was  the   first    building   of  any   kind   erected  in   Sparta. 

The  large  amount  of  travel  on  the  road  and  the  need  of  a 
resting  place  at  this  point,  induced  Petit  to  make  a  tavern 
of  his  dwelling  and  though  the  cabin  contained  but  one  room 
and  a  loft,  the  latter  apartment  having  no  fioor,  except  such 
a  one  as  was  made  of  a  few  rough  slabs  made  for  this  purpose, 
and  put  down  loosely.  There  were  few,  if  any,  beds  in  the 
house  and  travelers  wrapped  their  blankets  about  them  and 
laid  down  upon  the  hard  floor  to  lie  lulled  to  sleep,  if  that  was 
possil)le.  by  the  howling  of  the  hungry  wolves  Avhich  often  stuck 
their  cold  noses  through  the  crevices  between  the  logs  and  snift'ed 
in  anticipation  of  what  a  good  meal  they  could  have,  if  it  Avere 
possible  to   get  inside. 

At  this  time  supplies  had  to  be  brought  from  LaCrosse, 
Avhich  then  consisted  of  a  land  office  and  about  a  dozen  houses, 
a  hotel  and  one  or  two  general  stores.  The  varieties  of  food 
Avere  feAV  and  the  opportunities  to  get  them  Avere  still  fcAver, 
and  consequently  Petit  "s  bill  of  fare  at  the  inn  Avas  very  meager. 

In  August  1851  EdAvard  AValrath  arrived  and  at  once  made 
arrangements  to  settle  and  in  October  of  the  same  year  his 
father,  Kev.  Fredrick  AYalrath,  a  ^Methodist  clergyman,  and  the 
remainder  of  the  "\Yalrath  family  became  residents  of  this  place. 
The  elder  AYalrath  entered  a  claim  a  mile  or  so  south  of  Petit 's 
but  not  having  a  house  built,  in  the  fall  lie  made  arrangements 
and  did  share  the  Petit  cabin  Avitli  the  OAvner,  until  such  time 
as  he  could  build  one.  The  Petit  cabin  being  scantily  furnished, 
and  "\Yalratli  having  no  place  to  store  his  household  goods,  they 
Avere  used  in  common,  but  the  combined  possessions  of  the  tAvo 


families  were  not  sufficient  for  the  need  of  the  inmates  of  the 
lioiise  and  the  guests.  Great  inducements  having  been  offered 
by  the  state  government  to  parties  in  search  for  homes  by 
offering  thirty  years  time  at  7%  interest  within  which  to  pay 
for  hind  and  the  location  of  the  land  office  in  LaCrosse  caused 
a  great  deal  of  travel  by  the  way  of  Petit 's  tavern,  which 
resulted   in    a    gradual    settlement    of   the    land   near   by. 

Richard  Casselman  also  located  here  in  1851  and  built  a 
log  cabin  on  the  spot  that  is  now  the  northeast  corner  of  Oak 
and  Water  streets  which  he  used  as  a  blacksmith  shop ;  his 
house  was  a  little  back  of  the  shop  towards  the  creek.  William 
Kerrigan,  the  father  of  Mrs.  W.  N.  AYells,  Avas  then  a  lad, 
apprentice  to  Mr.  Casselman  and  came  with  the  Casselmans  to 
this  place.  J.  D.  Damman,  Lyman  Andres,  A.  H.  Blake  and 
Russell  Hill  came  to  Sparta  about  this  time.  Damman  building  a 
log  house  where  the  hotel  Lewis  now  stands  which  was  after- 
wards sold  to  Harron  who  kept  a  hotel  in  it.  A.  H.  Blake  built 
a  log  house  on  a  littk^  hill  not  far  from  Casselman 's  and  Mr. 
Hill   located   a    dwelling   farther   to   the  west. 

The  Rev.  W.  H.  Card,  a  Baptist  clergyman,  came  in  1851 
and  preached  the  first  sermon  in  Petit 's  house.  Ed.  Walrath, 
not  believing  the  minister's  assertion  that  he  would  hold  services 
there  that  Sunday,  went  out  trout  fishing.  AYhen  he  returned 
Mr.  Card  was  half  finished  with  his  sermon,  and  to  save  time, 
and  to  have  dinner  in  season.  Edward  seated  himself  in  the 
doorway  and  at  the  same  time  listened  to  the  elder's  remarks 
and  cleaned  the  fish.  The  minister  was  somewhat  indignant 
at  his  conduct  as  a  lack  of  respect  for  himself  and  for  the  Sab- 
bath, and  frowned  upon  the  young  man.  After  the  services 
were  over  Walrath  asked  Mrs.  Petit  if  she  would  cook  the 
fish,  to  which  she  gave  consent  and  notwithstanding  his  previous 
objection  the  minister  ate  heartily  of  the  trout  which  were  set 
before  him  at  that  meal. 

George  A.  Fisk  who  died  in  1866  came  to  Sparta  in  1851 
and  married  Catherine  E.  Walrath  in  1857 ;  ^Irs.  Fisk  survived 
her  husband  a  great  many  years  and  lived  to  a  ripe  old  age, 
passing  away  October  20,  1910,  and  in  connection  with  the  early 
settlement  of  the  village  it  will  be  of  peculiar  interest  at  this 
point  to  get  in  Mrs.  Fisk's  OAvn  words,  an  account  of  the  first 
winter  passed  by  she  and  her  father,  IMr.  Walrath,  in  Sparta, 
where  they  arrived  on  October  10,  1851.  A  sketch  of  the  first 
winter   of  her   residence   in   Sparta  written  by  Mrs.  Fisk  will 


be  read  "with  s])ec.'ial  interest  by  all  and  more  particularly  by 
the  elder  residents  of  the  city.  She  entitles  it,  "My  First  AVinter 
in  Sparta." 

"Ill  l!io  spring  of  1851  my  father  made  up  his  mind  to 
break  up  the  old  home  and  emigrate  to  Wisconsin.  Ilis  children 
were  getting  the  AVestern  fever,  one  son  and  daughter  liad  already 
left  the  home  nest.  It  was  more  than  father  and  mother  could 
bear  so  the  farm  was  sold  and  the  goods  were  packed.  That 
was  the  beginning.  How  Avell  I  remember  the  packing  up.  Three 
large  dry  goods  boxes  about  as  big  as  a  small  barn,  it  seemed 
to  me,  were  bought.  I  remember  father  telling  mother  not  to 
put  in  anything  heavy.  She  had  already  packed  her  splint 
bottom  straight  back  sewing  chair.  Alothcr  made  the  remark  to 
sister  Sarah,  'I   can't  leave  the   chair   I  rocked  all  mv  babies 


"In  these  boxes  were  stored  all  things  needful.  Among 
them  Avas  a  red  cherry  bureau,  part  of  her  setting-out  outfit,  as 
it  was  called  in  those  days,  when  young  people  took  each  other 
for  better  or  worse.  It  was  not  very  large  and  was  packed  full 
of  dried  fruits.  Tucked  in  every  corner  of  the  box  was  bedding 
of  all  kinds,  maple  sugar,  twenty-five  yards  of  carpet  and  many 
other  things.  AVe  took  the  packet  on  the  canal  as  far  as  BuiTalo. 
then  across  the  lakes  to  ]\Iihvaukee  and  from  there  to  my  sister's 
home  in  Fond  du  Lac  county  where  we  spent  the  summer,  while 
my  brother  Edward  went  to  LaCrosse  with  a  party  looking 
for  a  homestead.  On  his  return  father  bought  a  horse  and  what 
they  called  a  Democrat  wagon  (fii-st  democrat  ever  in  Sparta "i. 
a  ,ioke  as  well  as  wagon. 

"There  were  some  teamsters  who  wauled  to  see  the  wild 
west -and  they  offered  to  bring  our  goods  through  for  their 
board  and  lodging.  It  took  nine  days.  The  Avay  Avas  long 
and  most  of  it  nothing  l)ut  an  Indian  trail.  Sometimes  they 
came  to  what  was  called  a  swale  or  wet  marshy  ground.  AVe 
would  have  to  bridge  it.  Every  wagon  had  a  scythe  and  great 
forks  fastened  to  one  side.  Father  would  call  a  halt,  grass  and 
hazel  brush  were  cut  and  carried  to  fill  the  wet  places  before 
we  could  cross  over.  Sometimes  the  boys  Avould  want  to  rush 
things  so  as  to  hurry  along,  but  father  would  build  it  safe  for 
others  that  came  after.  AA^e  stopped  one  afternoon  in  Lemonweii- 
A^'alley  to  pick  cranberries.  The  farmer  told  father  he  could 
liave  all  we  could  pick  in  three  hours.  AVe  picked  a  barrel 
and  the  farmer  furnished   tlie  ])ai'rel   to  put  them  in. 

"  We  reached  Sparta  on  the  10th  of  October,  1851,  as  the 


sun  was  setting  so  beautifully  as  we  drove  down  the  hill  near 
where  the  Old  Ida  House  used  to  stand ;  across  the  little  stream 
(Beaver  Creek)  to  the  old  Globe  Hotel.  I  have  never  since  seen 
such  a  beautiful  sunset.  Father  said  to  mother,  'It's  like  Para- 
dise.' The  hotel  had  one  window  and  a  door  with  a  wooden  latch 
and  buckskin  string  to  lift  it.  Father  was  delighted  with  the  out- 
look   over    the    prairie.      Not   many   trees   then. 

"He  took  up  a  claim  beyond  where  the  Milwaukee  de})ot 
noAV  stands.  j\Iy  father  and  brothers  were  carpenters  so  it  did 
not  take  long  to  build  a  log  cabin.  AVe  moved  in  our  new  home 
on  the  loth  of  November  without  a  chamber  tioor  or  window 
or  door.  Rag  carpets  and  blankets  were  tacked  over  tlie  places 
for  windoAvs  and  doors.  That  night  came  the  first  snow.  It 
made  us  wish  for  our  old  home.  The  boys  soon  had  doors  and 
got  windows  from  LaCrosse.  The  lumber  came  frm  Black  River 
Falls  and  it  took  three  days  to   go   and  come. 

"Then  when  the  boxes  were  unpacked  such  a  mine  of  wealth. 
Lots  of  warm  bedding,  a  little  sewing  chair,  red  cherry  stand 
and  bureau,  three  flag  bottom  chairs,  small  book  case  with  Watt's 
sermons  and  Clark's  Commentary  and  other  books,  twenty-five 
yards  of  rag  carpet,  a  bolt  of  cotton  cloth  and  curtain  calico, 
you  could  see  your  face  in  (the  first  ever  in  Sparta),  lots  of 
dried  fruit,  dishes  and  table  linen.  AVe  were  quite  comfortable. 
AYe  had  an  elevated  oven  cook  stove.  They  were  the  style  those 
days.  The  boys  made  some  tamarack  bedsteads  for  the  chamber. 
The  roof  was  shingled  with  shacks,  all  that  could  be  bought  at 
that  time.  It  was  a  terrible  cold  winter  and  lots  of  snow.  Some 
mornings  mother  would  have  to  come  upstairs  and  sweep  up  the 
snow  before  we  would  go  to  breakfast.  Mother  had  tacked 
cotton   cloth   on   the   rafters   over   our  beds. 

"We  only  had  one  mess  of  potatoes  all  winter.  A  lady  where 
father  stopped  when  he  went  to  Black  River  to  preach  gave 
him  a  half  bushel.  ^Mother  said  she  would  cut  out  the  eyes 
and  the  rest  she  would  cook.  I  never  saw  so  many  eyes  in 
potatoes  before  or  since.  In  the  fall  father  bought  two  kinds 
of  rutabagas  of  ]\[r.  Frank  Petit  who  lived  four  miles  out  and 
a-  lot  of  pumpkins.  Grandma  Petit  told  mother  how  to  make 
pumpkin  butter  that  was  delicious.  Those  rutabagas  were  the 
loveliest  things,  all  the  apples  we  had  that  winter.  Some  were 

"Brother  Edward  made  a  lovely  couch  out  of  those  boxes. 
It  had  back  and  arms  long  and  wide  enough  to  sleep  on  when 
the  preachers  would  raid  us.     AYe  had  so  many  boards  for  the 


sitting  room,  so  many  for  the  dining  room  and  tlie  rest  for 
the  kitchen.  Our  pantry  was  just  holes  in  the  logs,  boards 
across  and  curtained  with  curtain  calico,  the  same  as  the  couch 
Avas  covered  with  and  everything  matched.  The  sitting  and 
dining  rooms  were  carpeted.  The  boys  made  benches  which 
wei-e  covered  Avith  curtain  calico." 

.Mr.  W'iihiilli.  a  .Methodist  minister,  began  his  missionary  labors 
in  tile  county  by  preaching  his  first  sermon  in  Sparta  in  Novem- 
ber, 1851;  his  congregation  consisted  of  five  persons;  after  tliis 
he  held  meetings  wherever  the  people  Avould  have  him  do  so, 
journeying  for  miles  through  an  almost  travelless  Avoods  to  hold 
services  for  some  family  avIio  had  sent  him  an  invitation.  Some- 
times going  on  horseback  but  oftener  on  foot.  Truly  a  pioneer 
in  the  cause  of  Christianity.  Occasionally  the  entire  population 
of  the  valley  Avould  turn  out  and  accompany  him  in  a  sleigh 
to  some  place  farther  on  in  tlie  Avoods.  and  eA^en  then  the  sleigh 
would  not  b(^  full.  A  ]\Irs.  Parks.  Avho  resided  six  miles  from 
Sparta,  upon  one  occasion  sent  him  word  that  she  and  her  little 
ones  could  not  Avalk  doAvn  to  Petit 's  to  hear  liini  preach  and 
dared  him  to  meet  lier  and  her  family  half  Avay.  And  he  did. 
The  meeting  Avas  held,  the  parties  each  making  a  journey  of 
three  miles  and  ])ack  for  the  sake  of  enjoying  the  services.  During 
uuiny  occasions  this  minister  of  the  gospel  Avas  often  pursued 
by  Avolves  Avith  which  the  forests  abounded.  He  Avas,  hoAvever. 
never  injurinl  by  any  of  these  blood-thirsty  animals,  and  eA^ery 
one  at  tliat  tinu^  Avas  more  or  less  annoyed  by  tliem.  They 
surrounded  dwellings  and  made  the  night  hideous  Avith  their 
hoAvlings,  plundering  Avhenever  an  opportunity  offered,  and  to 
rid  the  nuisance  the  people  resorted  to  ti'aps  as  well  as  hunting 
them    Avith    guns. 

A  number  of  adventures  are  recorded  with  these  aninuils 
and  one  concerns  Captain  Fisk,  avIio,  having  been  out  in  the 
country  in  company  Avith  the  tAvo  daughters  of  ^Nlr.  Walrath. 
Avas  returning  after  dark;  there  Avere  good  roads  and  they  Avere 
going  along  nicely  when  ]\Ir.  Fisk  discovered  they  Avere  being 
chased  by  five  large  Avolves.  He  made  no  meulion  of  the  fact 
to  the  girls  but  Avhipped  the  horses  to  a  fasti-r  speed  but  still 
the  Avolves  Avere  gaining  upon  them  and  matters  Avere  becoming 
serious,  Avhen  the  bolt  that  holds  the  Avhitifle-tree  dropped  out 
thus  necessitating  a  stop,  lie  sprang  out  to  remedy  the  damage 
and  fortunately  found  the  bolt  for  Avhich  he  Avas  searching, 
and  at  that  time  the  girls  noticed  how  strange  his  voice  sounded, 
and  kept  looking  l)ackAvards.    FolloAviug  his  glances  to  see  Avhat 


was  the  troul)le  they  beheld  the  panting  wolves  almost  within 
reach  of  their  arms.  It  was  a  trying  position,  none  of  the  party 
had  a  weapon  of  defense  and  their  only  liope  was  flight.  The 
horses  had  not  been  frightened  by  the  pursuance  of  the  wolves 
but  became  so  upon  hearing  the  slight  screams  of  the  girls  when 
they  discovered  their  danger.  Fisk  sprang  into  the  sled,  urged 
the  horses  forward  and  struck  backwards  with  his  whip  at  the 
wolves ;  if  it  had  not  been  for  the  strong  wdiip  he  had  the  wolves 
would  certainly  have  jumped  into  the  sled.  Mile  after  mile 
they  went  in  this  way.  It  can  be  readily  imagined  that  minutes 
were  hours  to  the  pursued  party  in  this  race  for  life.  The 
wolves  repelled  by  the  whip  tried  several  times  to  cut  off  the 
flight  by  attempting  to  get  into  the  road  and  trip  against  the 
horses  at  the  point  of  meeting ;  the  constant  bloAvs  with  the 
whip,  however,  caused  them  to  fall  back,  and  the  chase  con- 
tinued, the  wolves  snapping  their  teeth  and  keeping  close  to 
the  sled  until  the  clearing  was  reached  and  the  settlement  ap- 
peared in  view,  and  then  only,  did  the  wolves  give  up  their 
pursuit.  It  was  an  incident  long  to  be  remembered  by  those 
who   w^ere    engaged   in   it. 

Other  wild  animals  as  well  as  wolves  and  also  wild  fowls 
of  all  kinds  were  plentiful  in  this  region  at  this  time ;  old  settlers 
say  that  prairie  chickens  were  so  numerous  that  only  partial 
crops  of  grain  could  be  raised  owing  to  the  fact  that  these  birds 
would  devour  every  kernel  of  grain  they  could  see  and  hang 
around  the  fields  in  great  flocks.  They  were  such  a  nuisance 
that  they  were  obliged  to  destroy  large  numbers  of  them  in 

The  year  1852  brought  many  interesting  events  and  ]\Ir.  Petit 
in  this  year  laid  out  the  old  court  house  square  and  platted  a 
number  of  lots  around  it ;  there  being  sufficient  population  in 
the  village  a  meeting  of  the  citizens  was  called  and  a  resolution 
was  passed  to  the  etfeet  that  the  village  should  have  a  name ; 
there  w^as  considerable  discussion  as  to  hoAv  this  name  should 
be  decided  upon,  but  it  was  finally  agreed  that  Mrs.  Petit,  the 
mother  of  the  tw^o  Petit  boys,  should  have  the  privilege  of 
choosing  the  name  and  she  gave  it  the  name  of  ''Sparta." 

A  little  later  in  the  same  year  Lyman  Andrews  built  the 
first  frame  house  in  the  city  upon  a  lot  given  for  the  purpose 
by  Mr.  Petit,  who  was  offering  to  give  lots  to  all  who  would 
erect  buildings  upon  them ;  the  lot  was  at  the  Northeast  corner 
of  the  square  and  the  building  was  erected,  opened  as  a  tavern 
and  was  called  the  Sparta  Exchange.     G.  H.  Ledyard,  a  Portage 


jiian  wlio  had  been  peddling;  tliroiifjli  this  section  of  the  country 
since  its  first  settlement,  opened  a  store  in  the  log  cabin  at  tliis 
time  the  first  store  in  the  village.  'I'lie  fii-st  biiihling  for  use 
as  a  store  was  erected  by  C.  J\athbun  on  what  was  then  known 
as  Cassebnan's  corner  where  the  Greve's  block  was  subse(iueutly 
l)uilt.  Samuel  Fisk  arrived  in  Aucrust  and  lived  in  the  house 
Avith  Casseliiiaii  uiilil  he  could  Imild  one  foi'  his  family.  Tliis 
was  located  wdiere  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  Railway  depot 
now  stands;  George  A.  and  W.  ^\.  Fisk  were  the  sons  of  Daniel 
Fisk.  In  the  spring  of  1852  the  first  election  of  any  kind  was 
held  in  tlie  village  and  seventeen  votes  Avere  cast;  T\.  J.  Cassel- 
man,  AVilliam  Petit  and  Lyman  Andrews  were  the  committee 
of  election;  Sparta  being  at  that  time  a  ])art  of  the  town  of 
Leon   in    the   county    of   LaCrosse. 

In  December  of  the  same  year  Samuel  Hoyt  arrived  and 
began  looking  for  a  home;  he  bought  a  lot  from  .Mi-,  llarron 
for  $16  and  built  a  cabin  upon  it  and  subsequently  ^Ir.  llarron 
became  dissatisfied  and  offered  Mi-.  Hoyt  the  lot  adjoining  the 
other  as  a  gift  if  he  would  pui-chase  his  oxen  and  farm  so  lie 
could  leave  the  place.  Hoyl  lundc  llic  purchase  and  Harron 
moved  away. 

People  at  this  time  were  constantly  filing  ncAV  claims  througli 
the  land  office  in  LaCrosse  and  taking  up  land  and  it  was  neces- 
sary, of  course,  to  have  witnesses  to  the  fact  of  their  residence 
on  the  land  for  a  sufficient  time  to  enabh'  tlieiu  to  get  title. 
AVilliam  Petit,  James  Phillips,  AVilliam  King  and  William  Kerri- 
gan it  is  rehilcd  once  went  in  company  to  tlie  land  office  at 
LaCrosse.  Reluming  they  passed  tlii-  cnhin  of  a  Avomaii  known 
as  mother  Paddock,  wlio  was  noted  for  her  masculine  attributes. 
The  old  lady  was  the  possessor  of  a  dog  which  had  a  bad  habit 
of  i-unning  out  and  barking  at  teams  and  Kerrigan,  nu)re  for 
mischief  tlian  anything  else,  fired  at  the  dog  not  thinking  that 
be  could  hit  it  at  so  great  a  distance  and  it  was.  his  misfortiuie 
to  wound  the  animal  in  the  neck.  A  whib^  aft(M'wards  E.  AVali-ath 
and  K.  Tliompson  passed  that  way  and  took  dinner  with  her 
at  which  they  saw  tlie  dog,  which  was  then  fully  recovered 
with  the  exception  that  it  had  lost  its  voice.  It  would  go  all 
through  the  motions  of  barking  b\it  could  not  make  a  souiul. 
Walrath,  for  a  joke  pointed  to  his  companion  and  said:  ''Mrs. 
Paddock,  here  is  the  man  who  shot  your  dog."  Going  to  the 
supposed  offender  with  her  fists  doubled  ui^  and  with  a  threaten- 
ing attitude  the  old  woman  said,  ''Sir,  all  that  keeps  me  from 


cowhiding  the  man  who  shot  my  dog  is  that  I  believe  him  to  have 
been  drunk  at  the  time,  therefore  not  accountable  for  the  act." 
Thompson  got  a  little  pale  about  the  mouth  and  did  not  seem 
to  have  the  usual  relish  for  his  dinner  and  after  that  both 
AValrath  and  Thompson  failed  to  stop  for  meals  at  ]Mrs.  Pad- 
dock's on  their  way  to  Sparta  from  LaCrosse. 

This  year  the  first  logging  was  done  on  the  LaCrosse  river. 
No  sawmills  had  as  yet  been  built  in  this  section  and  the  logs 
had  to  be  driven  to  Neshonoc.  Kerrigan  and  the  two  Phillips 
l)rothers  did  the  driving.  A  number  of  amusing  incidents  oc- 
curred in  the  log  driving.  It  seems  that  AVilbur  E.  Fisk  had 
started  out  with  the  company  of  loggers,  but  being  inexperienced 
in  log  driving  he  covild  not  keep  his  footing  when  on  the  logs 
in  the  water  and  he  got  on  one  log  which  began  to  roll  rapidly 
and  he  began  to  dance  trying  to  keep  his  feet.  Faster  and 
faster  they  went  and  getting  frightened,  sprang  into  the  water 
and  clasped  the  log  with  his  arms ;  but  the  log  had  acquired 
such  a  momentum  that  he  was  whirled  over  and  over  in  and 
out  of  the  water  with  great  rapidity  and  he  was  finally  rescued 
with  much  diificulty  nearly  strangled  and  chilled  to  the  bone. 
He  did  not  continue  any  farther  in  the  business  but  took  the 
nearest  road  for  home  satistied  that  he  was  not  suited  for  log 
driving.  Later  in  the  same  year  a  sawmill  was  erected  in  Angelo 
by    Seth   Angle. 

The  year  1853  brought  many  interesting  events  to  the  little 
village;  a  post  office  was  established  and  AVilliam  Petit  appointed 
and  installed  as  postmaster  and  made  Richard  Casselman  deputy, 
who  used  his  hat  for  a  post  office.  At  the  beginning  there  was 
only  one  mail  each  week  and  it  did  not  amount  to  more  than 
a  few  letters  and  one  or  two  papers  so  that  it  was  no  great 
task  to  "distribute  the  mail;"  and  as  a  rule  those  who  wanted 
to  get  their  mail  went  to  Mr.  Casselman  and  upon  inquiring 
for  it,  he  would  take  down  the  post  office  from  his  head  and 
hand  out  the  letter  if  there  was  one.  Mr.  Petit,  however,  had 
some  difficulty  with  Casselman  and  appointed  Lyman  Andrews 
his  deputy,  Avho  dignified  the  office  by  keeping  it  at  the  Sparta 
Exchange.  Soon  after  this,  Petit  sold  out  his  entire  interest 
in  the  village  to  A.  F.  Bard  and  moved  away  while  Casselman 
was  appointed  postmaster  and  served  in  this  capacity  for  several 
years.  A.  H.  and  Hilton  Blake  during  this  year  erected  a  saw- 
mill in  the  village  on  the  bank  of  Beaver  creek  and  were  it 
still  standing  it  would  be  in  the  middle  of  Water  street  in  the 


down  town  district.  Court  street  was  then  called  Elaine  and 
it  bore  that  name  until  the  erection  of  the  court  house  on  the 
court   house   square. 

There  were  a  few  new  coiners  during  this  year  some  locating 
in  the  village  and  some  on  farms  near  by.  AV.  S.  Newton 
established  a  hardware  on  Oak  street  early  in  ]\Iay.  Andrew 
Allen  in  September  opened  a  store  where  ]\Ir.  Harron  had  former- 
ly kept  a  tavern;  this  year  the  medical  profession  made  its 
bow  to  the  community  in  the  person  of  Dr.  George  A.  MilJigan. 
who  was  most  joyfully  received  ])y  the  inhabitants  and  was 
the  first  physician  to  locate  in  the  county  of  Monroe.  He  is 
still  living  in  the  city  of  Sparta  at  a  very  advanced  ag"  having 
retired  from  practice  a  number  of  years  ago ;  ^laj.  Morrison 
]Mc^lillan  arrived  in  1853  and  located  on  a  farm  in  the  villago 
and  afterwards  became  quite  prominent  in  county  affairs.  Timo- 
thy Barker  was  also  another  of  the  settlers  at  this  time,  he 
building  a  two  story  house;  in  addition  to  these,  there  were 
probably  eight  or  ten  more  new  settlers  in  or  near  Sparta  during 
this   year. 

The  fine  pul)lic  school  system  of  Sparta  had  its  humble  be- 
ginning in  1853  with  the  erection  of  a  small  board  shanty  about 
12  X  16  feet  in  size,  which  afterwards  served  the  double  purpose 
of  a  school  house  and  church.  ]\Iiss  Sarah  AValrath  was  the 
first  teacher  regularly  employed  and  opened  the  teaching  under 
adverse  circumstances  but  with  the  pluck  and  vim  Avhicli  charac- 
terized  the   earlier  inhabitants. 

During  this  year  there  was  a  miniature  Indian  war  precipi- 
tated in  the  vilhige  which  proved,  however,  to  be  almost  entirely 
one  sided  but  which  brought  the  desired  results.  It  seems  that 
the  "Winnebago  Indians,  as  had  ever  been  the  case,  claimed  all 
the  territory  to  be  theirs  previous  to  the  coming  of  the  white 
people;  this  tribe  at  that  time  had  degenerated  somewhat,  were 
very  inferior  to  the  Chippewa  Indians  who  lived  farther  north, 
and  the  settlers  invariably  had  nothing  to  do  with  tlie  AVinne- 
bagos  but  were  annoyed  by  them  at  times,  as  they  would  steal, 
and    in    certain    cases   became    quite   impudent. 

One  instance,  which  aroused  the  ])eople  of  the  village,  oc- 
curred in  the  summer  of  185)},  Avlien  an  Indian  came  to  the 
home  of  R.  H.  ^McMann  in  Big  Creek,  about  four  miles  from 
Sparta  and  demanded  food  of  him  and  ui)on  being  refused, 
pointed  his  riHe  at  the  farmer  and  threatened  to  shoot  him 
unless  it  was  produced.  This  so  enraged  Mr.  ^Ic^Iann  that  after- 
wards  he  made   a    complaint   to   the   authoi-ities  in   Sparta    and 


the  news  having  gotten  among  the  people,  a  volunteer  company- 
was  formed  for  the  purpose  of  punishing  the  Indians ;  every 
man  in  the  village  and  within  two  miles  around  volunteered 
his  service  and  the  company  was  organized,  numbered  about 
twenty-five  men ;  a  camping  party  of  about  forty  AVinnebagos, 
to  which  the  Indian  belonged  who  had  threatened  Mr.  McMann, 
were  camped  about  two  miles  from  his  farm ;  to  this  point 
marched  the  brave  little  army  intent  upon  punishing  the  AA^inne- 
bago  and  inflicting  a  lesson  which  would  be  lasting.  Upon 
arriving  at  the  Indian  camp,  a  demand  was  made  for  the  Indian 
who  had  threatened  McMann  and  they  were  informed  that  he 
would  be  whipped  as  a  punishment.  To  their  surprise,  the 
AVinnebagos  made  no  resistance  whatever,  but  allowed  the  whites 
to  take  possession  of  the  Indian  and  not  only  that,  but  to  take 
their  guns  away  from  them  which  were  fired  otf  and  stacked 
together.  The  Indian  was  stripped  of  his  clothes  and  severely 
Avhipped  by  Mr.  AIclMann  with  a  blacksnake.  The  red  man, 
however,  stood  with  folded  arms  and  not  moving  a  muscle  on 
his  body,  proudly  erect  and  disdained  to  show  any  sign  of 
suffering.  AA^hen  McMann  had  inflicted  sufficient  punishment, 
the  Indians  were  marched  to  the  village  and  arranged  in  front 
of  the  Sparta  Exchange  where  they  were  given  food  by  the 
proprietor,  Lyman  Andrews ;  they  all  ate  heartily  except  the 
Indian  who  had  been  whipped,  he  refused  to  touch  the  food. 
AVhen  the  meal  was  done  the  settlers  told  the  Indians  to  go 
and  gave  them  to  understand  that  they  must  stay  away  and 
never  be  seen  in  that  part  of  tlie  country  again ;  this  heroic 
treatment  had  its  effect  and  it  is  related  that  there  was  no 
trouble  with  Indians  afterwards,  although  one  time  soon  after 
the  people  of  the  village  had  a  serious  scare  from  a  rumor  to 
the  effect  that  the  Indians  were  to  massacre  the  whites  in  re- 
venge for  this  whipping;  it  proved,  however,  to  be  without 

Eighteen  fifty-four  brouglit  things  of  big  interest  to  the  people 
of  the  little  village;  for  during  the  winter  a  bill  Avas  pending  in 
legislature  to  set  aside  the  county  of  Monroe  from  LaCrosse 
county  and  a  lively  little  contest  was  on  as  to  where  the  county 
seat  should  be  located;  whether  at  Leon,  which  was  then  quite 
a  settlement,  or  at  Sparta;  the  bill  was  finally  passed  and  ap- 
proved by  the  governor  IMarch  21,  and  it  provided  that  Sparta 
should  be  the  county  seat  of  the  county  and  on  the  first  Tuesday 
in  April  the  first  election  was  held  at  which  the  full  quota  of 
officers  were  elected  and  the  records  show  that  a  total  vote  of 


seventy  was  jjollcd  in  tlic  cnlirc  rounty.  Nearly  all  oL'  the 
eounty  ofHeers  were  residents  of  the  village  of  Sparta  and  con- 
tained  many   well    known   names. 

A.  11.  Hlake  was  elected  county  judge,  E.  AValrath,  sheriff; 
AVilhur  Fisk,  register  of  deeds;  John  Barker,  clerk  of  the  court; 
Samuel  Iloyt,  county  treasurer;  A.  B.  Cornel,  district  attorney. 
This   year  brought  several  new   settlers,   all  of  whom   it   is 
impossible    to   enumerate,    but    among   them    early   in   July   was 
George   AV.   Koot    and    family.      Mr.   Koot   bought   the   house   of 
Lyman  Andrews,  then  known  as  the  Sparta  Exchange,  together 
with  the  stock  of  goods  and  continued  the  business,  hiring  ]\Ir. 
Andrew's  dining  room  table  as  a  counter  for  a  shilling  a  week. 
J.  i\I.  Sugden  came  up   from  St.  Louis  that  year  and  l)uilt  the 
first  brick  chimney  in  the  village  in  Mr.  Root's  house.     Sugden 
erected  a  paint  shop  on  Water  street,  and  it  was  at  the  time 
the  largest  building  on  that  street;  people  called  him  crazy  for 
|)n1ting  up  such  a  large  house  for  a  paint  shop.     Doctor  Gage, 
in  an  article  on  the  early  settlers,  says  of  I\Ir.  Sugden : 

"Sugden,  one  of  the  pioneers  and  a  first  class  painter  and 
paper  hanger,  found  this,  at  that  early  period  a  not  very  inviting 
field  for  these  pursuits,  but  iew  buildings  then  Avarranted  this 
class  of  adornment  and  he  betook  himself  to  bricklaying,  in  the 
Avay  of  making  small  chimneys  for  the  roofs  of  small  houses 
as  a  means  of  turning  an  honest  penny,  and  he  became  known 
as  the  handsome  bricklayer,  l)ut  whether  this  term  was  to  be 
applied  to  the  individual  himself  or  to  his  work  has  never  yet 
been  with  certainty  known." 

Among  others,  Charles  Dickenson  and  family  came  this  year 
and  was  one  of  the  men  who  at  one  time  conducted  the  Log 
Tavei-n  which  stood  where  the  Hotel  Lewis  now  is.  At  the  time 
of  his  arrival  there  were  about  fourteen  houses  in  the  village. 

Things  looked  so  promising  for  the  future  that  a  Fourth  of 
July  celebration  was  indulged  in  and  every  one  within  twenty 
or  thirty  miles  of  the  village  participated,  making  it  a  grand 
occurrence.  George  Flint,  of  LaCrosse.  delivered  the  address 
and  the  day  was  passed  in  amusements  of  various  kinds,  a  dinner, 
and  finished  by  a  dance;  the  day  was  marked  by  a  further  event 
which  became  historical ;  the  siirveyors  of  the  ^Milwaukee  &  St. 
Paul  Railway  passed  through  theVillage  on  that  day  in  running 
the    line    from    ^lilwaukee   to   LaCrosse. 

Business  advanced  and  among  the  stores  opened  in  1854 
was  that  of  Rich  &  Blake,  ^Fr.  "Wouldrich,  D.  Logan,  S.  D.  Jack- 
son.    In   August,   the   first   ^Master-^Iason   Lodge  was   organized 


through  the  efforts  of  Major  ]\Ic]\Iillan ;  the  lodge  met  in  a  grove 
for  the  first  time  and  afterwards  held  meetings  in  the  loft  of 
a  small  building.  Among  the  settlers  we  also  note  the  name 
of  Benjamin  Stevens,  a  mechanic,  and  his  son,  0.  D.  Stevens, 
who  afterwards  kept  a  meat  market ;  S.  M.  Holbrook,  an  omnibus 
man,  and  Charles  Goss.  This  year  was  marked  also  by  the 
erection  of  the  Monroe  House,  a  little  frame  hotel,  which  stood 
upon  the  corner  now  occupied  by  the  Baptist  church,  and  Andrew 
Allen  also  built  the  Allen  House,  which  subsequently  was  used 
as  a  store. 

This  year  also  saw  the  publication  of  the  first  newspaper 
ever  issued,  if  it  may  be  called  a  newspaper,  being  the  "Monroe 
County  Citizen,"  which  was  published  by  a  man  by  the  name  of 
L.  Reising,  who  came  from  somewhere  in  New  York  and  brought 
a  little  printing  press.  He  issued  a  few  numbers  of  this  paper 
and,  not  meeting  with  financial  success,  the  publication  was 

The  majority  of  the  settlers  who  came  in  during  the  year 
1853-54-55  were  from  Cattaraugus  county,  in  the  state  of  New 
York,  and  there  were  so  many  of  them  that  they  became  known 
as  the  "Cattaraugus  delegation." 

AVe  are  unable  to  get  the  names  of  all  of  them,  but  among 
them  L.  S.  Fisher  appears,  who  arrived  in  1855  and  was  elected 
clerk  of  the  county  board  in  1856,  served  as  deputy  postmaster 
under  Casselman  and  in  that  year  opened  the  first  exclusive 
grocery  store  in  the  village  and  in  1857  he  went  into  the  furniture 
business,  doing  well  until  1860,  when  he  was  elected  county 
treasurer,  which  position  he  filled  until  1862,  when  he  became 
commissioner  on  the  board  of  enrollment  for  the  Sixth  Con- 
gressional District ;  subsequently  during  the  latter  part  of  his 
life  served  as  postmaster  a  great  many  years  in  the  city. 

Dr.  S.  P.  Angle  was  also  from  that  county  and  located  land 
and  built  a  sawmill  where  Angelo  now  stands,  and  his  son. 
Oscar,  located  at  that  point  on  a  large  farm,  Oscar  afterwards 
engaging  in  the  livery  business  on  Water  street,  subsequently 
became  sheriff  of  the  county. 

J.  J.  McKay,  the  second  member  of  assembly  of  this  place, 
also  was  a  Cattaraugus  man  and  so  was  Carlton  Rice,  -who  took 
up  practice  in  the  county,  A.  F.  Bard,  L.  Leas.  Joseph  Powell, 
Rufus  Robinson,  L.  Moseley,  G.  Harvey  and  S.  H.  Sturns,  M'ho 
served  so  many  years  as, clerk  of  the  circuit  court,  B.  S.  Winship, 
proprietor  of  the  Winship  House,  at  that  time  the  eating  room 
for  the  INIilwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railway,  was  a  Cattaraugus  man. 


Iloldeu  &  Ward,  who  conductt'd  the  grocery  store  at  the 
corner  of  Oak  and  Court  street,  the  ]\lcClure  family  all  came 
from  that  county,  settled  here  in  1852.  J.  J.  ]\IcClure  built  a 
store  south  of  the  Globe  Hotel,  which  was  situated  on  what  is 
now  known  as  tlie  library  corner,  he  carried  on  a  boot  and  shoe 
business;  the  Rockwell  family,  S.  H.  Dalaby  came  from  Cat- 
taraugus county,  C.  AV.  ^McAIillan,  who  served  several  terms  as 
sheriff,  was  one  of  the  delegation  and  arrived  in  ]85o.  ^Morton 
Leonard,  Lyman  Andrews,  AVilliam  H.  Blyton,  AY.  S.  Newton, 
and  Henry  Foster  all  came  from  that  county.  sonu»  as  early  as 

Hiram  and  Henry  Foster  arrived  in  1855  and  Hiram  built 
the  Globe  Hotel  the  same  year,  but  soon  afterwards  sold  it  to 
AYilliam  Burlingaine,  who  kept  it  for  a  number  of  years.  Henry 
Foster  bought  out  0.  C.  Poles,  who  was  about  to  start  a  harness 
shop  upon  the  arrival  of  the  Fosters  and  he  kept  the  business 
for   a    good   many  years   afterwards. 

Very  few  of  the  old  residents  Avho  came  as  early  as  1855 
are  still  alive,  and  among  them  is  H.  A.  Streeter,  who  now  re- 
sides in  the  city  at  a  very  advanced  age.  He  came  in  1855  and 
his  memory  is  quite  clear  as  to  the  settlement  in  the  village 
at  that  time. 

He  states  that  the  stage  station  at  that  time  was  at  George 
Griffins,  a  log  house  with  a  barn  connected  which  stood  \ipon 
the  Hotel  Lewis  corner.  S.  D.  Jackson  had  a  store  then  some- 
where along  in  where  AIcAIillan's  Furniture  Company  is  now 
located ;  the  building  was  of  rough  boards  and  he  afterwards 
built  a  store  on  what  was  called  the  knoll  Avhere  the  barn  of 
D.  F.  Davis  now  stands.  Air.  Streeter  boarded  when  he  first 
came  here,  but  desired  to  l)uild  a  house  and  makes  the  remark- 
able statement  that  he  started  the  building  on  Alonday,  Avith  tht^ 
help  of  a  man  named  Andrew  Dickenson,  and  had  it  completed 
and  moved  in  by  Tliursday:  it  was  a  frame  building,  very  ]>rim- 
itive  in  its  construction  and  he  i)roeeeded,  after  the  house  Avas 
done,  to  make  a  bedstead,  and  he  states  that  he  made  a  "feather 
bed"  out  of  cotton  l)atten  for  the  mattress. 

A  table  was  erected  of  rough  boards,  several  three-legged 
stools  constructed,  and  this  little  home  was  complete  and  he 
and  his  wife  moved  in  ha]ipy  in  the  possession  of  that  much.  This 
building  stood  where  F.  Baldwin's  blacksmith  shop  is  located. 

Air.  Streeter  bought  the  lot  there,  because  he  thought  the 
l)usiness  portion  of  the  village  would  go  that  way,  as  there  was 
a  jewelry  store  located  there.    He  states  that  AA'illiam  Kerrigan 


had  a  blacksmith  shop  in  the  corner  where  Roberts  &  Jones' 
grocery  store  is  located.  The  shop  at  first  having  no  covering 
over  it  whatever,  but  consisted  of  an  anvil  block  and  a  bellows ; 
at  that  time  a  sawmill  was  located  here  where  the  dam  now  is  on 
Water  street  bridge  and  Mr.  Streeter  found  employment  with 
the  proprietor   of  the  mill. 

In  this  year  Sparta  experienced  its  first  serious  flood.  i\lr. 
Streeter  relates  that  owing  to  the  heavy  rains  the  fiood  came 
down  the  creek  in  a  wave,  which  he  states  was  at  least  eight 
feet  high  and  crushed  everything  as  flat  as  a  floor ;  the  dam 
was  washed  out  and  the  mill  ruined;  this  dam  was  rebuilt,  but 
in  its  history  it  was  washed  out  in  the  earlier  days  five  times. 

There  was  considerable  agitation  in  1855  with  regard  to 
the  liquor  question,  and  it  appears  that  a  man  by  the  name  of 
Samuel  Crosby  built  a  building  where  Gustad's  store  now  is 
and  opened  a  grocery  and  liquor  store,  and  thereby,  of  course, 
caused  indignation  among  the  temperance  people. 

C.  AV.  Pott,  a  harness  maker,  who  arrived  in  Sparta  that 
year,  saw  two  Cattaract  men  drinking  in  the  store  and  had  Mr. 
Crosby  arrested  for  selling  liquor  without  license.  This  coming 
up  before  Justice  McKay,  would  not  allow  Mr.  Pott's  testimony, 
saying  that  he  had  not  tasted  the  liquor  and  could  not  swear 
to  what  it  was  and  for  failure  of  proof  the  jury  found  the. de- 
fendant not  guilty.  It  got  to  be  a  regular  thing  and  it  seems 
that  this  man,  Crosby,  was  tried  six  different  times  in  an  effort 
to  convict  him  of  this  oft'ense  of  selling  liciuoi*.  At  last  they  did 
find  sufficient  proof  and  he  was  fined  $20  by  the  justice. 

But  this  did  not  rid  the  place  of  the  liquor  nuisance  and  the 
temperance  people  got  up  another  plan ;  the  women  Avould  take 
their  knitting  work  and  sit  in  the  front  part  of  the  store,  hoping 
thus  to  keep  tlu^  men  away  and  to  break  up  the  business ;  but 
that  did  not  do  as  the  men  who  desired  to  drink  marched  boldly 
in  and  called  for  what  they  wanted,  so  the  ladies  were  obliged 
to  retire  in  good  order  with  the  reflection  that  that  method  of 
stopping  the  liquor  traffic  was  a  failure.  Other  incidents  of  laAv 
suits  in  the  earlier  days  abounded  and  have  naturally  connected 
with  them  the  names  of  J.  M.  Morrow  and  L.  AV. ,  Graves.  It 
is  related  that  in  1857,  G.  W.  Warring  was  then  justice  of  the 
peace  and  it  apears  that  Air.  Graves  and  AVilliam  AYright  were 
the  parties  in  a  suit  before  his  honor,  and  S.  F.  Holbrook,  L.  M. 
Rose,  AY.  S.  Newton  and  AY.  L.  Johnson  were  chosen  as  jurors 
with  A.  Cross,  constable,  in  charge ;  after  hearing  the  evidence, 
the  jury  would  not  agree,  but  the   court  refused  to   discharge 


tliem  until  they  were  ready  to  render  a  verdict.  The  jury  Avas 
quite  disgusted  ;il  lliis  and  they  went  back  in  the  room,  climbed 
on  the  table  ami  one  of  tlu'in  removed  a  board  from  the  ceiling 
and  made  their  escape  unknown  by  the  officers,  who  afterwards 
searched  for  them  in  vain,  while  the  reprobates  were  enjoying 
a  game  of  poker  in  the  corner  of  the  Ida  House.  This  is  a  law 
suit  that  never  has  been  finished  as  the  jury  never  rendered  a 

In  1855  and  1856  settlers  arrived  in  such  numbers  that  it  is 
impossible  to  attempt  to  give  the  names  of  but  few ;  buildings 
sprang  up  everywhere  and  the  spot  which  had  so  lately  been  the 
hunting  ground  for  the  Indians  became  alive  with  busy  people. 
S.  D.  Jackson  built  himself  a  residence  and  also  a  store  building 
which  was  afterwards  occupied  by  Dodge  Brothers;  in  1855, 
Jackson  opened  up  with  a  large  stock  of  goods;  subsecpiently 
taking  into  partnership  AV.  AV.  Allis,  who  came  from  California 
in  1858. 

R.  M.  Dunlevy  was  one  of  the  new  comers  in  1855,  and  entered 
into  the  dry  goods  business,  at  first  clerking  for  S.  D.  Jackson; 
he  continued  for  six  or  seven  years,  and  at  the  end  of  that  time 
became  a  member  of  the  firm,  Mr.  Allis  retiring.  j\Ir.  Jackson 
was  acknowledged  to  be  one  of  the  best  merchants  in  Sparta 
and  Air.  Denlevy's  experience  with  him  fitted  him  to  enter  into 
the  business  alone  when  Jackson  removed  to  a  larger  field. 
Dunlevy  l)ranched  out  into  the  wholesale  and  retail  business  in 
all  kinds  of  fancy  dry  goods  and  kcjit  a  1)uyiT  in  New  York  and 
Boston   markets. 

During  1855  the  Rev.  L.  C.  Herrick,  a  Baptist  clergyman, 
took  up  his  residence  here  and  1)uilt  a  sawmill  on  Beaver  creek 
near  Allen's  grove,  and  the  same  year  another  Baptist  preacher. 
Rev.  S.  Gustin,  came  to  Sparta  and  went  into  the  nursery  busi- 
ness. These  contended  for  the  pastorate  of  the  Baptist  society 
to  such  an  extent  as  to  Ix'come  quite  unfriendly  and  unfor- 
tunately it  resulted  in  the  temporary  disorganization  of  the 
Baptist  society. 

J.  D.  Condit  arrived  in  1855  also,  and  his  brother,  A.  IT. 
Condit.  ])uilt  a  drug  store,  the  first,  on  llie  nortli  side  of  Beaver 
creek  and  also  became  interested  witli  Milton  .Montgomcrx-  in 
publishing  the  AVatchman,  which  was  })ublished  on  the  second 
floor  of  the  building  owned  by  Condit.  J^ortei-  Aylesworth,  a 
blat'ksmith,  ai'rived  in  1856  and  became  proprietor  of  the  AFonroe 
House  which  he  kept  until  1857,  when  he  Avas  l)urned  out.  The 
next  year  he  built  the  old  AVarner  House,  which  stood  some  (tls- 


tanee  south  of  where  the  present  Warner  House  now  stands. 
Among  others  in  1855  were  L.  M.  Newbury,  E.  J.  Campbell, 
Joseph  Kline,  wlio  settled  in  Leon  Valley,  G.  B.  Holden,  who 
engaged  in  the  lumber  business  and  became  interested  in  the 
Sparta  AVoolen  ]\Iill,  and  J.  D.  McDowell,  who  worked  for  a 
time  for  AV.  S.  Post,  in  the  mercantile  business.  McDowell  went 
into  business  for  himself  in  1857  by  opening  a  boot  and  shoe 
store  Avhich  he  continued  to  carry  on  for  several  years. 

Business  had  grown  to  such  an  extent  by  this  time  that 
banking  conveniences  were  necessary  and  in  1858  the  Bank  of 
Sparta  was  started  by  J.  D.  Hemphill ;  seven  years  later  it  was 
organized  under  the  general  banking  law  as  the  First  National 
Bank  of  Sparta  and  subsequently  in  its  history  it  became  the 
State  Bank,  now  being  known  as  the  Bank  of  Sparta. 

Hagaman  Palmer  arrived  with  his  family  in  1856  in  company 
Avith  five  other  families,  among  them  being  S.  P.  Greenman,  the 
well  known  hotel  keeper,  who  carried  on  the  Ida  House  for  a 
number  of  years,  and  Francis  Brock.  Palmer  went  into  partner- 
ship with  J.  D.  Coudit  in  the  dray  business  and  also  engaged 
in  land  speculation,  entering  and  buying  some  6,000  acres  mostly 
in  Monroe  county.  He  brought  his  five  sons  with  him,  all  of 
whom  afterwards  engaged  in  business  in  the  city ;  William  Palmer 
became  county  clerk :  John  Palmer  in  the  livery  business ;  Daniel 
Palmer  became  a  partner  in  the  firm  of  H.  Palmer  &  Co. ;  George 
and  Henry  carried  on  a  flour  and  feed  store. 

H.  E.  Kelly,  who  afterwards  became  collector  of  internal 
revenues  started  in  the  dry  goods  business  in  1856.  L.  S.  Bing- 
ham took  up  his  residence  here  and  entered  the  hardware  trade ; 
he  built  a  three  story  building  on  AVater  street  near  Oak.  J.  A. 
AYarner  came  about  the  same  time  and  clerked  for  McFarland 
a  number  of  years,  afterwards  going  into  business  as  a  wholesale 
and  retail  dealer  in  Greve's  block.  AI.  A.  Thayer  and  A.  A. 
Alunn  arrived  the  same  year,  Air.  Thayer  was  register  of  deeds 
for  nine  terms  and  also  went  into  the  banking  business.  J.  AI. 
Alorrow  and  L.  AY.  Graves  arrived  during  the  same  year  and 
so  did  J.  Andrews.  In  company  witli  Frank  Skillman  and 
Captain  Fisk,  AndrcAvs  erected  the  first  foundry  in  the  city, 
which  was  located  near  the  Alilwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railway 
depot ;  J.  A.  Gillman,  who  arrived  in  1856,  subsequently  became 
owner  of  the  foundry  and  after  that  several  changes  in  owner- 
ship followed  and  passed  into  the  hands  of  J.  J.  Owsley  in  1865 
and  a  year  later  was  destroyed  by  fire. 

During  the  year  1856  a  court  house  was  erected  on  a  piece 


of  ImikI  donated  by  J.  D.  Damman,  the  town  reserving  the 
squ;ii-f  mIk'I'c  the  present  eoui-t  liouse  is,  Avhich  was  given  by 
AVilliani  Petit,  for  a  park.  Additions  to  tlie  village  were  platted 
by  J.  D.  Dannnan,  Kiehard  C'asselinaii.  H.  Hill  and  E.  S.  Blake, 
and  at  that  time  there  was  niueh  rivalry  between  the  two  sides 
of  the  river  as  to  which  shonld  have  the  court  house.  The 
second  building,  however,  was  built  in  Petit "s  square  after  some 
li'oiihle  with  Dannnan  over  his  gift.  This  yeai-  a  public  hall  was 
opened,  situated  on  the  corner  of  Oak  and  AVater  streets,  opposite 
the  Greve's  block;  this  building  was  two  stories  high  and  cdih- 
pleted  l;)y  R.  AV.  Bowles,  the  hall  receiving  the  proud  name  of 
"Liberty  Hall;""  and  then  the  village  arrived  to.  the  dignity 
of  having  theatrical  perfoiiuances  for  the  amusement  of  its 
inhabitants;  the  very  first  show  M'hich  appeared  was  a  magician 
who  drcAv  a  large  crowd,  and  it  is  related  that  the  crowd  was 
so  large  that  it  Avas  too  heavy  for  the  floor  and  just  as  the 
magician  was  about  to  perform  one  of  his  startling  feats  the 
floor  gave  way  and  down  went  the  audience  and  magician  with 
all  his  slight  of  hand  machinery  on  top  of  them,  so  that  a  grand 
disappearing  act  was  successfully  performed  which  was  not  in 
the  program. 

The  day  that  the  Liberty  Hall  floor  broke  seemetl  to  he  a  day 
of  accidents;  it  is  related  that  the  frame  of  the  IMethodist  church 
had  just  been  raised  and  Benjamin  Stevens  and  IMorton  Bump, 
two  carpenters,  were  putting  u])  the  frame  of  the  belfry,  when 
one  of  the  ties  broke,  lotting  down  llie  timbers  and  the  workmen 
at  the  same  time;  Stevens  was  severely  hurt,  but  Bump  escaped 
wilii  slight  injury;  during  the  same  day  a  man  fell  from  the 
top  of  a  building  on  Oak  street,  but  was  not  seriously  injureJ. 

Wedding  bells  rang  for  the  first  time  in  1855  when  Edward 
Wairalh  and  Miss  Blake  were  nuirried,  and  in  the  following 
year   Henry   Talmadge  and  Anna   Bradshaw. 

The  hard  tinu\s  of  1857  seriously  etfected  the  business  and 
settlement  of  the  village,  and  during  Ihat  year  Sparta  was  nearly 
at  a  stand  still;  very  few  new  comers  arrived  and  little  occurred 
which  was  of  interest.  The  settlers,  however,  continued  their 
efforts  in  building  up  the  place  and  dui-ing  that  year  1\.  and 
O.  P.  ]\IcClure  built  the  first  grist  mill  which  was  erected  on 
the  site  of  the  old  saw  mill  on  Benver  creek.  Subsequently 
T.  B.  Tyler  erected  a  woolen  mill  on  the  same  site  at  a  cost 
of  .+-^,000.  This  old  building  is  still  standing  and  is  known 
as  the  Sparta  "Woolen  !Mill  i)roperty. 

On    ]\Iay    11,    185?,    under    provisions   of   chapter   52    of    the 


statutes  of  AVisconsin,  the  village  of  Sparta,  JMonroe  county, 
Avas  incorporated  and  arrived  at  the  dignity  of  a  full  fledged 

The  first  board  of  trustees  was  elected  on  July  1,  1857,  and 
M'as  as  follows :  R.  J.  Cassclman,  president ;  H.  Palmer,  Joseph 
Carmichael.  R.  W.  Bowles,  S.  F.  Holbrook,  C.  Rich  and  J.  A. 
Gillman,  trustees;  L.  S.  Fisher,  clerk;  L.  Andrews,  treasurer, 
and  Chester  McClure,  marshal. 

Among  the  settlers  in  1857  were  Dennis  Lawrence  and  wife, 
the  later  a  fashionable  dressmaker.  AVilliam  Potter,  a  meat 
market  man,  who  afterwards  getting  the  gold  fever,  went  to 
Pike's  Peak  and  was  given  up  for  dead,  but  soon  afterwards 
returned  to  Sparta  and  resumed  his  old  vocation.  Thomas  B. 
Tyler  arrived  in  1857  from  Pennsylvania,  though  a  native  of  the 
east,  he  loved  his  new  location  and  was  one  of  the  men  who  did 
much  to  build  up  the  village. 

A  good  story  is  related  of  Mr.  Tyler  which  is  as  follows : 
Previous  to  his  coming  to  Sparta,  he  had  been  engaged  in  the 
drug  business  at  Coudersport,  Pa.,  and  there  was  ac- 
quainted with  several  men  who  afterwards  came  to  tlie  west. 
So  it  was  no  unusual  thing  for  a  Coudersport  man  to  call  on 
]\Ir.  Tyler's  place  of  business  when  he  came  to  Sparta.  One 
day  J.  D.  Condit  happened  in  at  Mr.  Tyler's  place  of  business 
when  the  latter  was  out,  and  a  few  minutes  later  a  deaf  and  dumb 
man  entered.  Like  all  unfortunates  of  this  class,  this  individual 
began  to  stare  at  everything,  without  making  his  business  known. 
Condit  thought  he  saw  a  chance  to  play  a  joke  on  Mr.  Tyler, 
so  stepped  to  the  door  to  look  for  him,  and  met  him  coming. 
"There  is  a  man  waiting  for  you.  Perhaps  he  is  from  Couders- 
port," said  J.  D.  The  individual  was  now  looking  at  some  pic- 
tures, and  had  his  back  turned  to  the  pair.  Mr.  Tyler  was  a 
quiet,  unassuming  man ;  so  he  brushed  back  his  hair,  straightened 
up  his  collar  and  coughed.  The  stranger  did  not  seem  to  hear 
him.  Mr.  Tyler  again  arranged  his  collar  and  hair,  and  stepping 
a  little  nearer,  said:  ''You  wished  to  see  me,  sir?"  No  answer, 
no  backward  glance.  The  gentleman  reddened  perceptibly,  but 
again  jerked  at  his  collar  and  brushed  back  his  hair,  with  the 
question  now  put  in  louder  tones,  "Did  you  want  to  see  me, 
sir?"  The  stranger  still  continued  his  examination  of  the  pic- 
tures. Redder  and  redder  Mr.  Tyler  grew,  and  when  he  next 
asked  the  question  he  bawled  it  at  the  top  of  his  voice.  The 
man,  however,  took  no  notice  whatever  of  him,  and  a  look  of 
blank  amazement  was  spreading  Tyler's  face,  when  IMr.  Condit, 


Avho  ]iad  stepped  outside  of  the  door,  peeped  in  and  said  in  a 
hoarse  Avhispc)-:  "You  eternal  I'ool,  he's  deaf  and  dunil)." 

The  opening  of  the  ^lihvankee  &  St.  Paul  railroad  to  this 
plaee  in  18.58,  gave  a  new  impetus  to  business  and  to  immigra- 
tion. The  track  was  laid  as  far  as  the  tunnel  from  the  east, 
and  also  westward  from  the  tunnel  to  LaCrosse.  But  the  tunnel 
itself  was  something  that  required  months  to  complete.  An 
engine  and  some  cars  Avere  drawn  over  the  bluffs  for  use  on 
the  western  part  of  the  line ;  and  for  some  six  months  the  trains 
ran  to  and  from  the  tunnel  on  both  sides,  passengers  having  to 
foot  it  across  the  bluft'  from  one  train  to  the  other.  During  this 
time  Sparta  had  no  railway  depot, — a  freight  car,  switched  oft' 
of  the  main  track,  answering  the  purpose,  as  it  was  of  ample 
dimensions  to  hold  the  waiting  passengers  and  their  baggage  at 
that  time.  Later,  a  neat  depot  was  erected  with  other  necessary- 
buildings;  and  later  still,,  a  dining  hall  and  hotel  known  as 
the  ~\Vinship  House. 

The  Letson  Brothers,  in  1858,  put  up  a  sash,  door  and  blind 
factory.  L.  H.  ^Mather  came  to  Sparta  the  same  year,  built  a 
block  of  buildings  on  AVater  street,  and  opened  a  drug  store 
which  he  kept  for  several  years.  Mr.  ^Mather's  enterprise  is  to 
be  seen  all  over  the  city.  He  erected  more  handsome  buildings 
here  than  any  one  man  in  this  place.  J,  W.  Smith  and  family 
made  their  advent  this  year.  ]Mr.  Smith  engaged  at  that  time  in 
the  harchvare  business.  His  son.  J.  E.  Smith,  kept  a  variety  and 
auction  store  on  Oak  street.  J.  J.  French,  a  dealer  in  guns  and 
ammunition,  Avith  II.  Palmer  &  Co.  D.  B.  Howe,  of  the  firm 
of  Ayleswortli  &  Co.  D.  ^McBride  and  family  were  among  the 
new  comers  of  1858.  D.  McBride  was  the  editor  of  the  "Herald," 
which  has  been  conducted  since  that  time  to  the  present  with 
only  a  slight  interruption.  I\lr.  ]MeBride  was  postmaster  at 
Sparta  for  eight  years,  commencing  with  President  Lincoln's 

Late  in  Decem1)er  of  the  same  year  another  newspaperman, 
Capt.  D.  "W.  C.  AVilson,  took  up  his  residence  here.  He  did  not 
at  that  time,  however,  enter  a  ju-inting  office.  During  1860  and 
1861  he  served  as  .iustice  of  the  peace.  Tii  the  summer  and  fall 
of  1861,  lie  held  war-meetings,  and  in  November  of  tliat  year 
was  made  lieutenant  of  Company  D  of  the  Eighteenth  "Wisconsin 
Regiment,  going  into  service  January.  1S&2.  He  was  taken 
prisoner  at  the  battle  of  Pittsburg  Landing,  April  6,  1862,  and 
was  in  various  prisons  in  Alabama  and  Georgia,  until  paroled 
at  Richmond,  Virginia,  which  occurred  in  October  of  the  same 


year.  Re-entering  service,  he  remained  there  until  1864,  when 
he  returned  to  AVisconsin.  He  was  elected  to  the  assembly  in 
1865,  and  to  tlie  senate  in  1866.  During  1868,  he  was  traveling 
correspondent  of  the  "]\Iilwaukee  Sentinel,"  and  two  years  later 
he  took  a  half  interest  in  the  "Sparta  Eagle."  In  1872  he  bought 
the  whole  ''Eagle"  office  and  changed  the  name  of  the  paper  to 
the  "Monroe  County  Republican."  A.  AV.  AVilson,  a  brother 
of  Captain  Wilson,  also  settled  in  Sparta  in  1858.  Dr.  ]\I.  R. 
Gage  was  another  of  the  new  comers  of  1858,  practicing  his 
profession  here  many  long  years  except  the  two  years  that  he 
Avas  surgeon  of  the  Twenty-fifth  AVisconsin  Regiment.  At  one 
time  after  the  war,  Dr.  Gage  was  connected  witli  II.  Palmer  in  the 
drug  business. 

The  next  year,  1859,  T.  B.  Tyler  built  a  grist  mill  near  the 
Mihvaukee  &  St.  Paul  railroad  depot.  This  mill  has  passed 
through  many  hands  since  its  building.  D.  D.  Cheney,  who 
settled  in  this  place  in  1861,  and  H.  Greve  owned  it  at  one  time. 
It  is  now  owned  by  Bergman  Brothers.  The  mill  had  a  capacity 
of  three  hundred  barrels  per  week,  and  employed  six  men.  H. 
C.  Brooks,  was  head  miller,  T.  D.  Freneli.  a  brother  of  J.  J. 
French,  came  from  the  south  this  year,  and  settled  in  Sparta, 
going  into  business  with  J.  M.  Sugden,  a  partnership  which 
lasted  about  four  years. 

Among  the  settlers  of  1861  and  1862  we  find  A.  Saxe,  a  fur- 
niture manufacturer  on  Oak  street ;  J.  J.  Owsley,  who  bought 
out  Tyler's  mill  and  run  it  some  five  years,  during  tlie  first 
year  of  which  time  the  dam  went  out  seven  times.  S.  M.  Owsley, 
a  son  of  J.  J.  Owsley,  now  a  grocer  on  Oak  street ;  R.  S.  AVells, 
surgeon  dentist,  and  AV.  H.  AA^hite,  a  dealer  in  agricultural  im- 
plements. James  Francis  became  a  resident  in  Sparta  in  1861, 
and  a  little  later  went  into  the  grocery  business  at  Johnson's 
old  stand,  corner  of  Oak  and  Court  streets,  which  Air.  Johnson, 
deceased,  had  left  vacant.  Subsequently  he  moved  into  a  brick 
block  further  east  on  Oak  street,  and  then  added  dry  goods  to 
his  stock  of  groceries.  Dr.  Bennett,  a  well-known  physician  of 
Sparta,  located  in  1861, 

George  Dunn  came  in  1861  and  in  connection  with  AI.  Erick- 
son  and  AV.  H.  Blyton,  erected  a  large  block  of  brick  buildings 
between  Alain  and  Oak  streets  on  AVater;  Dunn  opened  a  whole- 
sale and  retail  dry  goods  business  there  and  still  continues  in 
the  same  store  building  with  the  retail  business.  Chauncey 
Blakeslee  came  from  Neilsville  and  commenced  business  with  a 
large  stock  of  dry  goods  in  the  Dunn  building. 


The  bcjiinniiig  of  the  AVar  of  the  Jiehellion  affected  the  growth 
and  l)iisiness  interests  of  the  vilhige  to  a  marked  degree;  prices 
went  up  and  tlie  poorer  classes  had  a  hard  time  to  get  the  bare 
necessities  of  life. 

The  citizens  of  Sparta  and  \icinity  exhibited  true  patriotism 
and  furnished  a  large  portion  of  the  several  companies  that  went 
from  the  county.  At  the  receipt  of  the  news  of  the  fall  of  Fort 
Sumptcr  the  indignation  and  war-like  spirit  of  our  modern 
Spartans  were  fully  aroused,  and  at  no  place  in  the  United  States 
was  the  President's  call  for  troops  more  promptly  responded  to 
than  in  this  village.  As  soon  as  it  was  known  that  a  call  had 
been  formally  made  for  volunteers,  enlistments  commenced,  and 
continued  so  briskly  that  only  a  small  portion  of  those  who  ten- 
dered their  service  were  accepted.  The  first  company  organized 
in  Sparta  was  known  as  Captain  Lynn's,  and  its  members  were 
first  enlisted  for  a  period  of  three  months,  but  as  soon  as  it  was 
known  that  troops  were  required  for  a  longer  period  of  service 
the  company  was  reorganized  and  nearly  every  man  who  had 
enlisted  for  the  short  term  reenlisted  for  three  years,  or  during 
the  war.  The  company  was  ordered  about  the  6th  of  June.  1861, 
to  proceed  to  Camp  Utley,  Racine.  AVis..  where  it  was  assigned 
to  the  Fourth  Regiment,  AVisconsin  Volunteer  Infantry,  under 
Col.  Halbert  E.  Paine,  and  became  Company  I  of  that  regiment. 
It  left  Sparta  with  the  following  named  commissioned  officers: 
Captain,  John  AV.  Lynn;  first  lieutenant,  Levi  R.  Blake;  second 
lieutenant,  Ansyl  A.  AYest. 

Captain  Lynn  was  killed  on  the  gunboat  Tyler,  July  1.").  1862. 
while  on  an  expedition  toward  A^icksburg,  the  steamer  having 
been  fired  into  by  a  rebel  battery.  Shortly  after  this  the  regi- 
ment was  in  a  thirty-days'  siege  of  A'icksburg,  but  disease  so 
weakened  the  men  that  at  the  end  of  that  time  the  siege  was 
abandoned.  They  had  a  successful  battle  at  Bisland,  Louisiana, 
near  Bayou  Teche,  and  a  little  later  they  made  an  attack  upon 
Port  Hudson,  where  Capt.  Levi  Blake  fell  mortally  wounded. 
The  battle  of  Port  Hudson  proved  very  disastrous  to  the  regi- 
ment. On  September  1,  1863,  the  AYar  Department  gave  orders 
that  the  Fourth  AVisconsin  be  equipped  as  cavalry,  and  it  Avas 
thereafter  known  as  the  Fourth  AVisconsin  Cavalry. 

Company  A.  Third  AVisconsin,  Barstow's  Cavalry,  was  organ- 
ized about  mid-summer,  1861.  by  Capt.  Jerry  Dammon,  of  Sparta. 
Its  first  lieutenant  was  Robert  Carpenter,  of  Sparta,  and  second 
lieutenant,  Leonard  Morley,  of  A^'iroqua. 

The  company  left  Sparta  and  proceeded  to  Camp  Barstow, 



Janesville,  Wisconsin,  where  it  was  mustered  into  service.  The 
regiment  left  the  state  and  went  via  Chicago  to  St.  Louis,  IMarch 
26,  1862.  "While  on  the  Northwestern  railroad,  near  Chicago,  it 
met  with  a  very  serious  accident,  which  resulted  in  the  loss  of 
twelve  men.  Company  A  alone  having  seven  men  killed  and  sev- 
eral were  severely  injured. 

Captain  Damman,  who  went  out  in  command  of  the  company, 
resigned  March  9,  1863,  and  was  succeeded  by  Capt.  Robert  Car- 
penter, who  retained  command  until  the  date  of  his  muster  out  of 
service,  January  30,  1865. 

Company  D,  Eighteenth  "Wisconsin  Infantry,  was  raised  in 
the  month  of  November  and  December,  1861,  and  was  called  the 
Northwestern  Rangers.  The  company  was  recruited  by  George 
A.  Fisk,  D.  W^.  C.  W'ilson  and  Peter  Sloggy.  At  an  election  for 
officers  a  vote  of  the  members  of  the  company  was  taken  and 
resulted  in  the  election  of  Fisk  as  captain,  W^ilson  as  first  lieu- 
tenant, and  Sloggy  as  second  lieutenant.  The  company  left 
Sparta  and  proceeded  to  Milwaukee,  January  14,  1861,  and  was 
assigned  to  the  Eighteenth  "Wisconsin  Infantry,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Col.  J.  S.  Albin,  of  Plover. 

This  regiment  was  at  the  battle  of  Shiloh  and  in  the  sieges 
of  Corinth  and  Vicksburg,  at  the  battle  of  Champion  Hills,  and 
at  that  of  Allatoona  mountains,  as  well  as  in  several  lesser  en- 
gagements ;  and  it  suffered  severely  from  disease,  engendered 
by  the  sickly  climate.  Its  gallant  colonel  lost  his  life  at  Shiloh, 
w^hicli  proved  a  disastrous  battle  to  the  raw  recruits.  Yet  Gov- 
ernor Harvey  said  of  them:  "]\Iany  regiments  of  that  fight  may 
well  covet  the  impressions  which  the  Eighteenth  have  left  of 
personal  bravery,  heroic  daring  and  determined  endurance." 

Company  C,  of  the  Nineteenth  W^isconsin  Regiment,  was  or- 
ganized in  December,  1861,  and  mustered  into  service  by  Capt. 
J.  A.  Chandler,  of  Sparta.  Charles  Case  was  first  lieutenant,  and 
Henry  B.  Nichols  second  lieutenant. 

Captain  Chandler  resigned  July  30,  1862,  and  Charles  Case 
was  promoted  to  the  captaincy.  The  latter  also  resigned  and 
Henry  B.  Nichols  became  the  captain  of  Company  C  February 
7,  1863.    The  company  Avas  mustered  out  of  service  April  19,  1865. 

The  Twenty-fifth  Wisconsin  Regiment  w^as  organized  by  Col. 
Milton  Montgomery,  of  Sparta,  and  was  mustered  into  service 
September  14,  1862.  Company  D  was  the  company  enlisted  at 
this  place,  and  its  officers  were :  J.  D.  Condit,  captain,  and  Mort. 
E.  Leonard  and  Charles  S.  Farnham,  lieutenants.  Captain  Con- 
dit resigned  on  account  of  sickness,  July  15,  1863,  and  Mort.  E. 


Leonard  Avas  put  in  command  of  the  company.  The  latter  was 
wounded  in  the  action  of  Decatur,  Ga.,  July  22,  1864,  but  returned 
to  duty  in  November  of  the  same  year.  At  the  same  battle 
Colonel  ^Montgomery  was  Avounded  and  taken  prisoner.  His  arm, 
which  had  been  shot  off  by  a  rifle  ball,  hung  dangling  to  the  stub 
for  a  period  of  forty-eight  hours  before  amputation  took  place. 
The  gallant  colonel  did  not.  however,  resign  upon  his  release 
from  prison,  but  continued  with  his  regiment  until  mustered  out 
June  7,  1865.  The  regiment  suffered  very  much  from  sickness 
during  its  service.  At  one  time  500  of  the  men  lay  sick,  and 
less  than  a  hundred  were  fit  for  duty.  This  happened  at  Snyder's 
Bluffs,  ]\Iiss.,  in  1863.  The  regiment  Avas  in  several  skirmishes, 
of  which  lack  of  space  prevents  particular  mention. 

The  Thirty-sixth  Wisconsin  Regiment  w^as  organized  under 
the  government  call  for  500.000  men.  Company  C  of  this  regi- 
ment was  recruited  by  Capt.  George  A.  Fisk,  of  Sparta,  and  was 
mustered  into  service  ]\Iarch  4,  1864.  Luther  B.  Noyles  was  first 
lieutenant,  and  C.  E.  Bullard  was  second  lieutenant. 

Before  the  close  of  the  Avar  Captain  Fisk  Avas  promoted  as 
major,  and  Stephen  C.  I\Iiles,  a  Avell-knoAvn  Sparta  man,  as  cap- 

Company  C  lost  several  men.  C.  L.  Cleves,  DarAvin  Cole, 
DaA'is  Douglass,  A.  B.  Ligales,  P.  C.  "Walker  and  Charles  L. 
McClure  Avere  killed  in  action.  E.  H.  Amidon,  R.  B.  Balcom.  H. 
BroAvu,  Thomas  Casner,  "William  Dayton,  H.  AV.  Hudson,  John 
HopAvood,  Eldridge  Rathbun  and  John  "Wilkinson  died  of  Avounds 
received  in  battle.  Of  those  Avho  died  of  disease  many  gave  up 
life  in  the  Salisbury  and  Anderson\'ille  prisons.  The  folloAving  is 
a  list  of  such  of  Company  C's  men  as  died  of  disease:  George  C. 
Cross,  AYm..  B.  Snyder,  Alfred  0.  Barnes.  IM.  A.  Butts,  Dan.  A. 
Barton,  P.  Farr,  Nathan  Graves,  Henry  HathaAvay,  James  Hub- 
bell,  EdAvard  Nichols,  John  Printz,  Cyrus  Sour,  Samuel  Smith, 
J.  E.  Stevens,  L.  VanBorst,  AValter  YanVickle,  J.  B.  AYolcot  and 
Chas.  Young. 

A  portion  of  the  First  Battery,  the  LaCrosse  Artillery,  Avas 
from  Sparta.  S.  Hoyt  Avas  one  of  the  number.  This  company 
Avon  the  applause  of  Major  General  ^McClernand  and  of  ]\Iajor 
General  Reynolds,  for  gallant  conduct  on  the  field,  and  for  its 
cleanliness  and  good  behavior  in  camp. 

Sparta  sent  142  citizens  to  the  Avar,  sixty-three  of  Avhom  re- 
enlisted  at  tlie  close  of  their  first  tcnii.  The  colonel  of  the  Sev- 
enth AVisconsin  Regiment,  W.  AV.  Robinson,  Avas  a  Sparta  man. 
Col.  AV.  W.  Rol)inson  Avas  born  at  Fairhaven,  Vermont,  December 




14,  1819,  and  was  educated  at  Rutland  Academy,  Castleton  Acad- 
emy and  Norwich  Military  Academy.  During  the  Mexican  war 
he  served  as  first  lieutenant  and  captain  in  the  Third  Regiment, 
Ohio  Volunteers.  He  was  a  resident  of  Sparta  at  the  outbreak 
of  the  War  of  the  Rebellion,  having  first  visited  and  selected  a 
farm  near  that  place  in  the  summer  of  1851.  In  the  spring  of 
1861  he  took  an  active  part  in  the  organization  of  the  company 
then  being  recruited  here,  giving  it  quite  a  thorough  course  of 
lessons  in  discipline  and  drill.  In  August  of  the  same  year  he 
was  commissioned  lieutenant  colonel  of  the  Seventh  AVisconsin 
Volunteers,  and  served  in  that  capacity  until  January  31,  1862, 
when  he  was  promoted  colonel  of  the  same  regiment.  He  com- 
manded the  Seventh  Wisconsin  in  the  following  named  engage- 
ments :  Thornburg,  Rappahannock  Station,  AVhite  Sulphur 
Springs,  Gainsville,  Fredericksburg,  FitzHugh  Crossing,  Chan- 
cellorsville.  Laurel  Hill  and  Bethesda  Church,  and  the  Iron 
Brigade  in  the  following:  Brandy  Station,  Beverly  Ford,  Gettys- 
burg, Birchland,  AVilderness,  November,  1863 ;  Wine  Run,  Wil- 
derness, 1864 ;  Spottsylvania  Courthouse,  North  Anna,  Cold 
Harbor  and  Petersburg.  He  was  severely  wounded  in  his  left  leg 
at  the  battle  of  Gainsville,  August  28,  1862,  from  the  effects  of 
which  wound  he  has  never  fully  recovered.  For  services  ren- 
dered during  the  war  he  has  recently  been  appointed  United 
States  Consul  at  Lamatove,  Madagascar. 

Many  of  the  newcomers  of  Sparta  were  in  the  war  previous  to 
their  coming  here.  J.  AV.  Currant,  at  one  time  register  of  deeds, 
and  Michael  McComber  each  lost  a  limb  in  battle ;  Rufus  S. 
and  H.  K.  Dodge  were  also  in  the  army.  H.  K.  Dodge  tells  of 
many  occurrences  of  the  war  which  are  very  remarkable  and 
which  are  not  in  history.  One  of  these  we  will  give  here,  the 
truth  of  which  the  editor  will  not  vouch  for :  Dodge  was  once 
stationed  at  a  point  to  repel  a  large  force  of  rebels,  a  belt  of  trees 
dividing  the  two  armies.  Air.  Dodge  finally  got  out  of  bullets 
and  substituted  some  balls  of  snuff,  which  the  sutler  had  for  sale. 
The  effect  was  wonderful.  In  a  few  minutes  the  whole  rebel 
army  was  sneezing,  and  they  kept  at  it  until  consternation  seized 
them  and  they  broke  ranks  and  fled.  Air.  Dodge  went  in  pur- 
suit and  was  surprised  on  crossing  the  ground  which  they  had 
occupied  to  find  it  strewn  with  noses.  He  says  he  picked  up 
two  and  a  half  bushels  of  them.  AA'hat  use  he  made  of  them  in 
trade  he  does  not  say,  and  as  he  was  the  only  person  who  knows 
the  information  died  with  him. 

The  return  of  peace  brought  with  it  a  renewed  activity  in 


business  enterprises  and  llie  growth  of  the  comnuinity,  wliich 
had  been  interrupted  b,y  the  war,  contiiiind  and  many  new  names 
were  added  to  the  roll,  too  many  to  here  enumerate,  among  them 
l)('ing  Colonel  Shuter  and  Dr.  A.  B.  Niehols.  who  opened  a 
Tui'kisli  l)ath  estal)lishment  nnder  the  AVarner  House.  This  in- 
stitution was  conducted  successfully  for  several  years,  and  in 
connection  Avith  artesian  water  Avhicli  has  mineral  properties 
became  quite  a  resort  for  treatment  of  various  diseases.  In  the 
spring  of  1865  the  courthouse  was  built  in  Petit 's  square,  which 
included  the  sheriff's  dwelling,  and  in  that  year  J.  L.  IMather 
built  tlu*  Sparta  paper  mill,  which  a  few  years  later  was  sold 
to  Farnham,  Shuter  &  Co.,  who  in  turn  sold  it  to  0.  T.  Newton, 
and  he  continued  to  operate  it  up  to  the  time  of  his  death,  when 
it  went  to  his  sons,  George  and  Harry,  and  having  burned  a  few 
years  after  Avhile  owned  by  these  boys  it  never  was  rebuilt.  The 
water  power,  however,  is  used  in  furnishing  power  for  the  elec- 
tric light  plant,  which  furnishes  light  and  power  to  the  city  and 
vicinity,  running  under  the  corporate  name  of  0.  I.  Newton  Sons' 
Co.  Air.  George  Newtcn  is  at  present  the  manager.  The  paper 
mill  at  OIK"  lime  manufactured  about  4,000  pounds  of  paper  per 
day  and   ('m])l<)y('d  twenty  men. 

A  new  charter  was  obtained  for  the  village  from  the  Legisla- 
ture, Alarch  24,  1866,  and  in  the  folloAving  April  a  charter  chH-- 
tion  was  held  in  which  the  following  officers  were  elected:  J.  T. 
Hemphill,  president,  and  T.  B.  Tyler,  0.  D.  Randall,  T.  D.  Steele, 
AI.  R.  Gage,  D.  G.  Jewett  and  C.  C.  Morrill,  trustees;  George  C. 
Farnham,  clerk;  II.  E.  Kelly,  treasurer;  Samuel  Hoyt,  police 
justice;  John  Humphrey,  marshal,  and  D.  F.  Stillman,  street 

About  this  time  the  hoj)  fever  had  been  raging  over  this  part 
of  the  country  and  large  numbers  of  persons  in  Sparta  and  vicin- 
ity had  gone  into  the  business.  At  one  lime  it  is  stated  there  were 
over  three  hundred  acres  planted  to  hops  within  a  mile  of  Sparta, 
and  the  same  condition  of  aifairs  was  true  in  ditferent  ]>arts  of 
the  county,  especially  around  the  two  larger  villages,  Sparta  and 
Tomah,  and  the  editoi-  remembers  with  great  ]>leasure  some  of 
his  experiences  at  "hop  picking  time,*'  and  it  in  those  days  be- 
came a  common  thing  to  refer  to  events  which  took  place  at  or 
near  ''hop  i)icking  time." 

The  firm  of  II.  Palmer  &  Co.  were,  perhaps,  the  most  exten- 
sive dealci's  in  hops.  The  tirm  was  composed  of,  in  addition  to 
Air.  Palmer,  U.  Af.  Cargill  and  John  Alotl'at.  They  handled  at 
cue  time  as  high  as  $500,000  Avorth.of  hops  annually. 


Another  thing  which  struck  this  part  of  the  country  at  this 
time  and  caused  great  excitement  was  the  rumor  that  oil  had 
been  discovered  in  the  valley  of  the  Kickapoo  river,  which  runs 
along  the  southern  portion  of  the  county.  A  man  named  Ticknor, 
Avho  (daimed  to  be  an  oil  operator  from  the  oil  regions  of  the 
cast,  jissured  the  people  of  the  existence  of  oil  in  that  section. 
They  visited  the  spot  and  saw  crude  petroleum  boiling  from  the 
spring;  smelt  it,  tasted  it  and  w^ere  satisfied.  And  the  times  that 
followed  were  indeed  exciting  for  awhile.  A  "Gem  Petroleum 
Company"  was  formed  in  which  this  man  Ticknor  was  the  head 
and  a  heavy  stockholder ;  lands  were  leased  from  farmers  at 
exorbitant  prices  in  that  section,  and  the  capital  of  this  celebrated 
industry  was  the  famous  village  now  known  as  "Oil  City." 
Stocks  in  the  oil  company  were  in  demand  and  everyone  who 
could  raise  enough  money  invested  it  in  a  share  or  more,  and 
this  man  Ticknor,  in  order  to  accommodate  his  friends,  so  to 
speak,  sold  nearly  all  of  his  shares  at  a  large  advance. 

During  this  time  wells  Avere  being  bored  in  the  "oil"  region 
and  after  the  stocks  had  been  pretty  well  distributed  it  was 
discovered  that  all  they  got  from  the  wells  was  water,  not  oil; 
then  the  bubble  burst,  for  it  was  discovered  that  Ticknor  had 
sunk  a  barrel  of  crude  petroleum  under  the  spring  for  the 
purpose  of  deceiving  the  people ;  stocks  went  down  and  the  Gem 
Petroleum  Company  w^ent  out  of  existence;  the  oil  excitement, 
much  to  be  regretted,  had  practically  ruined  several  good  citi- 
zens, financially. 

It  w'as  discovered,  however,  in  digging  the  Avells  near  the 
Kickapoo  river  that  the  water  was  of  remarkable  purity  and  a 
movement  Avas  set  on  foot  to  investigate  the  matter  in  the  city 
of  Sparta,  and  sink  a  well ;  a  meeting  of  citizens  Avas  called 
and  a  subscription  taken  u]^  to  defray  expense  and  George  W. 
Waring  Avas  engaged  as  chief  engineer  and  commenced  the  Avork ; 
a  Avell  Avas  sunk  in  Petit 's  square  and  floAving  Avater  Avas  reached 
at  the  very  first  attempt  at  the  depth  of  three  hundred  and 
fifteen  feet,  the  Avell  floAving  one  hundred  gallons  jjer  minute, 
and  still  fioAvs  in  the  court  house  park.  The  medicinal  qualities 
of  the  Avater  Avere  soon  discovered  by  the  various  citizens  who 
drank  it,  as  a  remedy  for  different  diseases.  It  Avas  used  to 
such  an  extent  that  the  Avater  was  submitted  to  chemical  analysis 
and  it  Avas  discovered  that  it  w^as  composed  of  v^arious  minerals, 
principally  carbonate  of  iron,  Avith  a  fair  percentage  of  car- 
bonate of  magnesia  and  sulphate  of  soda,  togetlier  AA'ith  various 
solutions   of   lithia.    ammonia,   lime,    calcium,   sodium,    iodide    of 


sodium,  and  several  other  ingredients.  The  carbonate  of  iron 
was  considered  a  fine  tonic,  as  it  helps  digestion  and  reddens  the 
blood  globules,  and  persons  i)artaking  of  this  water  as  a  treat- 
ment for  general  diseases  were  greatly  l)enefited.  Sparta  became 
somewhat  famous  as  a  health  resort,  people  coming  from  long 
distances  to  drink  the  Avaters  and  to  take  treatments  at  the 
Turkish  bath  establishment.  At  the  present  time  this  business 
has  again  Ix'cn  icvived  and  the  basement  of  the  AVarner  House 
fitted  up  as  a  sanitarium. 

In  1867  J.  D.  Condit  purchased  the  Warner  House  and  entered 
into  the  management  of  it;  this  was  a  year  in  which  consid- 
erable building  was  accomplished,  notal)ly,  the  woolen  factory, 
which  was  completed  and  put  in  operation  in  September;  the 
manufacture  of  printing  pax)er  at  the  paper  mill  was  begun; 
the  brick  building  two  stories  high  across  from  the  Hotel  Lewis 
was  built  in  this  year  and  owned  jointly  by  Palmer,  Gage,  T.  B. 
Tyler  and  Simpson  &  Co.  A  large  brick  school  building  was 
erected  on  tlie  site  where  the  grade  school  now  stands  and  the 
building  at  that  time  was  considered  one  of  the  best  and  cost 

In  looking  over  old  newspaper  files  for  this  year,  1867,  it 
is  amusing  to  know  that  a  game  of  base-ball  was  played  at 
Tomah  in  July  between  the  Sparta  Eagles  and  Tomah  Amateurs, 
in  which  the  score  was  fifty  to  thirty-five  in  favor  of  the  Sparta 

An  income  tax  which  is  now  the  subject  of  so  much  discus- 
sion is  no  ncAv  thing  in  the  state,  as  it  was  in  existence  during 
the  year  1867,  but  was  finally  discarded  as  a  revenue  measure. 
An  issue  of  the  Sparta  Democrat,  May  28,  1867,  contains  a 
statement  published  of  the  income  taxes  returned  from  the  con- 
gressional district,  comprising  Yornon,  ]\ronroe,  Juneau,  Adams, 
Jackson,  Clark,  Trempclcau,  Uuft'alo,  Pierce,  St.  Croix,  Polk 
and  Burnett. 

The  Opera  House  block  was  l)uilt  dui-ing  1S()7  and  1868  by 
Herman  Greve  and  is  the  building  which  is  still  known  as 
the  old  Opera  block;  J.  A.  Gilhnan  built  a  grist  mill  on  his  land 
in  the  southern  jiortion  of  the  city  in  186S,  having  previously 
straightened  the  river  in  order  to  make  the  water  ])ower;  and 
the  building  of  this  mill  created  considerable  litigation;  the 
Dodge  Bi-others  Company,  of  G.  T.,  R.  S.  and  II.  K.  Dodge,  bought 
a  building  on  cornei-  of  ]\lain  and  AVater  of  S.  D.  Jackson  in 
1872  and  engaginl  in  the  iiuM-cantile  business,  which  establish- 
ment is  still  conducted  at  the  old  site  in  a  fine  brick  department 


store  building.  The  business  is  now  known  as  the  Dodge  & 
Davis  Department  Store  Company,  a  Corporation. 

Rice  &  Burton  engaged  in  the  grocery  business  at  the  corner 
of  Franklin  and  Water  streets,  the  firm  subsequently  becoming 
Burton  &  Graves,  and  they  continued  in  business  for  several 
long  years  and  only  retired  in  1910.  D.  J.  Lambourn  opened  a 
drug  store  in  1870  and  Ira  A.  Hill  entered  into  the  same  business 
in  July,  1871.  In  1872  L.  M.  Newbury  and  J.  P.  Ward  erected  a 
large  foundry,  known  as  Sparta  Iron  AYorks.  which  has  several 
times  been  enlarged  and  is  now  owned  and  controlled  by  the 
Canfield  Brothers,  Lee  and  Robert,  and  does  a  flourishing 
business  in  the  manufacture  of  well  drilling  machinery. 

In  1873  the  building  of  the  Chicago  and  Northwestern  Rail- 
road through  the  village  marked  a  new  incident  in  its  history; 
and  the  Adllage,  in  order  to  get  this  railroad,  paid  the  company 
$50,000  and  considerable  difficulty  arose  over  the  issue  of  these 
bonds  in  subsequent  years,  but  they  were  all  finally  paid  and 
the  village  relieved  from  the  burden  of  this  great  debt.  These 
bonds  were  voted  by  the  citizens  believing  that  the  railroad 
would  open  up  for  better  trade,  a  very  fertile  region  lying  on 
the  southeast  and  especially  from  the  Ridge  country  and  beyond ; 
though  at  this  time  there  were  several  stage  lines  running  out 
of  Sparta  to  Cataract,  Wilton.  Ontario  and  Viroqua ;  these  lines 
were  run  on  a  regular  scheduled  time  table  like  a  railroad  and 
carried  freight  and  passengers. 

The  next  decade  marked  a  very  substantial  growth  to  the 
village,  not  only  in  building  but  in  trade  and  general  progress, 
with  the  exception  of  a  drawback  or  two  caused  by  disastrous 
fires.  And  in  1876,  in  common  with  villages  and  cities  every- 
where throughout  the  United  States,  Sparta  held  a  fitting  cele- 
bration of  the  centennial  year;  not  only  the  commemoration  of 
the  one  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  independence  of  this 
country,  but  also  to  celebrate  the  progress  of  this  hustling  little 

In  1876  the  Seminary  building  at  the  corner  of  I\Iain  and  K 
streets  was  commenced  in  the  latter  part  of  September  by  the 
Sisters  of  Charity  of  La  Crosse ;  this  was  the  start  of  an  institu- 
tion which  has  grown  to  large  proportions  and  become  one  of 
the  valuable  educational  institutions  in  this  part  of  the  state  and 
is  treated  more  extensively  at  another  place  in  this  work. 

On  the  28th  of  September  in  this  year  occurred  one  of  the 
most  disastrous  fires  which  has  ever  visited  the  village  or  city; 
it  commencing  at  Lee  &  Palmer's  livery  stable,  in  which  a  large 


I)art  of  their  oquipinent,  including  fifteen  horses,  was  lost,  and 
it  spread  on  Water  street  and  crossed  over  to  Oak  street  and 
destroyed  Heller's  dry  goods  store,  then  situated  on  the  corner; 
tlu'  property  which  was  'hiinicd  including  the  bus  l)arii  of 
lIoll)rook  &  Lee;  Heller  building  and  stock  of  dry  goods;  the 
building  of  James  Francis;  Henry  Foster  "luiildii^g  and  stock 
of  harness  goods:  the  AVilliani  Kerrigan  building;  J.  X.  AVag- 
oner  building;  John  Matchett  Hotel  and  furniture;  C.  H.  Ford 
hop  house  and  fixtures;  G.  B.  Holden  lost  his  valuable  library; 
the  preparations  for  fighting  fire  were  then  not  of  the  best,  but 
finally  was  checked,  the  total  b)ss  of  something  over  $40,000, 
which  was  a  severe  blow  to  the  business  interests  of  the  village 
at  this  time.  Investigation  failed  to  trace  the  cause  of  the  fire, 
although  it  was  decided  that  it  must  have  been  of  incendiary 
origin.  ]Most  of  the  buildings  were  rebuilt  soon  after,  including 
the  Heller  block,  which  was  erected  in  a  more  substantial  man- 
ner than  ever  and  a  new  stock  of  goods  bought  and  opened  for 
business  within  a  year. 

On  the  22nd  day  of  February,  1877,  Sparta  had  been  settled 
for  such  a  length  of  time  tliat  some  of  its  citizens  then  considered 
themselves  "old  settlers"  and  they  liad  a  pioneer  reunion  in 
the  Ida  Hall,  one  at  which  the  loudest  kind  ot  a  time  is  recorded. 
The  principal  movers  in  this  celebration  were  C.  B.  ]Mc('lure, 
Elsa  Rice.  T.  B.  Tyler,  S.  N.  Dickinson,  J.  J.  French.  S.  F.  IIol- 
brook,  r.  AV.  IMcAIillan.  AA\  H.  Blyton,  X.  P.  Lee,  J.  King,  H. 
Austin,  Z.  K.  Jewett,  J.  B.  Palmer. 

In  1887  George  Matchett  assumed  control  of  the  Ida  House, 
which  he  conducted  for  several  years.  Thayer  6c  Kingman 
erected  the  brick  building  now  occu])ied  by  the  Alonroe  County 
Bank  and  in  tlie  same  sunnner  and  at  the  same  time  J.  A.  Harvey 
and  Jacob  Schram  erecte<l   l)ricl<   blocks. 

Early  in  1877  an  excavation  was  conunenced  for  the  building 
of  the  new  AVarner  House  as  it  now  stands  and  in  1879  the 
celebration  of  tlie  comjiletion  of  tliis  building  was  undertaken 
on  a  large  scale;  .).  1).  Coiidil  was  owner  and  builder  and  the 
citizens  took  part  in  this  matter  of  so  dedicating  this  fine  hotel 
structure  in  good  style;  committees  were  appointed  which 
included  the  names  of  prominent  citizens  in  all  of  the  lu^arby 
villages  and  towns  and  invitations  were  issued  quite  generally 
and  which  were  responded  to  very  lilierally.  Guests  arrived 
from  ^Milwaukee,  La  Crosse.  AVin<ma,  Tomah.  Kendall.  Black 
River  Falls,  Alauston  and  even  some  from  St.  Paul  and  ]Minne- 
apolis  to  join  the  festivity,  and  ;i  baiuiuet  was  served,  followed 


by  dancing,  whieh  was  kept  up  until  the  small  hours  of  the 
morning.  The  receipts  of  the  occasion  M'ere  $765.50  and  the 
amount  of  enjoyment  gotten  out  of  the  occasion  by  the  partici- 
pants was  on  an  equally  large  scale. 

On  September  17  of  this  year  Viroqua  celebrated  the  opening 
of  the  new  railroad  known  as  the  "Viroqua  Branch"  from 
Sparta  through  that  city ;  a  special  train  was  run  and  a  large 
number   of   the    citizens    participated    in    the    celebration. 

Having  survived  floods,  fires,  panics  and  other  smaller  draw- 
backs it  still  remained  for  Sparta  to  have  a  cyclone  and  this 
came  in  due  time,  striking  the  city  about  9  :30  on  the  morning 
of  June  10,  1880,  and  for  a  time  the  destruction  of  the  entire 
city  seemed  imminent ;  as  it  was,  the  Chicago,  Mihvaukee  &  St. 
Paul  Railway  engine  house  was  wrecked;  M.  B.  Oster's  hop 
house  was  bloAvn  down;  J.  L.  Woy's  elevator  was  unroofed;  the 
depot  school  house  was  moved  of¥  its  foundation  six  or  eight 
feet  while  school  was  in  session ;  the  roof  was  blown  off  the 
D.  D.  Cheney  building  on  Water  street ;  numerous  chimneys 
w^ere  blowai  down  in  different  parts  of  the  city;  at  the  north 
school  house  the  teacher,  Jessis  McMillan,  and  one  pupil  were 
struck  by  lightning;  Patt  ]\Ioss  also  experienced  a  shock  and 
was  knocked  fiat.  The  house  of  A.  B.  Holden  was  blown  down 
and  the  buildings  on  the  fair  ground  wrecked. 

In  1881  Sparta  arrived  at  the  dignity  of  having  an  opera 
house  with  a  real  stage,  which  was  completed  in  what  was  known 
as  the  Old  Opera  block  by  Ira  A.  Hill  and  T.  B.  Tyler,  who  then 
owned  the  building;  the  stage  Avas  nicely  fitted  up  and  equipped 
with  scenery  and  good  setting  was  furnished  for  the  house  and 
for  a  long  term  of  years  was  the  opera  house  for  entertainments 
of  all  kinds,  including  roller  skating. 

There  Avas  little  of  general  interest  during  the  next  ten  or 
tweh^e  years,  Avith  the  exception  of  the  fact  that  it  Avas  incorpo- 
rated as  a  city  in  1883  and  during  this  period  two  of  Sparta's 
beautiful  churches  Avere  erected  and  the  armory  building  Avas 
also  put  up ;  in  1888  the  Methodist  Church  congregation  erected 
and  completed  their  ncAV  church,  Avhich  has  since  been  remodeled 
and  enlarged,  hoAvever,  but  this  building  Avas  the  first  real  sub- 
stantial structure  OAvned  by  the  ^Methodist  Society. 

In  the  folloAving  year  the  daAvn  of  better  municipal  improve- 
ments came  Avith  the  purchase  of  ]M.  A.  Thayer  of  machinery 
Avitli  AA'hich  to  establish  an  electric  light  plant ;  this  Avas  put  into 
operation  in  a  year  or  tAvo  with  the  main  plant  at  the  village  of 
Angelo,  run  by  Avater  poAver.     This  Avas  the   beginning   of  the 


excellent  electric  lighting  system  "vvliich  is  now  enjoyed  by  the 
inhabitants  of  the  city,  having  been  later  acquired  by  the  0.  I. 
Newton  Sons'  Company  and  enlarged  and  improved  so  that  at 
the  present  time  there  are  two  plants,  one  at  the  Angelo  dam  and 
the  other  at  the  old  paper  mill  dam  in  the  city,  furnishing  street 
lighting  and  power  for  machinery  and  an  excellent  system  of 
lighting  for  stores  and  residences. 

In  1889  the  Congregational  Socidy  comi)leted  its  l)eautiful 
church  ;  and  to  Dr.  "William  Crawford  is  due  great  credit  for  the 
successful  carrying  out  of  this  great  undertaking.  Few  cities 
of  its  size  can  boast  of  so  beautiful  a  church  structure;  after  two 
and  one-half  years  of  struggle  the  society,  on  August  20,  1889, 
held  the  dedicatory  exercises  and  the  church  was  opened  fi»r 
religious  service. 

Following  the  installation  of  an  electric  light  plant  an  agita- 
tion for  a  system  of  water  works  began  in  1890.  but  owing  to 
the  state  of  the  city's  finances  during  that  year  no  move  was 
made  to  install  such  a  system. 

Sparta  having  maintained  a  military  company  for  a  great 
many  years,  being  known  then  as  Company  I  of  the  Third  Regi- 
ment, Wisconsin  National  Guard,  and  the  company  having  occu- 
pied ditferent  buildings  during  its  career  and  suifered  twice 
from  loss  by  fire,  the  patriotic  citizens  of  the  city  got  together 
and  formed  an  Armory  Association ;  George  Dunn  was  elected 
president  and  AVilliam  II.  Blyton  secretary;  this  organization 
took  prompt  steps  towards  the  erection  of  a  commodious  armory; 
stock  was  sold  and  money  sufficient  for  the  purpose  collected, 
and  that  year  a  contract  for  the  building  was  let  to  J.  AV.  Blake, 
of  Viroqua,  for  $4,850;  December  18,  1890,  tlic  Imilding  was 
opened  for  use  by  the  public;  the  dedication  was  observed  l)y 
an  address  by  John  J.  Esch,  which  was  followed  by  a  nuisical 
entertainment,  ])eing  the  production  of  a  "Trial  bv  Jury,"  a 
Gilbert  and  Sullivan  opera  given  by  local  people;  this  building 
was  maintained  for  a  number  of  years  by  the  Armory  Associa- 
tion, being  rented  by  the  military  company  for  its  armory,  and 
has  at  various  times  been  improved;  it  has  now  passed  out  of 
the  hands  of  the  Armory  Association,  as  the  purpose  of  this 
organization  has  been  accomplished,  and  it  is  now  owned  by  the 
Abonita  Guard  Association,  Avhicli  is  the  civil  organization 
comprising  the  members  of  Comi)aiiy  L  of  the  Third  Regiment, 
AVisconsin  National  Guard,  and  such  members  as  have  served  a 
certain  time  of  enlistment  in  the  comi)any ;  the  society  is  prac- 


tieally  free  from  debt  and  improvements  are  under  contempla- 
tion, to  be  made  during  the  year  1912. 

The  Seventh  Day  Advent  Church  was  erected  and  dedicated 
by  the  society  on  the  31st  day  of  May,  1890. 

On  August  19,  1891,  the  corner-stone  of  the  Masonic  Temple 
on  the  corner  of  ]Main  and  Water  streets  was  laid  with  impressive 
ceremonies.  Within  the  stone  were  deposited  articles  of  his- 
torical interest  which  may  some  day  come  to  light.  The  building 
has  been  greatly  improved  since  then  and  is  owned  by  the 
Valley  Lodge  No.  60,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons. 

Coming  down  to  the  year  1896,  an  unprecedented  growth  in 
the  city  by  the  erection  of  business  buildings,  public  buildings 
and  residences ;  it  perhaps  marks  the  year  of  the  greatest  growth 
that  Sparta  has  ever  enjoyed  and  the  cost  and  number  of  the 
buildings  erected  during  that  year  are  worthy  of  note ;  a  com- 
plete list  of  all  the  money  expended  in  building  is  not  here  given, 
but  the  following  is  the  list  of  the  buildings  erected : 

High  school,  $23,000;  grade  school,  $13,000;  boiler  house, 
$850;  depot  primary,  $500;  state  school  buildings,  $7,500;  First 
Baptist  Church,  $5,000;  improvements  on  St.  John's  Church, 

Business  Buildings.— W.  G.  Williams,  $8,000 ;  W.  C.  Hoffman, 
$3,000;  E.  E.  Olen.  $6,000;  C.  E.  Rich,  $1,500;  Roelston  &  Rosing, 
$3,800 ;  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  warehouse,  $2,000 ;  Ira  A. 
Hill,  improvements  to  Opera  block,  $2,000. 

Residences. — F.  W.  Swarthouse,  $4,000 ;  J.  :M.  Fanning.  South 
AYater  street,  $1,600;  E.  I.  AYaring,  Jefferson  avenue,  $700;  H. 
Ranum,  Alontgomerj^  street,  $1,000;  Ben  Phillips,  East  ]\Iain 
street,  $700 ;  D.  F.  Jones,  Water  street,  $1,500 ;  C.  E.  Lake,  Water 
street,  $2.000 ;  J.  E.  Broadwell,  Court  street,  $1,000 ;  AY.  W.  Hub- 
bard, Pearl  street,  $1,200;  B.  E.  McCoy,  South  AYater  street, 
$700;  Charles  Abrahamson,  South  Water  street,  $1,200;  J.  P. 
Rice,  South  Court  street,  $2,000;  P.  S.  Sparling,  $2,000;  John 
Smith,  North  Benton  street,,  $1,200;  D.  A.  Baldwin,  $1,800; 
George  H.  Chaffee,  Long  Court  street,  five  cottages  aggregating 
$7,300 ;  George  Newton,  North  AYater  street,  improvements, 

The  total  amount  which  was  put  into  buildings  and  improve- 
ments for  that  year  was  $115,400. 

It  is  noticeable  how  low  the  amounts  are  as  compared  with 
the  cost  of  building  materials  at  the  present  day. 

In  the  previous  year,  1895,  the  Odd  Fellows  dedicated  their 


new  hall  and  in  tlic  following  year,  1897,  the  Baptist  Church 
was  finished  and  dedicated  on  the  7tli  day  of  February,  and 
the  year  1896  also  saw  the  dedication  of  the  magnificent  new 
court  house  erected  by  the  county  of  ^Monroe;  the  exercises  took 
place  on  the  Lith  day  of  ]\Iarch  in  that  year  and  were  attended 
by  representatives  from  every  town,  village  and  city  in  the 
county  of  ]\Ionroe ;  the  exercises  were  followed  by  a  banquet  in 
the  evening,  with  probably  more  oratory  let  loose  than  had  ever 
before  been  the  case  in  IMonroe  county,  for  it  was  a  proud 
occasion  for  the  citizens  of  this  county;  they  had  erected  and 
completed  a  court  house  which  is  a  model  both  for  beauty  and 
usefulness.  The  excellent  arrangement  of  the  business  offices 
and  court  rooms  and  the  provisions  of  ample  vault  space  for 
several  long  years  to  come,  Avas  a  wise  foresight  of  the  building 

]\Iilitary  circles  were  astonished  l)y  the  fact  that  Company  I 
of  the  Third  Regiment,  AVisconsiu  National  Guard,  was  mustered 
out  in  1895  and  the  citizens  became  thoroughly  aroused  with 
regard  to  the  necessity  of  giving  more  support  to  a  military 
company;  steps  were  immediately  taken  to  reorganize  the  com- 
pany and  a  temporarj^  organization  was  perfected  at  which  T.  0. 
Thorbus  was  elected  captain ;  F.  L.  French,  first  lieutenant,  and 
R.  B.  ]\IcCoy,  second  lieutenant. 

Enlistments  were  rapidly  procured  and  on  July  15,  1S9G,  a 
new  company,  known  as  Company  L,  Third  Regiment,  "Wisconsin 
National  Guard,  was  mustered  in  by  Col.  Charles  King,  the 
adjutant  general  of  the  state  of  AVisconsin,  the  same  official  who 
had  mustered  out  Company  I;  R.  B.  IMcCoy  Avas  mustered  in  as 
captain ;  F.  L.  French  as  first  lieutenant,  and  John  P.  Rice,  second 
lieutenant;  a  large  audience  attended  the  exercises  and  the 
citizens  of  Sparta  felt  that  they  had  redeiMued  themselves  in 
this  particular.  But  there  is  one  thing  Avhich  this  history  will 
not  fail  to  record,  and  that  is  that  while  the  citizens  of  Sparta 
are  patriotic,  they  have  not  at  all  times  interested  themselves 
in  the  military  company  and  it  has  ])een  hard  work  for  the 
officers  of  the  company  to  overcome  the  opposition  which  has 
been  oflfered  t(t  the  enlistment  of  young  men  and  it  has  been 
difficult  at  times  to  nuiintain  the  company  standard. 

Under  Captain  jMcCoy  the  com])any  Avas  rapidly  brought  to 
a  high  state  of  efficiency,  and  none  too  soon,  for  it  Avas  destined 
to  some  actiA'e  service.  Trouble  had  been  brcAving  for  some  time 
in  Cuba  and  early  in  1898  Avar  being  declared  by  this  country 
against   Spain,   there   Avere    exciting   times  in   Sparta.     To   the 


President's  call  for  troops  Wisconsin  quickly  responded,  and  on 
April  28th,  with  tiags  flying,  cheered  by  thousands  of  friends  and 
relatives,  Company  L  boarded  the  special  train  which  carried  a 
part  of  the  Third  regiment  to  Camp  Harvey  at  Milwaukee.  The 
record  of  the  company  is  told  elsewhere  and  is  a  good  one. 

Spring,  summer  and  fall  passed  slowly.  The  boys  at  the  front 
were  sadly  missed.  Eagerly  the  newspapers  were  read  for  news 
of  them  and  a  letter  from  one  of  the  company  in  Porto  Rico  was 
an  event.  The  glad  news  flashed  over  the  wires  the  latter  part 
of  October  that  the  Third  regiment  had  landed  in  New  York. 
Great  preparations  were  made  to  receive  the  company,  and  at 
10 :30  a.  m.,  October  30th,  the  company  arrived,  truly  having  the 
appearance  of  veterans.  The  celebration  was  elaborate  and  joy- 
ful, with  a  note  of  sadness  for  those  who  had  been  left  behind. 

The  war  over,  business  once  more  settled  down  to  its  usual 
routine.  Rumors  came  that  the  American  Cigar  Company  de- 
sired to  establish  a  company  in  this  part  of  the  state  for  the  sort- 
ing of  tobacco,  and  steps  were  immediately  taken  to  secure  the 
locating  of  it,  and  the  efforts  of  the  citizens  who  had  the  matter 
in  charge  were  so  successful  that  in  May,  1899,  assurance  was 
given  that  the  plant  would  come  to  this  city.  Later  on  ground 
was  purchased  and  buildings  were  erected,  which  were  completed 
and  opened  for  business  January  12,  1902 ;  a  capacity  for  the 
handling  of  1,800,000  pounds  of  tobacco,  or  about  60,000  cases, 
and  during  the  sorting  season  the  plant  employs  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  400  hands. 

Other  good  news  came  to  Sparta  in  1899,  and  that  was  the 
purpose  of  H.  J.  Heintz  to  erect  a  salting  station  in  this  city, 
which  was  done  in  that  year,  and  subsequently  enlarged,  proving 
a  great  benefit  to  the  farmers  in  the  vicinity  in  encouraging  the 
raising  of  cucumbers  for  pickles,  for  v\^hich  a  good  price  is  paid. 

AVhat  proved  to  be  the  most  disastrous  flood  ever  experienced 
in  this  city,  or  even  in  the  county,  occurred  on  the  night  of  June 
11th  and  12th  of  1899.  The  day  had  been  pleasant  up  until  6 
o'clock  in  the  evening,  when  a  storm  gathered  and  broke  over 
the  city.  For  a  time  there  was  a  bombardment  of  hail  with  it, 
then  it  settled  down  to  a  steady  downpour  of  rain,  which  con- 
tinued hour  after  hour  nearly  all  night.  An  immense  amount  of 
water  fell.  The  streams,  brooks  and  rivers,  especially  the 
LaCrosse  river  and  Beaver  creek  both  ran  over  their  banks  and 
every  creek  and  little  rivulet  in  this  part  of  the  country  over- 
flowed, washed  out  roads,  cultivated  fields  and  bridges  and 
caused  great  damage.     The  city  got  the  full  force  of  the  storm 


and  tlie  desti'iirtioii  ul'  the  Bacon  dam  followed  the  flood  which 
came  down  l^eaver  creek.  Lnmber,  boards,  and  even  a  hay  stack 
or  two  were  washed  in  with  the  torrent  and  lodged  against  the 
Bacon  dam,  and  in  spite  of  all  that  Mr.  Jiacon,  with  what  help 
he  could  procure,  could  do,  they  were  finally  compelled  to  desist 
and  the  structure  w'cnt  out  and  was  swept  away  down  the  stream. 
AVith  the  rush  of  this  tremendous  force  against  the  northwest 
corner  of  the  Conover  building,  which  stood  near  the  dam,  it 
was  seen  that  the  building  Avas  in  danger.  IMr.  Conover  and  his 
wife,  who  lived  on  the  second  floor  of  the  building,  were  unaware 
of  the  situation,  and  being  warned  they  took  what  clothing  they 
could  carry  and  escaped  from  the  building  just  before  it  was 
undermined  and  sw^ept  info  the  flood.  It  fell  into  the  flood  and 
the  water  drove  the  ruins  of  the  building  against  the  bridge  on 
"Water  street,  and  then  with  a  tremendous  noise  it  was  hurled 
under  the  bridge  and  strewn  all  along  the  stream.  Not  a  vestige 
of  the  building  was  left  where  if  had  stood.  It  was  completely 
swept  away  and  swallowed  up  by  the  flood.  The  C.  E.  Kich 
building  next  to  it  was  threatened  for  some  time,  but  the  flood 
receded.  Forces  were  organized  tow^ard  morning  and  with  ])ags 
of  sand  and  trunks  of  trees  kept  the  flood  away  from  the  build- 
ing. Walrath  creek  rose  to  a  tremendous  height  and  swept  out 
the  ^Miller  and  Kasen  dam,  which  had  just  been  completed  from 
a  former  flood.  Telephone  lines  were  dow^n  and  all  the  bridges 
in  the  city  except  two  -were  out  of  commission.  The  road  to  the 
Northwestern  depot  for  some  time  was  under  two  or  three  feet 
of  wafer,  and  the  whole  river  bottom  below  the  paper  mill  was 
covered,  while  the  houses  adjoining  the  banks  were  partially  sub- 
merged. The  night  of  June  11th  Avas  a  wild  night  in  the  city,  one 
long  to  be  remembered,  for  it  seemed  for  a  time  as  though  the 
tremendous  flood  "woidd  carry  away  a  i)()rfion  of  the  business 
buildings  whiili  were  situated  next  to  Beaver  creek,  and  luckily 
no  lives  were  lost.  No  estimate  has  been  made  of  the  actual 
damage,  but  it  reached  a  large  sum. 

For  the  second  time  Avithin  the  period  of  little  over  a  year 
Sparta  experienced  another  serious  flood  on  the  nights  of  Octo- 
l)er  27th  and  28th.  Beaver  creek,  running  through  the  heart  of 
the  city,  Avith  a  reputation  for  mischief  of  many  years  past,  rose 
to  the  highest  point  if  had  ever  reached,  and  OAving  to  the  fact 
that  the  tAvo  dams  upon  it  Avere  in  better  shape  to  resist  the  flood 
than  ever  before,  no  great  damage  Avas  done.  The  Bacon  and 
Evans  dams,  hoAvever,  both  Aveut  out  eventually  Avifhout  any  in- 
jury to  any  of  the  buildings  around  its  banks,  but  flie  bridge 


approaches  at  Montgomery,  Main  and  Oak  streets  were  severely 
damaged  and  the  abutments  of  the  Oak  street  bridge  were  so 
badly  torn  that  they  had  to  be  rebuilt.  The  LaCrosse  river  also 
rose  rapidly  and  flooded  the  low  sections  between  Railroad  street 
and  Court  street,  which  looked  so  threatening  that  the  fire  alarm 
was  rang  and  the  people  routed  out.  The  LaCrosse  river  reached 
such  a  height  on  Long  court  and  the  flat  in  front  of  it  that  the 
sidewalk  to  the  Northwestern  depot  was  carried  over  to  the  west 
side  of  the  street,  and  some  of  the  dwellings  were  flooded.  Quite 
serious  damage  was  done  at  the  Newton  plant  at  Angelo,  where 
they  Avere  making  extensive  repairs  to  the  dam.  The  coffer-dam 
was  carried  out  and  the  whole  plant  had  a  narrow  escape  from 

As  a  result  of  correspondence  conducted  in  the  previous  year 
or  two  Dr.  F.  P.  Stiles  received  a  letter  dated  February  8,  1902, 
from  Andrew  Carnegie,  agreeing  to  give  $10,000  to  the  city  of 
Sparta  for  the  erection  of  a  public  library.  The  city  council  ac- 
cepted the  offer,  which  resulted  in  the  handsome  building  now  oc- 
cupied by  the  city  library,  which  has  proven  to  be  a  great  boom 
to  the  people  of  the  city. 

In  1903  the  citizens  of  Sparta  planned  and  carried  out  a 
Fourth  of  July  celebration  which  is  worthy  of  note.  The  prepara- 
tions were  elaborate  and  quite  unique.  After  an  immense  parade 
in  the  morning  with  the  usual  exercises,  in  the  afternoon,  upon 
stages  which  had  been  erected  in  the  street,  free  performances 
were  given  for  the  people  by  artists  hired  for  that  purpose,  which 
continued  during  the  entire  afternoon  and  evening.  This  method 
was  so  successful  that  it  has  been  carried  on  in  many  of  the  large 
cities  of  the  state  in  celebrations  of  this  character. 

In  December,  1903,  the  city  of  Sparta  took  an  appeal  from  the 
equalization  of  assessments  made  by  the  county  board  to  the  cir- 
cuit court  of  Monroe  county.  The  board  appointed  Van  S.  Ben- 
nett, of  Viroqua ;  Chester  Lyon,  of  Mauston,  and  C.  S.  Van  Auken, 
of  LaCrosse,  as  the  commissioners.  After  a  thorough  investiga- 
tion and  a  hearing  at  which  a  large  number  of  witnesses  were 
sworn,  the  commission  found  in  favor  of  the  city  of  Sparta  and 
reduced  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  city  from  $1,957,000  to 
$1,859,150,  a  reduction  of  about  $88,000. 

The  year  1904  marked  the  passing  away  of  several  of  Sparta's 
most  prominent  citizens.  On  February  16,  1904,  David  D.  Cheney 
died  at  Biloxi,  Miss.  ]\Ir.  Cheney  was  one  of  the  pioneers 
in  the  city  of  Sparta,  a  man  who  had  accumulated  large  wealth 
by  reason  of  his  excellent  business  ability. 


Soon  afterwai'ds  the  news  flashed  over  tlie  Avires  from  Pasa- 
dena, Cal.,  that  Ira  A.  Hill,  one  of  Sjiartn's  most  prominent 
citizens,  had  died  in  that  city  on  that  date. 

An  event  of  some  historical  importance  occurretl  on  June  o, 

1904,  when  the  famons  Li1)erty  Bell,  from  the  old  statehonse  in 
Boston,  passed  lliroii^ii  iicrc.  being  taken  on  a  trip  Hirouyh  the 
country  so  tluit  llic  people  migfht  see  this  famons  bell.  The  spe- 
cial ti'iiin  carrying-  it  ni'i-ived  hitc  in  the  afternoon  and  halted  at 
the  station  for  about  ;i  luilf  hour,  giving  llic  thousands  of  people 
Avho  had  collected  ample  opportunity  to  view  it.  AVlien  the  train 
pulled  out  three  mighty  cheers  were  given  for  the  "Old  Liberty 
Bell.''  It  certainly  was  a  lesson  to  see  the  reverence  with  which 
this  object  was  viewed  by  the  people  generally. 

On  Sunday  morning,  January  22,  1905,  the  St.  Patrick's 
Catholic  church  was  totally  destroyed  by  fire.  The  fire  started 
in  the  basement  and  before  it  could  be  brought  under  control  the 
entire  church  was  enveloped  in  the  flames.  It  was  an  old  wooden 
building,  which  had  been  first  erected  in  1867  down  near  the 
^Milwaukee  depot  and  moved  to  the  present  location  in  1877.  In 
1883  St.  Patrick's  congregation  was  incorporated.  The  congre- 
gation luckily  had  $1,500  of  insurance  on  the  building,  so  that  it 
was  not  a  total  loss.  Steps  were  innnediately  taken  for  the  erec- 
tion of  the  handsome  new  chiu'ch,  and  on  Sunday,  June  24,  1905, 
the  corner-stone  of  the  new  edifice  was  laid  Avith  impressive  cere- 
monies by  Bishop  Sch.weboch,  of  LaCrosse,  and  on  June  5,  1907. 
the  bishop  again  visited  the  church  and  presided  at  the  dedica- 
tion ceremonies,  which  were  very  elaborate.  The  equal  of  this 
beautiful  Iniilding  is  hard  to  find  in  a  city  of  this  size  anywhere 
in  the  state  of  AVisconsin.  Its  magnificent  proportions  are  very 
sightly  and  tlie  interior  is  handsonu^ly  appointed  and  decorated. 

On  October  2(j,  27  and  2S  the  Western  Wisconsin  Teachers' 
Association  held  its  session  in  this  city.  There  was  an  attendance 
of  over  600  teachers,  with  several  prominent  educators,  among 
them  C.  P.  Cary,  state  superintendent  of  pul)lic  instruction.  This 
meeting  Avas  procured  by  the  efforts  of  Prof.  F.  M.  J.u-k,  who 
Avas  then  superintendent  of  the  Sparta  schools.  The  sessions  of 
the  associ.'ilidu  were  very  interesting  and  instructive  and  tlie 
pul)lic  addresses  delivered  by  Mr.  Cary  ;md  othei-s  were  greatly 
enjoyed  liy  tlu^  citizens  of  Sparta. 

After  a  long  series  of  years  in  Avhich  effoi-ts  hatl  been  made 
to  collect  sufficient  funds,  the  soldiers'  monument  Avas  at  last 
completed.     It  Avas  placed  in  the  North  park,  and  on  May  30. 

1905.  it  Avas  formally  dedicated  and  presented  to  the  city.     The 


celebration  was  in  charge  of  John  W.  Lynn  post,  Grand  Army  of 
the  Republic,  and  a  general  invitation  was  issued  to  the  citizens 
of  the  county  to  participate.  The  Henry  AV.  Cressy  post,  G.  A.  R., 
of  Touiah,  came  over,  accompanied  by  their  friends,  150  strong, 
bringing  their  drum  corps;  and  a  large  representation  was  present 
from  the  towns,  villages  and  cities  of  the  county.  A  dinner  was 
served  at  the  armory  from  11:30  to  12:30,  and  in  the  afternoon  a 
great  parade,  led  by  the  Sparta  band  of  twenty-five  pieces,  headed 
by  Company  L  and  the  Grand  Army  veterans,  passed  through 
the  streets  to  North  park,  where  the  formal  exercises  were  held. 
After  an  address  by  INlr.  Beebe,  giving  the  history  of  the  monu- 
ment, it  was  presented  to  the  city  by  AY.  H.  Blyton,  and  accepted 
in  behalf  of  the  city  by  A.  J.  Carnahan,  president  of  the  city 
council,  after  which  an  eloquent  address  was  delivered  by  Con- 
gressman John  J.  Esch.  Perhaps  to  Dr.  D.  C.  Beebe  more  than 
any  one  man  is  credit  due  for  the  success  of  this  great  under- 
taking. He  exerted  great  efforts  to  bring  it  about,  and  it  was 
one  of  the  proud  moments  of  his  life  that  he  was  able  to  stand 
before  it  and  deliver  his  address,  reciting  the  struggles  wiiich 
had  been  gone  through  to  accomplish  it. 

On  ]May  17,  1907,  the  new  Bank  of  Sparta  building  was  com- 
pleted and  opened  for  business ;  truly  a  handsome  building,  one 
of  the  best  to  be  found  in  this  part  of  the  state,  and  reflects  great 
credit  upon  its  builders  and  the  institution. 

Sparta  has  had  its  full  share  of  fire  and  floods,  especially 
floods,  and  another  disastrous  one  was  experienced  July  21,  1907. 
At  this  time,  however,  the  damage  which  was  done  was  not  very 
serious  and  confined  more  to  one  locality  in  the  city.  The  old 
IMiller  and  Kaiser  dam  at  the  City  mills,  near  the  St.  Paul  depot, 
then  owned  by  Bergman  Brothers,  again  went  out  and  the  flood 
swept  away  the  railroad  bridge  just  below  it.  The  bridge  on  East 
avenue  was  also  let  down  on  one  end  and  so  badly  racked  that 
it  was  some  time  before  it  was  repaired  so  that  travel  could  go 
over  it. 

October  10th  the  local  camps  of  Independent  Order  of  Odd 
Fellows  entertained  the  state  grand  encampment  of  Odd  Fellows. 
IMany  visitors  were  present  and  there  was  a  large  attendance  of 
delegates  from  all  over  the  state. 

During  1908  a  number  of  municipal  improvements  were  under- 
taken, especially  with  regard  to  the  sewer  system  in  various 
parts  of  the  city,  and  the  year  marked  also  the  inauguration  of 
the  free  letter  carrier  system  by  the  post  office  department.  This 
went  into  operation  June  1,  the  city  having  been  divided  into 


three  districts,  and  as  a  result  of  civil  service  examinations  here 
for  the  purpose,  K.  A.  Merrill,  J.  R.  Pulinan  and  IT.  G.  Angle  were 
appointed  carriers. 

Dr.  D.  C.  Beebe,  who  was  postmaster  at  the  time  the  service 
was  inaugurated,  lived  long  enough  to  see  it  in  full  operation 
when  he  passed  away  on  June  9,  1908,  one  of  Sparta's  most  pro- 
gressive and  best  loved  citizens. 

This  year  is  also  marked  by  taking  from  the  ranks  of  its  prom- 
inent men,  Kufus  S,  Dodge,  a  pioneer  merchant,  wlio  died  July 
31,  1908,  very  suddenly.  Tlie  business  which  bears  his  name  is 
one  which  has  attracted  attention  to  the  city  of  Sparta,  and  is 
today  its  principal  mercantile  establishment. 

An  event  of  unusual  interest  in  musical  circles  was  a  band 
carnival  held  on  September  2  and  3,  1908,  which  was  participated 
in  by  two  regimental  bands,  the  Third  Regiment  band  from 
Viroqua  and  the  First  Regiment  band  of  Baraboo,  together  with 
bands  from  Reedsburg,  Tomah  and  Sparta.  They  were  consoli- 
dated into  one  huge  organization,  which  gave  a  parade  in  tlu^ 
business  portions  of  the  city,  making  a  volume  of  tone  which 
sounded  like  an  immense  pipe  organ.  Band  concerts,  horse  rac- 
ing and  various  sports  furnished  amusement  and  enjoyment  to 
the  vast  throng  of  Sparta  people  and  visitors  who  participated. 

The  Fair  store,  opposite  the  Hotel  Lewis,  was  discovered  to  be 
on  fire  early  in  the  morning  of  January  31,  1909,  and  for  a  time 
the  entire  block  of  business  buildings  was  threatened.  The 
weather  Avas  ])itterly  cold,  l)ut  the  firemen  succeeded  in  confining 
the  blaze  in  this  building,  which  was  completely  l)ui'n<Ml  inside, 
and  the  stock  of  general  merchandise,  owned  by  Sam  Herch,  was 
a  total  loss. 

Henry  Esch,  father  of  Congressman  John  J.  Esch,  and  one 
of  the  pioneer  residents  of  the  county,  passed  away  early  in  April 
at  a  ripe  old  age. 

Death  also  claimed  T.  0.  Tliorl)us  on  September  28.  1909.  alter 
a  brief  illness.  ]Mr.  Thornbus  was  a  very  public-spirited  citizen 
and  held  a  prominent  place  in  the  community  for  many  years. 

December,  3909,  marked  the  forming  of  the  Jefferson  Leaf 
Tobacco  Company,  under  the  management  of  \V.  T.  Jefferson, 
formerly  manager  of  the  American  Cigar  Coinpany  plant  in 
Sparta.  The  Jefferson  company  was  incorjiorated  and  imme- 
diately secured  the  Shattuck  building  on  Oak  street,  where  the 
])usiness  of  buying  and  selling  tobacco  is  now  conducted  on  a 
large  scale. 

A  much-needed  improvement  was  made  by  the  city  in  the 


spring  and  summer  of  1910  in  tearing  up  the  old  cedar  pavement 
on  "Water  street,  from  Franklin  street  south  for  several  bloc-ks, 
and  putting  in  brick  pavement  with  a  solid  concrete  foundation. 
The  work  cost  about  $10,000,  the  most  of  which  was  borne  by  the 
adjacent  property. 

Old  residents  were  made  happy  in  ]\Iay  by  a  visit  of  Gov. 
James  N.  Gillett,  of  California,  to  his  boyhood  home.  Sparta 
claims  Governor  ''Jim"  as  its  own,  and  he  seemed  to  enjoy  meet- 
ing old  friends  and  acquaintances  immensely  and  spent  several 
days  looking  them  up.  The  governor  is  one  of  the  tine  examples 
of  what  an  American  boy,  without  advantages,  can  make  of  him- 
self, and  his  autobiography  in  another  chapter  should  be  read  by 

On  IMay  25,  1910.  at  precisely  2:48  in  the  afternoon,  the 
first  spike  was  driven  on  the  ^Milwaukee,  Sparta  &  Northwestern 
Railway  at  the  starting  point  of  this  new  road  in  this  city.  The 
honor  of  performing  this  ceremony  was  given  to  AVilliam  M. 
Forseman,  the  agent  of  the  Northwestern  company  at  Sparta,  and 
was  accomplished  in  the  presence  of  several  officials  of  the  new 
company  and  many  citizens,  thus  marking  another  epoch  in  the 
railway  history  of  the  city  of  Sparta  and  one  which  undoubtedly 
will  prove  to  its  advantages  in  the  future. 

After  long  efforts  Congressman  Esch  was  enabled  to  wire  to 
Postmaster  Brandt  in  June,  1910,  the  good  news  that  he  had  se- 
cured an  appropriation  of  $60,000  with  which  to  purchase  a  site 
and  erect  a  government  postoffice  building  in  Sparta.  Later  on 
the  postoffice  department  sent  a  representative  to  the  city  to 
select  a  site,  and  after  a  thorough  investigation  this  official  an- 
nounced his  decision,  favoring  the  lots  back  of  the  AYarner  House 
on  the  corner  of  Main  and  Court  streets,  including  the  Hemstock 
dray  barn  property.  This  site  Avas  subsequently  purchased  and 
a  commodious  postoffice  building,  containing  offices  for  the  offi- 
cials of  the  government  military  reservation,  will  undoubtedly  be 
erected  within  a  year  or  two  from  the  publication  of  this  M'ork. 

Two  of  Sparta's  pioneer  citizens  passed  away  in  1911.  L.  S. 
Fisher,  many  years  postmaster,  died  March  17th,  and  John 
Moffat,  one  of  the  earliest  settlers,  who  did  much  in  the  upbuild- 
ing of  Sparta,  died  ]\Iarch  27th. 

The  year  as  a  whole  was  uneventful,  marked  onlv  bv  the  nat- 
ural  growth  of  business,  retarded  somewhat  by  the  rather  strin- 
gent financial  situation  which  prevailed  for  a  time  throughout  the 

The  Sparta  of  1912  is  truly  a  beautiful,  progressive,  modern 


littk'  city,  Avith  its  4,0(10  pcoj)!!'  l)iisy  in  vai-ioiis  Avalks  of  life;  its 
miles  of  paved  .streets,  with  beautiful  lioulevards  in  some  por- 
tions; a  little  city  whose  inhal)itants  have  given  it  a  reputation 
not  only  for  business,  })ut  as  a  eleanly  and  well  kept  town;  care- 
fully elip|)f(l  lawns,  well  li'iuimcd  sliadc  trees,  homes  neatly 
painted,  all  combine  in  the  title  so  often  heard,  "Beautiful 


A  woman,  a  rare  and  noble  soul,  whose  name  is  numbered 
among  the  pioneers  of  '55,  was  given  the  task  of  first  establishing 
the  cause  of  education  in  the  little  village  on  the  banks  of 
Beaver  creek,  and  it  was  not  a  task  which  she  undertook  at  a 
request  of  any  school  board,  but  because  she  was  a  large-hearted, 
kind  woman,  well  educated  and  bright,  whose  pity  was  aroused 
by  the  children  of  this  little  village  roaming  the  streets  without 
school  advantages,  that  Elizabeth  Trux  voluntarily  assumed  the 
duties  of  teacher,  procured  a  room  and  gathered  around  her 
eighteen  pupils  and  thus  inaugurated  the  cause  of  education  in 
Sparta,  aud  it  grew  mightily  with  the  passage  of  time,  from 
1855,  when  the  first  school  house  was  built,  to  the  present.  Her 
own  language  will  convey  the  difficulty  which  was  encountered 
by  ]\Irs.  Trux  in  this  little  pioneer  school,  and  we  here  quote 
from  an  article  written  by  her  in  1897  the  following: 

"As  there  was  no  school  here  Avhen  we  came  and  I  had  had 
some  experience  as  a  teacher,  I  opened  a  school  on  the  6th  day 
of  April,  1855,  with  eighteen  children.  Besides  teaching  them 
to  read  and  spell  I  taught  them  to  sew  and  to  work  perforated 
cardboard  and  often  kept  them  with  me  for  company  until  tea 
time,  sometimes  taking  them  out  to  pick  flowers  and  Avinter- 
greens ;  I  think  they  were  all  very  happy  and  I  am  sure  I  was, 
for  I  loved  the  little  ones  dearly.  There  was  at  that  time  a  frame 
building  on  the  corner  of  Oak  and  "Water  streets,  now  occupied 
by  the  Williams  block,  facing  Oak  street,  containing  three  rooms. 
One  was  ]\Ir.  S.  D.  Jackson's  store,  another  the  postoffice,  and 
as  the  other  had  just  been  vacated  we  were  fortunate  to  secure  it. 
Here  we  kept  house  and  taught  school  in  the  same  room.  In 
about  two  weeks  jMr.  Pott  and  J\lr.  Scheler  with  their  families 
came  from  Pennsylvania  and  bought  the  building,  so  we  were 
obliged  to  move  into  one  room  of  what  was  known  as  the  'Old 
Log  Fort,'  which  stood  just  back  of  where  Mr.  Foster's  harness 
store  now  stands,  facing  Water  street.  Mr.  Thomas  Blyton's 
people  lived  in  the  next  room  and  another  family  in  the  back 



room.  Uur  room  contained  onr  cook  stove,  l)ed,  and  such  other 
furniture  as  ■we  possessed,  witli  the  same  benches  made  of  slabs 
that  we  had  in  the  other  school  room.  More  children  came  until 
Avo  had  twenty-eight  in  that  small  room  and  it  was  pretty  well 
tilh'd.  In  a  few  weeks  ]\lr.  Blyton's  people  moved  into  a  house 
they  had  built  and  I  had  the  room  they  vacated  for  a  school 
room ;  new  families  came  with  more  children,  and  our  number 
increased  until  we  had  forty-seven.  "When  tlie  school  had  been 
rnnning  a  little  more  than  tAvo  months  Mr.  Edward  Canfield,  who 
owned  the  house,  came  from  Connecticut  Avith  his  family  and 
Avanted  the  Avhole  of  it.  so  the  school  had  to  be  giA'en  up  for 
Avant  of  a  room  in  Avhich  to  hold  it. 

"In  June  the  first  school  house  Avas  built  on  tlie  present  site 
of  the  West  Primary  and  is  noAv  occupied  as  a  residence  in  the 
southAvestern  part  of  the  city. 

"Miss  Ann  Shepherd,  an  experienced  teacher  from  Fond  du 
Lac,  Avas  the  first  teacher  in  the  first  public  school.  I  taught 
as  a  substitute  for  her  for  one  month  Avhile  she  Avas  sick,  and 
such  a  school  Avas  never  taught  before ;  there  Avere  one  hundred 
pupils  of  all  ages,  from  all  parts  of  the  county,  Avith  the  books 
they  had  brought  Avith  them,  and  as  there  Avere  no  books  to  be 
bought  in  Sparta,  there  Avere  no  two  books  alike,  Avhich  made 
each  pupil  a  separate  class,  and  made  it  \'ery  hard  for  the 
teacher,  as  avcII  as  for  the  scholars.  I  sometimes  Avonder  if  the 
members  of  our  schools  at  the  present  time  can  appreciate  the 
Avonderful  |)i-iviloges  they  have  in  getting  an  education." 

Pioneer  days  in  the  schools  Avere  pretty  much  alike  in  this 
county,  a  story  of  struggles  for  better  things,  better  school  houses, 
better  equipments,  better  teachers,  better  everything  that  starts 
the  young  American  on  his  Avay  in  the  Avorld  Avith  something  of 
an  education,  Avhether  he  is  rich  or  poor;  and  progress  at  times 
found  hanging  on  her  skirt  the  old  saying,  "What  is  good  enough 
for  our  forefathers  is  good  enough  for  us"  fallacy,  but  be  it 
said  to  the  credit  of  the  good  sense  of  the  citizens  of  Sparta 
exercised  as  a  Avhole  that  running  through  all  the  years  has  been 
a  disposition  to  give  to  the  schools  anything  Avhich  in  reason 
ought  to  l)e  provided,  a  loyalty  Avhich  has  borne  rich  fruit  in 
the  past  and  Avill  continue  to  do  so  in  the  future. 

Perluips  there  is  no  subject  more  choice  to  the  people  than 
the  history  of  the  schools  of  any  community,  for  in  a  great  degree 
characters  are  built,  careers  mapped  out.  iuul  i)erhaps  men  of 
history  here  receive  the  fundamental  education  upon  Avhich  to 


build  for  the  future.  But  of  the  details  of  the  earlier  years  little 
can  be  gathered;  with  the  gradual  change  of  methods  and  better 
equipments  the  village  schools  kept  pace  with  modern  methods, 
resulting  in  the  establishment  of  a  high  school  which  was  accom- 
plished during  the  time  of  Professor  Bloomingdale.  Of  him  no 
better  description  can  be  given  than  that  which  is  contained  in 
an  article  written  by  Dr.  D.  C.  Beebe  in  1897,  after  long  service 
on  the  school  board,  from  which  we  quote  as  follows : 

"I  see  way  back  in  the  '60s  an  important  personage  in  educa- 
tional affairs  here.  He  really  is  the  pioneer,  for  no  worthy 
pretentions  to  aggressive  educational  work  were  made  here 
before  his  time.  He  was  rough  in  manner,  untidy  in  dress,  of 
strong  personality,  had  a  tender  heart,  and  an  unflinching  cour- 
age that  never  forsook  his  convictions,  let  come  what  would. 
Closely  allied  and  almost  inseparable,  w^as  the  educational  insti- 
tution of  the  place  at  that  time — the  new  brick  school  building 
just  finished  and  equipped. 

"Prof.  J.  Bloomingdale  was  not  only  principal  and  superin- 
tendent of  the  Sparta  schools,  but  he  was  the  oracle,  the  com- 
pendium, the  beginning  and  end  of  all  matters  that  savored  of 
public  education.  He  planned  with  great  nicety  the  new  school 
building,  and  superintended  its  construction  with  jealous  care; 
and  when  it  was  completed,  it  was  to  him  the  embodiment  of  all 
that  was  then  worth  knowing  in  school  architecture.  I  remem- 
ber distinctly  the  first  quasi-theatrical  that  I  enjoyed  in  the  new. 
building  on  one  public  Friday.  It  was  a  grand  success.  The 
house  was  filled  Avith  proud  fathers  and  mothers.  The  stage 
appointments  were  admirable,  and  the  costumes  of  the  players 
all  that  the  delighted  patrons  could  wish.  The  principal,  with 
unshaven  face  and  bushy,  frouzled  hair,  seemed  enveloped  in  a 
halo  of  glory  as  the  good  work  went  on. 

"Professor  Bloomingdale  was  a  type  and  teacher  of  the  old 
school,  and  as  such  he  held  the  ground  without  a  rival.  Death 
called  him  home  before  his  eyes  ever  saw  the  dawn  of  the  new 
educational  era.  AYhat  seemed  to  him  to  be  the  acme  of  school- 
house  perfection  fell  far  short  of  what  is  demanded  for  our 
children  today. ' ' 

The  building  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  quotation  was  the 
brick  high  school  building  built  on  the  present  site  of  the 
grade  school  in  1868-69  at  a  cost  of  about  $13,000,  and  was  con- 
sidered at  that  time  as  a  high  school  building  well  in  advance 
of  the  usual  buildings  devoted  to  this  purpose.     How  the  school 


systi'iii  developed  is  eoiieisely  Mild  (Mitirely  described  hy  AVilliam 
J  I.  JMytou  in  iin  .irtiele  on  llie  Sparta  S(.'lio(,ls,  from  wliieh  we 
quote  very  i'rcely  as  follows: 

"Prior  to  ]87()  the  progress  of  our  sehools  Avas  retarded  by 
false  notions  of  economy.  To  1)e  sure,  we  lind  built  fi'om  lime 
to  time  fairly  good  school  buildings,  but  evidently  hut  little  care 
Avas  given  to  the  matter  of  selecting  experienced  teachers.  If  a 
suitable  and  competent  principal  Avas  secured  it  seemed  to  be  the 
policy  of  the  authorities  to  fill  the  other  places  in  the  schools 
at  the  lowest  possible  cost.  Not  until  after  a  special  meeting  of 
the  electors  of  the  district,  Avliich  was  held  on  the  27th  of  July, 
1876,  at  which  time  the  people  there  present  unanimously  re- 
solved to  organize  a  free  high  school  district  under  the  laAV  of 
the  state,  being  chapter  322,  general  laAvs  of  1875,  Avas  sufficient 
attention  given  to  the  selection  of  sul)ordinate  teachers  and 
adoptiiig  Avholesome  rules  and  regulations.  AVhen  this  Avas  done 
the  school  seemed  to  at  once  spring  into  neAV  life  and  began  to 
attract  attention.  Sparta  schools  had  been  under  the  immediate 
care  and  direction  of  Professors  Bloomingdale,  Smith,  Cummings, 
AVinter  and  Clark,  and  the  corps  of  teachers  liaA^e  been  increased 
from  seven  in  1870  to  sixteen  in  1897.  The  question  of  providing 
more  and  better  accommodations  for  the  school  appeared  to  liaA^e 
been  settled  for  all  time,  as  many  of  our  people  then  supposed,  by 
the  erection  of  the  high  school  building  in  1868-69  at  a  cost  of 
$13,000,  but  as  the  population  of  the  district  increased  the  demand 
for  more  and  better  school  buildings  became  so  f>ressing  that  not- 
Avithstanding  the  additions  and  alterations  heretofore  made  to 
the  several  buildings  the  school  board  iit  the  annual  district  meet- 
ing on  July  1,  1895,  reported  as  folloAvs : 

"  'The  problem  of  Avhat  Ave  are  to  do  Avitli  oui-  overeroAvded 
school  Avithout  more  school  loom.  has  conl'ronted  the  school  board 
for  more  than  a  year.  When  the  present  high  school  building 
Avas  built  the  school  census  of  the  district  shoAved  betAveen  oOO 
and  600  ehildi'en  of  school  age,  tln^  census  just  taken  shoAVS  over 
one  thousand  children  of  school  age.  It  has  finally  come  to  this — 
something  must  be  done,  some  plan  must  be  devised  that  Avill  re- 
lieve these  overeroAvded  schools  or  they  Avill  greatly  suffer  for 
the  ensuing  yeai".  Indeed,  if  no  relief  is  provided  the  board  is 
of  tile  opinion  thai  the  half-day  plan  should  be  a(lo])ted  and 
preferable  to  crowding  so  many  pupils  together.'  Upon  the  fore- 
going report  and  at  the  suggestion  of  many  citizens  the  people 
Avere  jirompted  to  act,  and  the  result  Avas  finally  recorded  on  July 
8,  1895,  by  the  adoption  of  proper  b^gal  resolutions  authorizing 


tlie  raising  of  necessary  funds  to  purchase  additional  ground  and 
to  build  a  new  high  school  building." 

"The  school  board  immediately  took  the  proper  steps  to  secure 
the  necessary  ground,  caused  plans  and  specifications  to  be  pre- 
pared for  such  new  building,  and  on  the  26th  day  of  September, 
1895,  awarded  the  contract  for  the  ncAV  building  to  L.  V. 
Huschka,  of  Sparta,  for  the  sum  of  $18,379.66,  and  work  thereon 
was  promptly  begun,  and  the  present  high  school  building  was 
completed  and  ready  for  occupancy  September  1,  1896.  The 
destruction  of  the  old  high  school  building  by  fire  on  December 
2,  1895,  again  called  for  prompt  action  and  an  additional  outlay 
of  money.  Again  the  people  were  assembled  in  special  meeting 
on  December  30,  1895,  to  authorize  the  construction  of  a  new 
building  to  take  the  place  of  the  one  destroyed,  which  was  done 
without  a  dissenting  voice.  On  July  6,  1896,  at  the  annual  meet- 
ing of  the  district,  more  money  was  voted  and  the  result  of  the 
action  of  the  taxpayers  in  tiie  district  is  the  two  fine,  substantial 
school  buildings  of  which  we  are  all  so  justly  proud.  AYith  the 
loss  of  the  West  Primary  building  by  fire  on  January  3,  1892.  the 
high  school  building  on  December  2,  1895,  and  the  AY.  C.  T.  U. 
building,  in  Avhie-h  the  high  school  Avas  temporarily  located,  on 
April  6,  1896,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  duties  of  the  school  officers 
and  teachers  have  not  been  altogether  easy  to  perform  and  the 
demands  on  the  taxpayers  by  no  means  light.  How^ever.  we  have 
survived  and  today  M^e  are  in  possession  of  fine  buildings  and 
equipments  which  have  cost  as  follows : 

"High  school  building,  $18,379.66;  seating  and  furnishing, 
$938.75 ;  intermediate  building,  $12,280 ;  seating  and  furnishing, 
$628.55;  Depot  school  building,  $601.05;  boiler  house  and  boiler, 
$1,703;  East  Primary  building,  $1,200;  AYest  Primary  building, 
$1,020.55;  estimated  value  of  school  grounds,  $9,800;  making  a 
grand  total  of  $49,551.56  invested  for  school  purposes.  The  an- 
nual current  expenses  of  conducting  the  schools  have  increased 
from  $6,668.21  in  1876  to  $11,617.76,  being  an  increase  of 
$4,919.52.  AYhile  this  is  cpiite  a  large  increase  it  is  not  so  large  in 
proportion  as  the  increase  in  the  number  of  scholars." 

The  above  article,  written  in  1897,  certainty  shows  a  remark- 
able amount  of  progress  made  in  the  building  of  buildings  and 
equipping  the  high  school  and  the  ward  schools  of  the  city,  and 
since  that  time  new  school  houses  have  been  built  for  the  depot 
primary  and  the  east  and  west  primaries  so  that  the  buildings 
now  owned  l)y  the  school  district  are  all  modern  and  up-to-date 
in  every  particular,  and  with  the  addition  of  a  department   of 


domestic  science  and  anotlier  of  manual  training  in  connection 
-svitli  the  high  school,  has  brought  the  Sparta  schools  down  to  the 
present  time  as  thoroughly  ecpiipped  and  efficiently  managed, 
giving  all  the  advantages  that  any  high  school  in  the  state  can 
offer,  except,  perhaps,  not  as  complete  equipped  in  the  laboratory 
for  scientific  investigation  or  as  large  a  reference  library  as  is 

Tlie  training  of  the  child  has  indeed  largely  changed  in  the 
last  forty  or  fifty  years;  not  only  in  the  course  of  study  arranged 
for  his  benefit  mentally,  but  also  much  attention  is  paid  to  the 
pliysical  growth  and  restraints  of  bad  habits  of  body.  Sensible, 
muscle-making  and  health-giving  athletic  exercises  are  now  rec- 
ognized as  of  imperative  importance.  A  substantial  foundation 
for  special  or  professional  work  is  now  laid  in  the  high  school. 
For  not  only  is  domestic  science  and  manual  training  taught,  but 
stenography,  typewriting,  bookkeeping  and  commercial  pursuits 
are  also  a  part  of  the  courses  of  study.  Scientific  methods  of  in- 
quiry on  particular  lines  of  knowledge  as  developed  through 
laboratory  work  and  in  other  ways  in  bringing  practical  educa- 
tion to  every  high  school  student,  in  fact,  in  all  lines  and  in  all 
courses  of  study  the  Sparta  high  school  has  proved  to  be  one  of 
the  best  and  has  turned  out  many  fine  examples  of  young  Ameri- 
can manhood  and  Avomanhood.  whose  careers  as  citizens  in  various 
parts  of  the  country  have  demonstrated  the  thoroughness  with 
which  the  foundition  of  their  education  and  physical  lives  was 


In  the  earlier  days  in  the  high  school  baseball  was  more  or 
less  prominent,  and  in  fact  was  the  principal  game  to  wliich  at- 
tention Avas  devoted  by  the  students,  and  perlmj)s  was  never 
better  played  than  in  the  time  of  Professor  AVinters.  At  that 
time  the  McCoy  boys,  S.  H.  Burroughs,  Palmer.  Reck  brothers. 
Caliioun  and  Leyden  were  almost  expert  players.  Later  came 
Gould,  Burr  and  ^Moseley,  who  had  foremost  parts  in  connection 
Avith  the  game.  In  the  spring  of  '96  Sparta  won  the  champion- 
shij)  of  the  AVestern  AVisconsin  High  Schools  for  ])aseball.  Track 
and  field  athletics  began  with  the  advent  of  ^Ir.  A.  F.  Barnard 
as  a  teacher  in  the  school  during  '94  and  '95.  A  field  day  was 
held  in  June,  189.").  l)etween  tlie  ^lauston  and  Sparta  schools  at 
the  latter  place,  and  Sparta  won  many  of  the  events.  This  was 
nothing  more  than  a  start,  however,  and  during  the  succeeding 
year   a   league   was   formed   called  "The   West   AVisconsin   High 


School  Athletic  League,""  which  had  in  view  the  promotion  and 
maintenance  of  general  athletics  and  comprising  the  towns  of  Vi- 
roqua.  Tomah,  JMauston  and  Sparta,  and  the  field  day  between 
the  teams  representing  these  several  towns  was  held  at  Sparta, 
June  6,  1896.  This  league  was  maintained  for  two  or  three  years, 
l)ut  owing  to  the  lack  of  support  on  the  part  of  the  various  or- 
ganizations, it  was  finally  dropped. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  more  records  were  not  kept  of  the 
various  athletic  events  during  the  past  years  with  which  the 
high  school  has  been  connected,  but  as  a  rule  since  '96,  when 
athletics  took  in  a  larger  field  of  events,  including  football  and 
the  ordinary  track  and  field  sports,  the  Sparta  high  school  has 
maintained  a  prominent  place  in  high  school  athletics  and  at 
times  has  taken  a  championship  or  two. 

Particular  attention  during  the  latter  years  has  been  paid  to 
the  football  team,  and  perhaps  the  greatest  success  was  attained 
by  the  team  of  1908,  under  the  captainship  of  Earle  Jefferson, 
when  the  Sparta  team,  having  defeated  LaCrosse  in  past  contests 
for  seven  straight  times  on  the  home  grounds,  an  exciting  game 
was  played  at  LaCrosse  between  the  two  teams  on  Thanksgiving 
day.  Fully  five  hundred  people  went  to  LaCrosse  on  that  day  to 
witness  the  game  and  give  moral  and  ''vocal"  support  to  the 
Sparta  team.  The  game  was  close,  well  contested  and  exciting 
throughout,  the  score  finally  being  twelve  to  ten  in  favor  of 
Sparta,  and  this  added  eight  straight  victories  over  LaCrosse.  It 
was  indeed  a  victory,  for  LaCrosse  had  been  very  energetic  in 
perfecting  her  team  and  had  gone  to  considerable  expense  in 
employing  a  coach,  the  home  team  having  been  coached  l)y  Dr. 
Barlow,  a  dentist  residing  in  the  city,  himself  an  athlete  and 
deeply  interested  in  everything  that  pertained  to  athletics.  An 
athletic  association  exists  in  connection  with  the  high  school  to 
which  students  are  eligible,  and  it  is  connected  with  the  Inter- 
scholastic  Athletic  Association  of  AVisconsin,  under  the  rules  of 
which  all  contests  are  held. 


A  little  quarterly  magazine,  entiled  The  Spartan,  is  published 
by  the  students  of  the  high  school,  which  originated  in  the  early 
part  of  the  fall  term  of  1885.  Numerous  publications  were 
received  from  different  schools  and  colleges  in  Wisconsin  and 
the  neighboring  states,  among  them  being  the  University  Press 
and  Badger  of  our  own  state.  As  these  papers  continued  to  arrive 
and  were  almost  invariably  accompanied  by  requests  for  an  ex- 


cliaii^c.  tlic  idea  yratlually  sugyi-stt'd  ilself  that  tlie  liigli  school 
might  be  able  to  get  out  a  journal  of  its  own,  and  after  consider- 
able investigation  it  was  finally  decided  to  i)ul)lisii  a  school  ])ai)ci-, 
and  witli  that  end  in  xicw  tlic  studcnls  ])i-oceeded  to  elect  a  board 
of  editors,  and  The  Spartan  made  its  first  appearance  on  the  20th 
of  November,  1880.  In  its  first  issue  the  purpose  of  the  publica- 
tion was  set  torlli  as  follows: 

The  Spai'tan  aims  first,  to  ])e  a  true  representative  of  the 
Sparta  High  School.  It  is  to  be  the  pi-oduction  of  the  scholars 
as  a  body.  Its  columns  will  always  be  open  for  the  expression  of 
honest  opinions,  and  the  only  test  for  the  admission  of  articles 
will  be  merit  and  originality.  We  purpose  to  insert  each  montli 
several  original  essays  on  live  subjects,  subjects  that  will  Ite 
interesting  both  to  the  students  and  to  the  community  at  large. 
No  pains  will  be  spared  in  iiuiking  the  alumni  column  one  of  the 
most  valual)lo  departments  of  llie  paper,  for  we  wish  The  Spartan 
to  be  indispensable  to  all  graduates  and  former  students  of  the 
school."  The  editorial  board  of  the  publication  was  selected 
from  different  classes,  each  class  having  one  or  more  represent- 
atives. At  the  outset  it  was  the  intention  to  publish  the  pai)er 
once  each  month,  but  oAving  to  the  amount  of  school  work  tnat 
was  not  always  found  adv«isable,  so  that  it  resolved  publications 
of  four  numbers  each  year. 

Outside  of  the  articles  coutril)uted  by  students  there  have 
been  frequent  articles  by  the  alunnii  and  former  members  of  the 
school,  which,  from  time  to  time,  have  proved  of  great  interest. 
It  is  the  plan  of  each  board  of  editors  to  produce  an  attractive 
and  valuable  magazine,  and  particular  attention  is  paid  to  the 
printing  and  illustrations.  The  paper  is  supported  pi-incipally 
from  subscriptions  of  the  students  and  alumni  and  (piite  an 
amount  is  also  received  from  advertisements,  and  the  business 
and  professional  nu'u  of  the  city  are  glad  to  render  assistance  to 
this  meritoi'ious  work  by  giving  small  advertisements,  which  are 
carried  throughout  the  yeai'.  The  little  paper  has  proved  to  be 
of  considerable  value  in  |>n'S('rviiig  in.  this  form  tlu^  records  of 
graduating  classes  and  of  some  atliletic  events,  and  also  oratorical 
contests  and  debates.  It  was  published  for  two  years.  com]ileting 
two  volumes  of  eight  nund)ers  each,  aftei-  which  the  publication 
was  di'opped  for  a  luuuber  of  years.  Jt  was  finally  revived  in 
1898  and  1ms  been  published  continuously  ever  since,  having 
reached  its  fifteenth  \olume  in  the  school  year  of  1911  and  1912, 
and  now  is  one  of  the  pcnnaiiciit  institutions  of  the  high  school. 



Numerous  societies  sprung  up,  had  their  day,  and  were  no 
more,  especially  those  of  a  musical  nature,  although  in  1908, 
1909  and  1910  a  very  creditable  glee  club  was  maintained  among 
the  boys  of  the  high  school  known  as  the  ''Owl  Glee  Club."  It 
has  a  membership  of  something  like  twenty  voices,  and  was  quite 
successful  in  its  work.  There  was  also  a  girls'  glee  club,  called 
the  "Greig  Choral  Society,"  and  in  the  fall  of  1909  a  high  school 
orchestra  made  its  bow  to  the  public  and  proved  to  be  a  very 
popular  organization  during  its  one  or  two  seasons  of  existence. 
The  oldest  society  in  point  of  years  is  the  Jefferson  Debating 
Club  for  boys,  which  was  organized  during  the  fall  of  1897  and 
has  been  in  existence  ever  since.  This  is  a  society  conducting  de- 
bates and  literary  exercises  and  has  developed  good  material  and 
furnished  several  debating  teams,  which  in  the  past  has  held 
up  the  honor  of  Sparta  High  in  contests  Avith  other  schools. 

The  Girls'  Athena  Society,  a  debating  club,  is  also  successfully 
maintained,  and  its  meetings  have  proved  to  be  interesting  and 
instructive  to  its  members.  The  athletic  society  has  been 
previously  mentioned.  But,  perhaps,  the  most  interesting  asso- 
ciation from  the  point  of  its  membership  is,  of  course,  the 
Alumni  Association,  which  numbers  as  its  members  all  of  the 
living  graduates  of  the  Sparta  High  School.  This  association 
meets  once  a  year,  during  the  holiday  season,  between  Christmas 
and  New  Year's,  and  indulges  usually  in  a  reception  and  a  ban- 
quet, followed  by  a  program  of  varied  interest. 

This  society  numbers  among  its  members  many  who  have 
achieved  prominence  in  different  walks  of  life.  They  are  scat- 
tered in  many  states  and  to  attempt  to  enumerate  them  would 
be  a  task  indeed,  and  we  will  be  content  with  mentioning  here 
some  of  the  more  prominent.  Of  course  there  comes  to  the  mind 
at  once  the  name  of  John  J.  Esch,  who  has  achieved  a  national 
reputation  in  congress  as  the  representative  from  this  district ; 
Frank  Oster,  Julian  Bennett  and  Howard  Teasdale,  all  have 
been  mentioned  in  a  previous  chapter  on  the  legal  fraternity ; 
Corwin  J.  Steele,  of  the  class  of  '77,  became  a  prominent  physician 
at  Milwaukee,  AVis. ;  Dr.  Carl  Beebe  and  Dr.  Spencer  Beebe, 
now  both  of  this  city,  prominent  physicians  in  this  part  of  the 
state ;  Dr.  Albert  J.  Miller,  of  the  class  of  '92,  who  served  in  the 
Philippines  in  the  United  States  troops,  and  is  now  located  in 
California;  A.  R.  Smith,  of  '87,  an  attorney  practicing  at  Bara- 


1)00;  R.  B.  ]\U-Coy.  at  i)resent  county  judge  of  IMonroe  county; 
S.  R.  Burrouglis,  quite  prominent  in  insurance  circles,  who  en- 
gages ill  luisiness  now  in  Sparta.  There  are  c|uite  a  number  of 
the  legal  fraternity  who  did  not  graduate  from  the  Sparta  High 
School  but  received  a  portion  of  thcii-  education  in  it.  who  are  all 
referred  to  in  a  previous  chapter  on  the  "legal  fraternity." 

Among  the  alumna^  may  be  mentioned  ]\Iiss  Laura  Miller,  now 
a  prominent  educator  in  ^Montana  ;  ]\Iiss  Bell  Ady,  who  graduated 
from  the  school  in  '81,  afterwards  taking  a  course  of  music  in 
the  Boston  Conservatory,  and  for  some  time  filled  a  position  in 
the  Sparta  school ;  Mary  L.  Bisbee,  a  poet  of  her  school  genera- 
tion, now  in  California.  But  to  go  over  the  whole  list  will  con- 
sume more  space  than  Ave  can  devote  to  the  subject  and  it  will 
suffice  to  say  that  the  graduates  of  Sparta  High  School  as  a  rule 
have  made  good. 

The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  the  graduates  of  Sparta 
High  School,  arranged  by  classes,  from  1877  to  and  including 

Class  of  1877 — ]Mary  E.  Greene,  Emma  ]McKeu/.ie,  ]Mary 
McKenzie,  AVilliam  J.  Hughes,  Lizzie  H.  Palmer,  Annie  Streetou 
and  Corwin  J.  Steele. 

Class  of  1878 — Addie  Ellis,  AV.  F.  SaAvyer,  Hallie  Smith,  Julian 


Bennett.  R.  F.  Jones,  Fannie  Palmer.  Eliza  Canfield,  Frank  Oster, 
Jessie  ]\IcjMillan,  J.  C.  Prill,  Kate  IrAvin,  HoAvard  Teasdale,  John 
J.  Esch,  Stella  Brock,  E.  K.  Holden  and  Lizzie  Hill. 

Class  of  1879 — Jennie  Wells,  ]\Iary  Harr,  ]\Iary  ]\IorroAV, 
Charles  J.  Smith,  Sarah  Gould,  ]\Iary  Foote,  Josie  Fisk,  Charles 
L.  Smith.  Lillie  Sarles,  Nellie  Harvey,  Florence  Thayer,  AVilliam 
Graves  and  Ella  James. 

Class  of  1881 — Angle  DorAvin,  ^Mamie  ^Merrill,  Franc  ]\IcMil- 
lan.  Belle  Ady,  Lottie  King  and  Etta  Kilmer. 

Class  of  1882 — George  Grossman.  Alviii  Regan,  Addie  ]\I.  Sa- 
bin,  Fannie  Cook,  "NVm.  F.  Jones,  Louis  Brooks,  Jennie  ]McAIillan 
and  Gertie  Bancroft. 

Class  of  1883— Stella  Bancroft  and  Luella  Tyler. 

Class  of  1884 — George  Petis,  Flora  Dalaba,  Lou  BaldAvin, 
I\Iamie  Sarles,  Anna  Beckler.  ^Minnie  Lee,  George  Stevens,  Neeta 
]5aldwin,  Nellie  Hanchett  and  Carl  Beebe. 

Class  of  1886— Franc  C.  Angle,  George  E.  Gray,  Rose  E.  Hel- 
ler, ]\Iiriaiii  J.  JcAvett.  Hattie  AV.  LaAvrence,  Dora  E.  Link,  Mary 
A.  Smitli,  AValter  AI.  Smith  and  Alary  P.  SpafTord. 

Class  of  1887— Robert  B.  AlcCov,  Laura  L.  Aliller.  Nellie  A. 


Morse,  Everett  R.  Pease,  Alonzo  R.  Smith  and  Grace  ]\I. 

Class  of  1888— Julia  :\r.  Beebe,  ]\Iary  L.  Bisbee,  Mary  B. 
Brooks,  IMartlia  Davenport,  Grace  E.  Lee,  Kate  j\lc]Millan,  Lillian 
M.  Moftatt,  Anton  Moe  and  C.  Floyd  McClnre. 

Class  of  1889 — Spencer  D.  Beebe,  Josephine  Brennan,  Pauline 
M.  Bedenk,  Agnes  Davenport,  Robert  B.  Dunlevy,  Walter  E. 
Kaser,  Charles  J.  O'Connor,  John  W.  Palmer,  Lillian  B.  Clark, 
Helen  R.  Gray,  Eva  A.  Gray,  Gertrude  Nutting,  Margaret  B. 
Lewis,  Harriet  Richardson,  John  M.  Fanning  and  Carl  ]\L  New- 

Class  of  1890— George  AY.  Ascott,  Harry  D.  Baldwin,  Seth  R. 
Burroughs,  Alary  AL  Calhoun,  A\"m.  B.  Calhoun,  Olive  C.  Chadsey, 
John  L.  Herbst,  Louis  T.  Hill,  Alice  K.  Hill,  Albert  E.  Hollister, 
Frank  AA^.  Horner,  Harriet  AL  Alanley,  Lelia  R.  Palmer,  Helen 
Richardson,  Bertha  Sargent,  AVilliam  Thorbus,  Alina  AL  AA'are 
and  Henry  A.  AVaste. 

Class  of  1891 — Flora  A.  Angle,  Alargaret  A.  Jones,  George  AL 
Link,  Alabel  L.  Alasters,  Lila  D.  Newberry,  Alabel  A.  Payne, 
Louise  Foote,  Clare  L.  AIcAIillan,  Charles  Stimson,  Alaggie  Tay- 
lor and  Hugh  H.  A\^illiams. 

Class  of  1892 — Alame  L.  Beebe,  Frederick  Brooks,  Nellie  Car- 
gill,  Albert  Fonken,  Ella  L.  Hewitt,  Carl  H.  Lewis,  Clara  Olson, 
Albert  L.  Aliller,  K.  Josephine  Alueller  and  AA^illiam  D.  Tallman. 

Class  of  1893 — Bess  R.  Baldwin,  Nellie  Dodge,  Inez  E.  Berry, 
Alice  Hettman,  Alaude  Jewett,  Delia  Johnson,  Kate  AIcAulift'e, 
Leonora  O'Connor,  Eva  J.  Rhodes,  Kate  H.  Sterger,  Nellie  E. 
Sullivan,  Julia  AA^hite,  AVilliam  P.  Dunlevy,  Daniel  Fisk,  AA^ill 
Ford,  Carl  Foster,  Clarence  Fulmer,  Alilon  R.  Gould,  Edmund 
Gray,  Henry  C.  Hanson,  Theodore  Lewis,  Ossian  R.  Link,  AYill  G. 
Alerrill,  John  Sehrara  and  Jessie  AL  AVright. 

Class  of  1894— Nellie  AL  Bnsh,  John  AL  AYoy,  Emma  E. 
Gantka,  Bernard  Alulrenin,  Lena  A.  AVright,  Rose  L.  Finn,  Carrie 
A.  Huftman,  Anna  J.  Evans,  Stella  0.  Thorbus,  Clara  A.  Fowler, 
Jessie  J.  Sias,  Ruth  AL  Hanchett,  Jas.  J.  Bowler,  Alaude  AVoy, 
Anna  B.  Durrie,  Alary  A.  Barber,  Tillie  I.  Olson,  Thresia  Inger- 
soll.  Lulu  E.  Bush,  Josephine  Erickson,  Arthur  Hollenbeck  and 
Nellie  Throbus. 

Class  of  1895 — Herbert  N.  Leete,  Bessie  Rutledge,  Joseph 
Brown,  Jessie  Lake,  Edward  E.  Sands,  Silas  AL  Lewis,  Harold 
Stevens,  Lena  Freenlee,  George  Dudley,  Alinnie  Van  Antwerp, 
Addie  King,  Rollie  Hogue,  George  Bowler,  AVayne  Aloseley,  Ger- 


trude  Nodine,  Josio  Dammoji.  ^rM<j:Lri<'  liowlci-,  ^lilo  Babcock  and 
Carl  II.  Gould. 

Class  of  189G — Artliui-  Avers.  Gcorijo  Esch.  Clyde  Smith, 
Alfred  AVliite,  CJrace  Brown,  Lnla  Converse.  Ella  Erickson,  Effie 
King.  John  Brown,  Frank  Frazier,  Griffith  Roberts,  Robert  Teall, 
Susan  Beswick.  Nellie  Brown,  Anna  Doxrud,  Nellie  Freeman, 
Ella  .Mul renin  and  Etta  ]\lelntyre. 

Class  of  1897 — Letha  Ordway,  Blanche  AVebb,  Nettie  Lewis, 
]\Iay  Varlin,  ]\Iabel  ]\IcGary,  Anna  Jenkins,  Nellie  Sias,  Allie  Bur- 
rouirhs,  Sadie  Hettman,  Carl  Newton.  Colburn  AVhilc,  Jason  Wil- 
liams, Herman  Hanchett,  Ray  Palmer,  Nellie  Jones,  Lillian  L. 
Dudlej^  George  Hanchett  and  Frank  Schneller. 

Class  of  1898 — Alice  Beebe,  Norman  Durrie.  Ella  Eseh, 
Blanche  Gray.  Alark  Jewett,  Gertrude  Jones,  Bess  Palmer, 
Francis  Seidell,  Nellie  Bradley,  Nellie  AVoods,  Evan  Evans,  Jane 
Gallagher,  Earl  HoAvard,  Earl  Kemp,  AVinnie  Alulrenin  and 
Myrtle  AVood. 

Class  of  1899 — Stena  Sands.  Grace  Blackman,  Agnes  Bowler, 
Paul  Bush,  Sadie  Edminson,  Susie  Fish,  Genevra  Jolinson,  Elma 
Landt,  Hattie  Alurphy,  Louis  Nelson.  Alae  Robinson,  Emma  Sax- 
ton,  Marie  Seidel,  AVinnifred  Smith,  Annie  Teall.  Georgie  AVhit- 
comb,  Ella  Bowler,  Alabel  Bush.  Fred  Chaml)erlain.  Dorothy 
Everett,  Clara  Jackson,  Elizabeth  J<'nkins,  Charlotte  Shermer 
and  Harry  Alasters. 

Class  of  1900 — Anna  Abrahams,  Bona  Brownell.  Blanche 
Chamberlain,  Alay  Hubbard,  Gertrude  AIcAuliflfe,  Anna  Nyberg, 
Katherine  Romanowsky,  Netta  Sholts,  J\Iabel  Tuthill.  Alfred 
Clark,  Augusta  Dellman,  Tillan  Goltz,  Elizabeth  llotner.  Alattie 
Howard,  AVard  Jewett,  Dwight  Leete,  Blanche  Alorrison.  Hilda 
Olson,  Ethel  O'Leary,  Norton  Saxton,  Ernest  Servis,  Fred  Smith, 
Bess  Thayer  and  Angcline  Taylor. 

Class  of  1901 — Carrie  Ditman.  Blanche  Boydeu,  Elsie  Cam- 
eron, Jennie  Johnson,  Fern  Scott,  Ida  Clark,  Isaac  Lewis.  Dora 
Sherwood,  Elizabeth  Teall,  Carroll  Ayers,  Alary  Babcock,  Ernest 
Brooks,  Etta  Homer,  Hattie  Hutson,  Lottie  Johnson,  Clara  Knud- 
son,  Lula  Nelson,  Russell  Rath,  Edwin  Rich,  Zel.  S.  Rice,  Charles 
Roy,  AVill  Rutledge,  Meta  Smith,  Robert  Rutledge.  Ray  AVebster, 
Everett  AVilliams  and  Rachel  AVilliams. 

Class  of  1902 — Cora  Abrahams,  Bess  Blackburn,  Herman  Can- 
field,  Alabel  Heasty,  Doris  AIcAulift'e,  Emma  Aloy.  (Jeorge  Seidel. 
Cornelius  Shea.  Edward  Strait.  Robert  Alerrill.  Francis  Smith, 
Charles  Potter.  Ruth  Dalaba,  Ethel  Link,  Edith  AlcCormick, 
Eli/ab<Hi   Oliver,   Floyd   Rogers,   Ray  Smith,   Alargaret   A'oung, 


Charles  Carnalian,  Frank  Newlon,  Horace  Howell,  Leon  Moss 
and  Rollie  Quackenbusli. 

Class  of  1903 — Andrea  AYinterfield,  Grace  Shotts,  IMaiide 
Nieol,  Florence  Jones,  Clara  Jankel,  Clara  Jackson,  Mae  Hitch- 
cock, Maud  Farnham,  Effie  Edminster,  Julia  Cholvin,  Roy  Sliat- 
tuck,  Sadie  Slayton,  Daniel  Clark,  Alice  Brackett,  Earl  Brandt, 
Fannie  Babcock,  Lawrence  Dake,  Harvey  DorAvin.  Laura  Davis, 
David  Jones,  Eva  IMoffatt,  Guy  Palmer,  Jacob  Putman,  Grace 
Sharp  and  Catherine  Johnson. 

Class  of  1904 — i\Iae  Rice,  Lucretia  Van  Zandt,  Lydian  Bush, 
Harriet  Ball,  ^Margaret  Dougherty,  ^Mildred  Evenson,  Arthur  Fish, 
Nellie  Hitchcock,  jMyrtle  Hoftman,  Gertrude  Johnson,  JNIartha 
Jankel,  Edward  Leverich,  Verne  Lovell.  Esther  Moy,  Lester 
j\Ioss,  Dorcas  Prill,  Sophie  Roy,  Tom  Teall  and  Ethel  AA^illiams. 

Class  of  1905 — Alvin  J.  Graf,  AVill  H.  Graf,  Theresa  Hanson, 
David  Jones,  Bess  Heasty,  Mary  Hutson,  Helen  Jennings,  Mabel 
Huschka,  Nettie  Jordan,  Laura  Kyle,  Carl  Kelley,  Alice  Thorbus, 
Fidelia  Van  Antwerp,  Edwin  Moy,  jNIabel  Sherldon,  Harry  AVhite, 
Elsie  Tucker  and  Arthur  AValters. 

Class  of  1906 — Nellie  Marie  Ball,  Sydney  David  Jones,  Edna 
Caroline  Dieke,  Gwen  M.  Jones,  Luella  Anna  Graf,  Helen  Pitkin 
Leete,  Carl  Glenn  Gililand,  Winfred  Owsley,  James  Andrew 
Johnson,  Ella  Louise  Schlaver,  Grace  Emma  AVhite,  Loren  Ernest 
Austin,  Harold  Edwin  Blackman,  Endora  Deldee  Burrows,  Nor- 
man Lee  Jewett,  Gloria  Alta  Alengelt,  IMinnie  May  Evans,  Neil 
Martin  iMolley,  Ella  Everson,  Jason  Nieol,  Vena  Rae  Hemstock, 
Aimee  Ethel  O'Brien,  Clarence  Edwin  Hitchcock,  John  Howard 
Prill,  Otilde  Josephine  Jackson,  INIaria  Delia  Sahrt,  Catherine 
Magdalena  Kulm,  Harry  Ross  Shetfer  and  Harold  Kasson  Thurs- 

Class  of  1907 — Price  McConnell,  Evan  Lewis,  Percy  Leverich, 
Nora  Abrahamson,  Hubert  Blank,  JMark  Jones,  Julia  Harvey, 
Stella  Kitchum,  Rachel  Nieol,  Hazel  Nieol,  Alertie  Jackson,  Grace 
Shoemaker,  Gorman  Moffatt,  Carl  Jones,  Harry  Longwell,  Win- 
nie Rooker,  Arthur  Blank,  Lottie  Graf,  Bennett  Stiles,  Sarah 
Jones,  Nora  Alulrennin,  Benjamin  Sias,  Reuben  Rogers,  Jay 
Webb,  Jessie  Rutledge,  Frank  Van  Antwerp,  JMiriam  Lamborn, 
IMark  Quackenbush,  Anna  Potter,  David  Simpson,  Elizabeth  Trux, 
Edgar  Clough,  Arthur  Nichols,  Ernest  Dorwin,  Tracy  Huschka 
and  Nina  Hubbell. 

Class  of  1908 — jNIabel  Davis.  George  Barker,  Hazel  AVolcott, 
Rose  Seidel,  Gretehen  Esch,  Harold  Barker,  Harriett  Brackett, 
Mabel  Parks,  Grace  Baldwin,  Grace  Van  Antwerp,  ]\Iinnie  Poss, 


Anton  Boison,  ]\Iarie  Dowd,  Francis  Huston,  ^Nlj^rtlo  Butler,  Eu- 
gene ^Matteson,  Hazel  Hubbard,  Lillian  Farnhain,  John  AVolf, 
Inez  Lloyd,  Jessie  ^Morrison,  Eleanor  Smith,  P>ed  Newman, 
Kiesling  Tluiyer.  Pearl  Trij)]!,  Blanche  Davis,  ]\rarie  AVintertield, 
Irene  Jordon,  Arthur  Hoffman,  Sophy  A])rahams,  Pearl  Kichai-d- 
son,  Lillian  Jensen,  Arbie  Brooks,  Fred  Ileitman,  Luella  Walters 
and  Frank  Glynch. 

Class  of  1909 — Jennie  AVebster,  Andrew  Johnson,  Elinor  Sher- 
man, Earl  Jones,  Lettie  Jackson,  Chester  Jackson,  Forrest  Rich- 
ards. Anna  Jones,  Otis  AVestby,  Blanche  Wagner,  Earle  Jetferson, 
]Maude  Sharp,  Celia  Krotzman,  Moses  Smith.  Malx'l  Matteson, 
James  McDonald,  Edith  Pratt,  Eugene  Ilesselberg,  Gertrude 
Gladden,  Ethel  Crowe,  George  Brooks,  Grace  AValters,  Percival 
Hutson.  Grace  Simpson,  Olga  Larson,  Delia  ]\Ierrill,  ]\largaret 
Ileasty,  Harold  Dorwin.  Bessie  Hutson  and  James  INIerrill. 

Class  of  1910— Alta  AVolcott,  Harry  AValters,  Sylvia  Richard- 
son, Ethel  MeClure,  Earl  Jones,  Ethel  Doyle,  Agnes  McGarvey, 
Lila  Blank,  Jessie  Swarzlow,  Ida  Jones.  Delbert  Dawley,  Jessie 
Holinbeck,  Edna  Janes,  Rachel  Davis,  Edith  Clark,  Alma  Winter- 
field.  Earl  Leverich,  Margaret  Laing,  Clara  Barker,  Elmer 
Abrahamson.  Anna  Axelson,  Jennie  Hitchcock.  Chauncey  Beebe, 
Jessie  Powell,  Lucy  Smith,  Helen  Haddow,  Joseph  Dana,  Elsa 
Baldwin,  Pearle  Kelley,  Ralph  Williams,  Liilia  Lund,  Harriet 
Herman,  Harry  Ilersh,  Edith  Ileasty,  Ella  Shaw  and  Lulu 

Class  of  1911— Floyd  Rath.  Grace  Sarles,  Leita  Bestow, 
Stephen  ]\lcDonald.  Fern  Smith,  Lisle  ]\Iayfield,  Jennie  Jones, 
Roy  Dunbar,  ]\Iae  ^Morrison,  Frank  ^McDonald.  Christina  AVinter- 
field,  Ruth  AlcCabe,  Clyde  Ewers.  Zella  Keene.  Dorothy  Oswald, 
Lawrence  Carroll.  Lila  Bartlett.  Emma  Hansen,  Charles  AIcGone- 
gal,  Hazel  Alatteson,  Amelia  AVright,  Burton  Evans,  Bernice 
Everson,  AVilliam  Kammalade,  Esther  Freeman,  Alerritt  Newton, 
Alyrtle  Jones.  Fred  Enckhausen.  Dorothy  Hansen.  AValter  Evans. 
Alaude  Alaytield,  David  AVilliams.  Harrietta  Rathbun,  Vaughn 
Lee  and  Edna  Richards. 

Class  of  1912 — Inga  Christopherson,  Don  Divoll,  Ilulda  Erick- 
son,  Doris  Escli.  .Mae  Finger.  Rena  Fi-ank,  Fi-ed  Hansen,  f^mil 
Ilersh,  Cecil  Ilorswill.  Kuby  Jackson,  Ethel  Jones,  Elsie  Kielberg, 
Dorothy  Kyle,  Victoria  Larson,  Spencer  Lucas,  Alina  Alorgau. 
Serenus  Paulson,  Alice  Prill.  Grace  Reed,  Doris  Richards,  Esther 
Roberts,  Blanche  Rooker,  Frances  Sarles,  Earl  Thurslon.  Emma 
AValters  and  Grace  AVi-iffht. 


Within  four  years  after  the  passage  of  the  law  which  created 
the  county  of  Monroe,  the  citizens  of  Sparta  were  furnished  with 
banking  facilities  through  the  organization  of  the  Bank  of  Sparta 
in  1858.  From  that  time  until  the  present  the  banking  business 
has  been  conservatively  and  safely  conducted  with  the  exception 
of  a  private  banking  institution  of  M.  A.  Thayer  and  Company, 
which  originally  was  established  in  the  70 's  by  M.  A.  Thayer  and 
R.  S.  Kingman,  but  which  failed,  together  with  the  bank  estab- 
lished by  Mr.  Thayer  at  Tomah  in  1893. 

The  other  banking  institution  have  been  distinguished  for  a 
steady  and  substantial  growth.  Two  of  them  are  housed  in  their 
own  buildings  and  the  third  will  undoubtedly  acquire  its  home 
within  the  next  few  years. 

The  combined  capital  of  the  three  institutions  in  Sparta  is 
now  $100,000.  The  total  amount  of  of  the  surplus  of  the  three 
institutions  combined  is  $17,250,  and  the  total  amount  of  re- 
sources is  $1,257,933.10. 

The  Bank  of  Sparta,  which  is  the  oldest  bank  in  the  state  of 
"Wisconsin  west  of  Madison,  was  organized  in  1858  by  John  T. 
Hemphill,  who  came  from  ]\Iilwaukee,  AYis.,  and  Samuel  JMcCord, 
of  ]\Iadison,  Wis.  It  was  inaugurated  under  the  banking  laws  of 
1852  and  opened  for  business  on  the  26th  day  of  July  in  tiiat 
year,  in  the  north  half  of  the  one-story  frame  building  which  is 
now  No.  120  North  Water  street  and  occupied  by  the  Grand 
Rapids  Llilling  Company.  The  other  half  of  the  building  at  that 
time  was  occupied  by  the  postofiice.  Both  Mr.  Hemphill  and 
Mr.  McCord  were  experienced  bankers,  formerly  having  been 
connected  with  the  Marshall  &  Ilsley  Bank  at  ^Milwaukee,  Wis., 
the  latter  being  connected  with  the  State  Bank  of  ^ladison.  In 
1860  ]\Ir.  McCord  sold  his  interest  in  the  institution  and  moved 
to  Milwaukee. 

A  statement  of  the  l)ank  at  this  time  is  interesting  and  the  fol- 
lowing is  copied  from  the  semi-annual  report,  dated  July  2,  1860, 
on  file  with  the  register  of  deeds  of  ]\Ionroe  county : 




Loans    and    discounts !f2r).274  Gl 

Overdrafts    40  GO 

►Stotdcs  on  deposit  witli  state  treasurer ]  9,000  00 

Bills  of  solvent  banks 4,681  00 

Bills  of  suspended  banks 17  00 

Due  from  banks  and  bankers 7,434  73 

Specie   2,145  55 

Total    ^58,552.49 


Capital $2:).0()()  00 

Registered  notes  in  circulation 15,280  00 

Deposits    15,925  40 

Due  others 2.347  09 

Total   ^t:58,552  49 

The  remarkable  fact  about  tliis  statement  is  what  appears  to 
be  the  small  amount  of  cash  entered  in  this  statement  as 
"specie"  as  only  $2,145.55,  but  it  will  l)e  ol)served  th;it  the  bank 
at  that  time  issued  its  notes  for  circulation,  which  amounted  to 
over  $15,000. 

In  the  fall  of  1860  the  bank  removed  to  the  corner  of  AVater 
and  ]Main  streets,  into  Avhat  was  known  as  the  "Goss  building," 
now  the  site  of  the  INIasonic  Temple,  and  while  there  plans  were 
made  for  a  more  su])stantial  home.  In  1864  the  bank  erected 
the  first  brick  business  building  in  the  village,  designed  by  a 
^Milwaukee  arcliitcct,  and  a  very  tine  building  at  the  tinie.  This 
was  occupied  by  tin.*  institution  until  it  Avas  replaced  in  1906-07 
l)y  the  present  ])ank  building,  except  for  temporary  occupancy 
of  a  building  opposite  during  the  construction  of  the  new  bank. 

AVhen  the  natioiud  hanking  system  was  established  througii- 
out  the  country  the  Bank  of  Sparta  reorganized  in  1865  as  the 
First  National  Bank  and  increased  the  number  of  its  stock- 
holders. The  oflicers  then  chosen  were:  John  T.  Hemphill,  pres- 
ident ;  T.  B.  Tyler,  vice  president,  and  Thomas  AV.  Wilson, 
cashier.  Later  Air.  Wilson  removed  to  Alinneapolis  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  AVilliam  AVright. 

On  Alay  8,  1873,  E.  H.  Canfield  entered  the  office  as  book- 
keeper, was  elected  assistant  cashier  in  1877,  and  cashier  in  1878, 
having   faithfully   served  the  bank   continuously  to  the  jiresent 




time,  except  inree  years,  during  which  he  was  out  on  account  of 
ill  health. 

In  1878  the  hank  surrendered  its  national  charter  and  reor- 
ganized as  a  state  i)ank,  resuming  its  original  name  of  Bank  of 

In  1879  Ira  A.  Hill  hecame  identified  with  the  institution  and 
was  elected  as  a  member  of  the  l)oard  of  directors.  At  the  retire- 
ment of  Ml'.  Hemphill  in  1883,  who  removed  to  Indian  territory, 
Mr.  Tyler  was  elected  president  and  Mr.  Hill  vice  president. 
They  held  these  offices  until  1886,  when  Mr.  Tyler's  death  oc- 
curred and  Mr.  Hill  was  elected  president,  in  which  capacity  he 
continued  until  the  time  of  his  death  in  1904. 

In  1898  Messrs.  D.  D.  Cheney  and  D.  AA^  Cheney  became  in- 
terested in  the  institution,  the  former  being  elected  vice  president 
and  the  latter  assistant  cashier.  D.  D.  Cheney  retired  as  vice 
president  in  1901,  but  continued  as  a  member  of  the  board  of 
directors  until  his  death  in  1904.  D.  AY.  Cheney  succeeded  his 
father  as  vice  president  and  at  the  death  of  Mr.  Hill  was  elected 
president  to  succeed  him,  which  office  he  holds  at  the  present 

Louis  T.  Hill  entered  the  bank  as  a  bookkeeper  in  1893,  and 
was  elected  assistant  cashier  in  1897  and  vice  president  in  1904, 
which  position  he  now  holds.  A.  AV.  Barney,  who  had  formerly 
been  connected  with  the  Alonroe  County  Bank,  became  asso- 
ciated with  the  Bank  of  Sparta  in  1901  and  was  made  assistant 
cashier,  and  later  the  same  year  was  promoted  to  vice  president. 
A.  AV.  Ryon  entered  the  employ  of  the  bank  in  1908  and  was  in 
1911  promoted  to  the  position  of  assistant  cashier.  J.  D.  Button, 
formerly  in  the  grocery  business  in  the  city  of  Sparta,  was  em- 
ployed as  assistant  cashier  in  1911;  Pearl  Kelley,  assistant  book- 
keeper, and  Charles  Aylesworth,  night  watchman. 

The  management  of  this  institution  has  during  its  fifty-four 
years  of  existence  aided  many  men  and  many  business  enter- 
prises in  their  growth  from  small  beginnings  to  greater  success 
and  usefulness,  and  numbered  among  its  present  customers  are 
the  sons  and  grandsons  of  those  who  were  valued  customers  of 
the  bank  in  its  earlier  days.  It  moved  into  the  present  hand- 
some banking  building  on  Alay  17,  1907;  truly  one  of  the  most 
artistic,  commodious  and  substantial  buildings  of  its  character  to 
be  found  anywhere.  It  occupies  thirty-five  feet  front  and  is 
is  eighty-five  feet  deep,  is  of  classic  design  and  massive  in  out- 
lines; the  front  is  of  Indiana  Bedford  stone;  the  interior  arrange- 
ment of  the  bank  is  according  to  the  best  modern  ideas  for  an 


institution  devoted  solely  to  country  banking  purposes,  with 
every  convenience  for  l)t)tli  the  patrons  of  the  bank,  its  officers 
and  employees ;  there  is  a  three-story  vault  built  independently  of 
the  structure,  the  walls  being  lieavier  than  standard  and  rein- 
forced witli  steel  rods  and  beams;  ample  customers'  room  and 
directors'  room  and  all  modern  conveniences  are  found  in  con- 
nection ;  in  front  are  the  offices  of  AVilliam  H.  Blyton  &  Co.  and 
D.  W.  Cheney.  The  wood  work  of  the  interior  is  mahogany  and 
beautifully  grained  wood  was  selected,  especially  for  this  pur- 
pose. In  the  interior  finish,  beauty,  Avithout  too  much  ornament, 
was  sought,  and  the  result  is  pleasing  in  every  particular.  At 
the  last  statement  of  the  bank  its  total  resources  were  $734:, 975.46, 
and  carrying  dei)osits  of  $672,845.46. 

Monroe  County  Bank.  This  institution  was  opened  for  busi- 
ness October  26,  ]894,  with  a  capital  of  $25,000.  The  institution 
purchased  the  banking  building  on  the  corner  of  AVatcr  and  Oak 
streets,  whicli  has  formerly  been  occupied  by  ]\I.  A.  Thayer ;  a 
very  advantageous  location  for  business  purposes,  and  it  has 
remained  in  this  building,  which  it  now  owns,  ever  since.  The 
interior  of  the  banking  room  has  been  remodeled  and  modern- 
ized in  every  particular  and  now  has  a  handsome  equipment  of 
the  most  up-to-date  facilities  for  tlie  handling  of  the  large  busi- 
ness which  this  institution  enjoys.  Its  first  officers  were  George 
D.  Dunn,  president ;  AY.  G.  AYilliams,  vice  president  and  A.  AV. 
Harney  cashier.  Directors:  George  D.  Dunn.  A.  Thoi'bus.  W.  G. 
AVilliams,  C.  :\r.  ^Masters,  L.  D.  Merrill  and  AV.  T.  Sarles. 

During  its  existence  this  bank  has  been  conservative  in  its 
investments  and  has  been  of  much  service  to  many  business  enter- 
prises which  have  been  assisted  through  its  help.  It  has  built  up 
a  strong  clientage  and  is  considered  one  of  the  best  conducted 
and  managed  l)anks  of  its  kind. 

The  present  officers  are:  President,  George  D.  Dunn:  vice- 
president,  AV.  G.  AVilliams ;  cashier,  0.  G.  Lindemann ;  assistant 
cashier,  David  L.  Jones ;  bookkeeper.  F.  B.  Heitman. 

At  the  last  statement  made  by  it  the  resources  of  \ho  institu- 
tion were  $.S28.1 71 .!»(),  with  deposits  of  $286,977.65. 

Citizens  State  Bank.  This  bank  was  established  on  Alay  25, 
1907,  the  officers  Ix'ing  AV.  A.  Jones,  president;  II.  IM.  Newton, 
vice  president;  AV.  ^I.  Gioler,  cashier;  T.  C.  Longwell,  assistant 
cashier,  and  wlnle  yet  young,  the  bank  has  rapidly  increased  its 
resources  and  has  every  indication  to  good  success  in  the  future. 
At  the  present  time  it  occupies  rented  quarters  in  the  I.  0.  0.  F. 
building,   on  the   corner   of  Oak   and  AYater  streets,   which   are 


neatly  fitted  up  for  the  purpose  of  the  institution;  its  present 
officers  are :  President,  W.  A.  Jones ;  vice-president,  H.  M.  New- 
ton ;  cashier,  T.  C.  Longwell.  Directors :  J.  C.  Prill,  C.  M.  Beebe, 
A.  J.  Carnahan  and  H.  J.  Masters. 

At  the  last  report  the  resources  were  $194,787.74,  carrying 
deposits  of  $166,481.59. 


It  is  the  intention  in  tliis  chapter  to  give  brief  historical 
accounts  of  the  lodges  and  societies  which  came  in  existence  in 
the  city;  there  have  been  a  number  of  organizations  in  the  past 
"which  have  been  disbanded  and  the  records  of  which  are  not 
available,  thus  preventing  any  detailed  account  of  their  history 
at  this  time ;  among  these  orders  was  a  lodge  of  the  Ancient 
Order  of  United  "Workmen,  which  was  organized  in  1876,  and 
also  a  lodge  of  Good  Templar,  which  has  had  rather  a  fitful  exis- 
tence at  different  times. 

Pearly  in  1880  there  was  organized  in  the  city  a  civic  organiza- 
tion called  the  "Board  of  Trade,"  having  for  its  purpose  the 
advancement  of  the  interests  of  the  village  along  manufacturing 
and  mercantile  lines  and  promoting  in  the  general  prosperity  of 
the  municipality;  this  organization  continued  for  some  time,  but 
finally  disbanded  for  lack  of  interest.  No  institution  of  the  kind 
was  in  existence  again  until  1908,  when  the  citizens'  club  was 
corporated  and  furnished  rooms  in  the  Schram  building  on  AVater 
street.  The  object  of  tliis  organization  Avas  practically  the  same 
and  for  the  time  it  accomplished  considerable  good  in  several 
ways,  but,  like  the  Board  of  Trade,  interest  in  it  waned,  and  it 
finally  dissolved,  sold  its  furniture  and  fittings,  and  in  1911 
became  a  thing  of  the  past.  The  business  men  of  Sparta  have 
now  no  organization  of  the  character  which  looks  after  promot- 
ing the  general  welfare  of  flic  city  and  there  seems  to  be  no 
disposition  among  the  business  men  to  maintain  such  an  organ- 

Valley  Lodge,  No.  60,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons.  A  dispen- 
sation was  granted  l)y  the  grand  lodge  of  Wisconsin  on  August 
17,  IS")!,  and  Valley  Lodge  duly  instituted.  The  first  meeting 
was  held  in  the  house  of  R.  S.  Kingman,  August  26.  1854,  when 
^lorrison  AIc^NIillan  was  installed  as  worshipful  nmster.  The 
charter  Avas  granted  June  1.").  1855,  Mr.  McMillan  being  the  first 
Avorshipful  master  under  the  charter;  since  an  hirli  time  there  have 
been  twenty-three  Avorshipful  masters  and  eighteen   secretaries; 



the  former  are:  Morrison  McMillan,  A.  D.  Soper,  A.  II.  Condit, 
A.  H.  Isham,  M.  R.  Gage,  S.  N.  Dickenson,  S.  S.  Field,  D.  C.  Hope, 
C.  M.  Masters,  T.  D.  Merrill,  P.  S.  Sparling,  N.  W.  Huntley, 
L.  M.  Stevens,  H.  T.  Child,  C.  AV.  Hines,  J.  C.  Prill,  E.  A.  Richard- 
son, G.  H.  Chaffee,  H.  D.  Baldwin,  T.  C.  Longwell,  H.  J.  blas- 
ters, AA^.  B.  Ford,  E.  R.  AYilliams,  and  A.  J.  Frye.  Secretaries: 
Chester  McClure,  R.  AA^  Bowles,  E.  F.  Clinton,  M.  Alontgomery, 
J.  AI.  Sngden.  Fred  Lee,  H.  E.  Kelley,  E.  Aylesworth,  A.  Oppen- 
hemer,  E.  C.  Caskey,  J.  J.  French,  C.  E.  Boyden,  J.  M.  Sugden, 
C.  AV.  Pott,  S.  T.  Lewis,  R.  A.  Alerrill,  AV.  AIcBride  and  D.  B. 

In  the  year  1891  the  Alasonic  fraternity  purchased  lots  nine 
and  ten,  Tyler's  addition,  on  the  northwest  corner  of  AA^ater  and 
Main  streets,  and  a  corporation  was  formed  which  erected  a 
Masonic  Temple ;  stock  in  this  institution  was  held  by  members 
of  the  different  Alasonie  liodies  until  1910,  when  Valley  Lodge, 
No.  60,  having  accumulated  sufficient  funds,  took  over  the  build- 
ing and  now  owns  it  absolutely,  j)ractically  free  from  indebted- 
ness ;  the  lodge  rooms  are  handsomely  fitted  up  and  are  used  by 
the  Alasonic  bodies,  including  the  Commandery  of  Knights 
Templar  and  by  the  Order  of  the  Eastern  Star. 

Valley  Lodge  has  at  the  present  time  126  members  of  good 
standing,  and  its  officers  are  A.  J.  Frye,  AV.  AI. ;  F.  A.  Brandt, 
S.  AV.;  F.  L.  French,  J.  AV. :  AA^  S.  Telfer,  S.  D. ;  L.  R.  Aloore, 
J.  D. ;  L.  D.  Alerrill,  treasurer ;  D.  B.  Laing,  secretary ;  J.  H. 
Chaff'ee,  chaplain  ;  P.  S.  Sparling,  tyler. 

Sparta  Chapter,  No.  19,  R.  A.  M.  Dispensation  was  granted  by 
the  grand  chapter  of  AA'isconsin  January  9,  1859,  upon  the  peti- 
tion of  Alorrison  AIclNIillan,  Soloman  Howe,  A.  II.  Condit,  AA^.  S. 
Lane,  A.  R.  McLean,  Thomas  Beitcher,  Robert  Langley,  E.  San- 
ford  Blake,  E.  F.  Clinton,  J.  AV.  Alillour,  Israel  Graves,  Chester 
AlcClure,  E.  S.  AIcBride,  J.  D.  Condit  and  R.  C.  AIcAIann. 

The  first  meeting  under  this  dispensation  was  held  in  Jack- 
son hall,  on  the  evening  of  Alarch  11,  1859,  at  which  time  Alor- 
rison AIcAIillan  Avas  installed  as  high  priest.  On  the  3rd  day  of 
February,  1860,  the  charter  was  granted  by  the  grand  chapter 
and  the  chapter  was  constituted  and  the  officers  installed  on  the 
19th  day  of  April  following ;  A.  H.  Condit  being  the  first  high 
priest  under  the   charter. 

During  the  forty-three  years  of  its  existence  the  chapter  has 
had  twenty-three  high  priests;  the  institution  is  in  a  prosperous 
condition  and  numbers  ninety-five  members  in  good  standing. 

The  present  officers  are  G.  H.  Bunnell,  high  priest ;  AV.  j\I. 


Forsmau,  king;  G.  II.  Chaffee,  scribe;  D.  B.  Laiiig,  secretary; 
A.  W.  Barney,  treasurer;  Thomas  Teall,  captain  of  the  host;  R.  A. 
Richards,  principal  sojourner;  AV.  IMcBride,  royal  arch  captain; 
E.  R.  AVillianis,  master  of  third  veil;  George  Dreyer,  master  of 
second  veil ;  A.  II.  Frye,  master  of  the  first  veil,  and  P.  S. 
Sparling,  sentinel. 

Sparta  Commandery,  No.  16,  Knights  Templar.  The  charter 
of  this  oi-ganizatioii  was  granted  by  the  grand  commandery  of 
the  state  of  "Wisconsin  on  the  6tli  day  of  September,  1882,  and 
the  following  were  the  first  officers  installed :  S.  N.  Dickenson, 
eminent  commander;  N.  W.  Huntley,  generalissimo;  J.  D.  Condit, 
captain  general ;  the  commandery  has  always  occupied  the  lodge 
rooms  in  tlie  IMasonic  Temple  for  its  meetings,  and  there,  in  con- 
nection M'ith  these  rooms,  are  a  set  of  cedar  lockers  which  house 
the  uniforms  and  eciuipments  of  the  order;  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  commandery  includes  the  Royal  Arch  Chapters  at  Tomali, 
Black  River  Falls,  New  Lisbon,  Necedah  and  Sparta,  and  at  tiie 
present  time  the  membership  is  100  sir  knights. 

Its  present  officers  are  R.  A.  Richards,  eminent  commander; 
Louis  T.  Hill,  generalissimo ;  George  Dreyer,  captain  general ; 
TV.  ]\IcBride,  senior  warden ;  William  Forsman,  junior  warden ; 
George  H.  Chaffee,  prelate;  F.  E.  BaldAvin,  recorder;  A.  \V. 
Barney,  treasurer ;  P.  S.  Sparling,  standard  bearer ;  John  Kemp, 
sword  bearer;  E.  R.  AVilliams,  warden,  and  J.  T.  Sargent, 

Sparta  Chapter  No.  18,  Order  of  the  Eastern  Star.  This  order 
Avas  instituted  on  the  5tli  day  of  May,  lb9I,  with  the  following 
charter  member's :  A.  H.  Isham,  INIiss  INIary  Isham,  'Mv.  and  ]Mrs. 
James  Skillman,  ]Mr.  and  ^Irs.  J.  Schram.  ]\lr.  and  ]Mrs.  S.  T. 
Lewis,  Mr.  and  INIrs.  E.  A.  Clark,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  N.  AVright,  Mr. 
and  ]\Irs.  L.  D.  Merrill,  Mrs.  D.  B.  Cheuev  and  :\Irs.  Villiam 

This  is  an  order  to  which  the  Avives,  daughters,  mothers,  sis- 
ters and  children  of  iMasons  are  eligible,  and  is  in  part  of  a  social 
nature.  It  has  rendered  much  assistance  in  the  past  to  the  sick 
and  needy  members  of  the  order.  It  first  occupied  a  hall  over 
tlie  ]\Ionroe  County  bank,  but  now  is  installed  in  the  ^Masonic 
Temple,  and  meets  twice  a  month ;  it  occasionally  gives  social 
parties,  wliich  are  greatly  enjoyed  by  the  members  and  tlieir 

The  present  officers  are  Emma  Baldwin,  Avortliy  matron;  Dr. 
J.  C.  Prill,  patron;  Genevieve  Masters,  associate  matron;  Jennie 
Horseman,    conductress ;    ]\Iillie    Enckhauseu,    secretary ;    Jennie 


Brewster,  associate  conductress;  Sarah  Merrill,  treasurer;  Anna 
Salsbury,  Adah ;  Bell  Robie  Lee,  Ruth ;  Dorcas  Chamberlain, 
Esther ;  Elizabeth  Davis,  Martha ;  Lorena  Hay,  Electa ;  Alice 
Baldwin,  warder ;  J.  T.  Sargent,  sentinel ;  Eva  Williams,  chap- 
lain, and  Lena  Taylor,  organist. 

Sparta  Lodge  No.  94,  I.  0.  0.  F.  The  present  charter  of  this 
organization  was  granted  on  the  21st  day  of  January,  1899,  with 
PI.  Palmer,  R.  Langley,  L.  D.  Fisher,  D.  C.  Fuller  and  S.  P.  Green- 
man  as  charter  members.  There  was  a  lodge  of  this  order  organ- 
ized in  Sparta  on  or  about  the  year  1858,  but  it  disbanded  and 
the  records  of  it  are  not  available.  The  present  lodge  numbers 
about  150  members,  and  is  in  a  prosperous  condition. 

In  the  year  1887  it  acquired  the  property  known  as  the  old 
Heller  block  on  the  corner  of  South  AVater  and  Oak  streets,  in 
which  Avas  added  a  business  block  on  the  west,  so  that  this  order 
is  now  the  owner  of  a  handsome  property  with  paying  business 
tenants  below,  and  a  tine  suite  of  lodge  rooms  on  the  second 
floor,  including  a  large  and  commodious  dining  room  and 
kitchen;  the  property  is  valued  at  the  present  time  at  $10,000. 

Its  present  officers  are  E.  F.  Babcock,  N.  G. ;  AV.  S.  Jones,  V. 
G. ;  D.  L.  Jones,  secretary;  W.  0.  Naset,  P.  S. ;  W.  H.  Blyton, 

Sparta  Encampment  No.  36,  I.  0.  0,  F.  This  is  the  uniform 
rank  of  the  order  of  the  Odd  Fellows,  and  was  instituted  January 
19,  1870.  Its  charter  members  were  A.  W.  Kemp,  S.  P.  Green- 
man,  G.  Simpson,  S.  B.  Hamilton,  J.  H.  Allen,  J.  N.  Tarr  and  W. 
F.  Cook. 

This  is  an  order  of  a  military  character,  and  is  handsomely 
equipped  with  uniforms,  each  member  carrying  a  sword ;  its 
membership  consists  of  about  forty  at  the  present  time,  and  its 
meetings  are  held  at  the  hall  of  the  I.  0.  0.  F.,  and  its  present 
officers  are  F.  J.  Van  Antwerp,  chief  patriarch ;  A.  P.  Anderson, 
senior  warden ;  0.  J.  Jackson,  scribe ;  F.  J.  Sheldon,  junior 
warden,  and  J.  B.  Aimer,  high  priest. 

Mineral  Springs  Lodge  of  Rebeccas  No.  41.  This  is  an  organ- 
ization for  women,  connected  with  the  Independent  Order  of 
Odd  Fellows,  and  the  charter  was  granted  for  its  institution  by 
the  grand  lodge  on  December  3,  1874,  and  was  organized  w^ith 
the  following  charter  members :  A.  W.  Kemp,  G.  S.  Shaw,  Sam- 
uel Hoyt,  E.  E.  Olin,  L.  Green,  D.  H.  Smith,  H.  A.  Streeter,  W.  P. 
Meyer,  Mrs.  A.  AV.  Kemp,  Mrs.  G.  S.  Shaw,  Mrs.  Samuel  Hoyt, 
Mrs.  E.  E.  Olin,  Mrs.  L.  Green,  Mrs.  G.  H.  Smith,  Mrs.  H.  A. 
Streeter  and  Airs.  AV.  P.  Aleyer. 


This  orgaiii/atiun  is  notewortliy  for  its  charitable  deeds,  and 
has  been  a  great  help  to  the  nienil)ers  of  the  order,  and  they  fre- 
quently give  soeial  entertainments  at  the  commodious  lodge 
rooms  of  the  Odd  Fellows,  which  are  greatly  enjoyed  by  the  par- 
ticipants.    It  numbers  113  members,  and  its  present  ofifieers  are: 

^Irs.  Virginia  Brewster,  N.  G. ;  Mis.  Inez  Ileasty,  recording 
secretary;  ]\Irs.  Fayette  Baldwin,  treasurer;  ]\Irs.  Bell  ]Milhii-d. 
past  X.  G. ;  Mrs.  Jennie  Sheldon,  L.  S.  N.  G. ;  Mrs.  Ole  Jackson, 
L.  S.  vice  G. ;  i\Irs.  Evan  Lewis,  conductor :  David  S.  Jones,  out- 
side guard;  Mrs.  Emma  Talbot.  V.  G. ;  ^Irs.  John  Ilotfinan.  finan- 
cial secretary;  Mrs.  ]\Iaud  AVest,  chaplain;  ^Irs.  Ada  Goodman, 
R.  S.  N.  G. ;  ilrs.  Jennie  Brandt,  R.  S.  vice  G. ;  Mrs.  Alice  Bors, 
warden;  Mrs.  David  S.  Jones,  inside  guard;  Mrs.  H.  M.  Smith, 
lodge  deputy. 

Knights  of  Pythias,  was  organized  July  9.  1874,  with  the  fol- 
lowing charter  members:  ^1.  R.  Gage.  A.  AV.  AVilson,  C.  Blakes- 
lee,  AY.  H.  Nott,  J.  :\r.  Morrow,  J.  A.  Harvey.  C.  B.  :\IcClure, 
D.  C.  Beebe,  AY.  Goodale.  J.  B.  Palmer  and  N.  P.  Lee.  The  lodge 
had  a  warrant  granted  to  them  under  Avhich  they  worked  until 
July  1,  1875,  when  their  charter  was  received  from  the  grand 
lodge.  They  were  authorized  by  the  Avarrant  to  organize,  con- 
stitute and  establish  a  lodge  of  Knights  of  Pythias  at  Sparta, 
county  of  Monroe,  state  of  AYisconsin,  to  be  known  at  Sparta 
Lodge,  No.  18,  Knights  of  Pythias. 

The  first  officers  of  the  lodge  were  M.  R.  Gage.  C.  C. ;  D.  C. 
Beebe,  Y.  C. ;  AY.  H.  Nott.  P.  C. :  C.  Blakeslee,  P. ;  J.  AI.  Alorrow. 
M.  A. ;  A.  AY.  AYilson,  K.  R.  S. ;  C.  D.  AlcClure,  AI.  F. ;  J.  Harvey, 
M.  E. ;  N.  P.  Lee,  L  G. ;  AY.  Goodale,  0.  G. 

The  lodge  has  occupied  ditferent  halls  during  the  time  of  its 
existence,  and  it  is  now  very  comfortaldy  housed  on  the  second 
floor  of  the  Grossman  building,  where  they  have  commodious 
quarters  fitted  up  and  club  rooms. 

The  lodge  at  present  numbers  members,  and  its  present 

officers  are  F.  R.  Salsbury,  C.  C. ;  E.  A.  Richardson,  A^  C. ;  A.  F. 
Baldwin,  prelate;  F.  DeBruin,  AI.  of  AY.;  AY.  S.  Jones,  K.  R.  S. : 
C.  E.  AIcAIillan,  IM.  of  F. ;  A.  J.  Carnahan,  AI.  of  E. :  S.  C.  Letson, 
!M.  of  A.,  and  C.  E.  Simpson,  guard. 

Sparta  Camp,  No.  560,  M.  W.  A.  This  order  was  installed  in 
the  city  of  Sparta  on  the  18th  day  of  April.  1888,  with  the  follow- 
ing officers:  AL  A.  Thayer,  V.  C. ;  AY.  H.  Aloseley,  AY.  A.;  C.  AI. 
Beebe.  clerk;  C.  C.  Herbst,  banker;  Beebe  &  Sarles.  physicians: 
AVilliam  Schaller,  watchman;  AY.  E.  Coats,  eelate;  J.  A.  Siiolts, 


manager ;  George  McDowell,  secretary ;  John  Guy,  escort.  There 
were  in  all  about  twenty  charter  members. 

The  order  has  had  a  steady  and  prosperous  growth  and  now 
has  438  members,  among  whom  are  thirty-nine  social  members, 
who  do  not  participate  in  the  insurance  benefit  of  the  order ;  the 
lodge  occupies  handsome  quarters  in  what  is  known  as  the  old 
Opera  block,  leasing  the  entire  upper  floor  of  this  building,  in- 
cluding the  dance  hall,  which  it  rents  for  public  entertainments 
at  various  times  and  from  which  considerable  revenue  is  derived. 

Its  present  officers  are  W.  P.  Bamber,  consul ;  M.  H.  Babcoek, 
advisor ;  C.  E.  Stevenson,  banker ;  C.  M.  Van  Antwerp,  clerk ; 
Ed.  Arnold,  escort;  August  Keifer,  sentry;  C.  Merrow,  watch- 
man ;  Sarles,  Beebe  &  Beebe  and  H.  H.  Williams,  physicians ; 
D.  Hemstock,  R.  E.  Nicol  and  C.  H.  Leach,  managers ;  M.  E.  Put- 
man,  chief  forester. 

This  lodge  is  a  member  of  the  LaCrosse  Valley  Association  of 
]\Iodern  Woodman,  which  gives  an  annual  picnic,  and  on  June  5, 
1912,  the  annual  picnic  was  held  in  the  city  of  Sparta,  with  an 
elaborate  program  and  a  large  attendance. 



AVhat  is  now  the  "Sparta  Free  Library,"  was,  at  the  time  of 
its  first  organization  and  starting  in  the  world,  in  the  winter  of 
1861  and  '62,  termed  the  "Young  ]\Ien's  Library  Association" 
of  Sparta.  It  had  its  origin  in  the  desire  of  a  number  of  citizens, 
at  that  time,  who  possessed  culture  and  literary  tastes,  to  found 
a  library  which  should  be  a  credit  to  the  place  and  which  should 
not  only  be  a  public  benefit  in  the  direction  of  promoting  a 
greater  knowledge  of  books  and  the  higher  aesthetic  culture 
Avhich  comes  from  the  study  of  standard  works  by  well-known 
writers,  and  valua])le  also  as  a  means  of  reference,  but  which 
should  be  the  basis  for  an  association  of  kindred  minds  and 
tastes,  for  purposes  of  mutual  intellectual  improvement.  The 
matter  of  organizing  a  library  association  had  been  discussed  in 
public  and  private  for  some  two  or  three  years  before  it  finally 
took  shape  and  formed  itself  into  a  definite  purpose.  Among  the 
citizens  who  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  l)eginning  of  the 
Young  Men's  Library  Association,  and  to  whom  the  credit  of  its 
inception  and  organization  mainly  belong,  may  be  named  ^Messrs. 
Romanzo  Bunn,  afterwards  United  States  district  judge  for  the 
western  district  of  "Wisconsin ;  Thomas  B.  Tyler,  J.  T.  Hemphill, 
Judge  George  E.  Pratt,  D.  McBride,  Dr.  M.  R.  Gage,  Milton 
Montgomery,  :\r.  A.  Thayer,  E.  S.  AVhitaker.  H.  R.  Hayden,  L.  B. 
Noyes  and  a  number  of  others.  The  exact  date  of  the  first  meet- 
ing of  the  association  cannot  be  stated  with  certainty,  owing  to 
the  fact  that  the  early  records  of  the  institution  have  been  lost ; 
and  for  the  same  reason  but  tew  details  of  the  organization  and 
progress  of  the  association  can  be  given,  except  such  as  can  be 
gathered  from  the  memories  of  the  early  projectors  of  the  enter- 
prise. It  was  organized  as  a  stock  association,  and  the  members 
subscril)ing  for  shares  at  $5  each.  AVitli  the  fund  thus  raised,  the 
light  preliminary  expenses  were  defrayed,  and  a  small  but 
judiciously  selected  assortment  of  books  procured.  Not  an  incon- 
siderable part  of  the  infant  library  also  Avere  the  donation  of 
members  and  others  who  gave  such  volumes  as  they  could  spare 



from  their  private  collections,  and  thus  a  by  no  means  insignifi- 
cant beginning  was  made. 

The  officers  elected  at  the  start  were  a  president,  vice  presi- 
dent, secretarv,  treasurer  and  librarian.  R.  Bunn  was  chosen 
first  president  of  the  association,  with  E.  S.  AVhitaker  secretary 
and  T.  B.  Tyler  treasurer,  and,  subsequently,  by  Judge  George 
Pratt,  who  filled  the  office  for  a  considerable  time.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Dr.  R.  S.  Wells  as  librarian. 

The  new  Young  Men's  Library  Association,  during  the  first 
year  of  its  existence,  experienced  the  usual  vicissitudes  of  such 
institutions,  the  interest  in  it  being  active  for  a  time,  and  then 
subsiding  in  to  rather  a  state  of  quietude,  broken  at  intervals  by 
spasmodic  revivals  when  a  concert  or  dramatic  entertainment 
was  arranged  for  its  benefit,  or  when  an  annual  election  of  offi- 
cers took  place.  The  Civil  War  was  then  at  its  height  and  filled 
too  large  a  share  in  men's  minds  to  permit  their  giving  much  at- 
tention to  matters  literary  and,  moreover,  the  class  really  imbued 
with  a  love  of  books  and  reading  was,  as  is  generally  the  case  in 
western  towns,  exceedingly  limited  part  of  the  total  population. 
It  is  not  singular,  therefore,  that  although  expenses  were  kept  up 
and  frecjuent  additions  were  made,  on  the  whole  the  association 
rather  languished  after  the  first  year  of  its  organization.  The 
library  rules  were  defective  in  not  requiring  a  deposit  on  the 
loan  of  the  books,  and  as  a  consequence,  large  numbers  of  the 
volumes  became  scattered  and  lost.  The  labor  of  keeping  track 
of  them  was  not  a  paying  task,  and  as  may  be  imagined,  could 
not  be  performed  effectively  under  the  circumstances.  After  a 
time,  and  during  one  of  the  occasional  periods  of  activity,  a 
change  was  made  and  new  rules  were  adopted,  one  requiring  a 
deposit  from  those  borrowing  books  from  the  library,  the  deposit 
being  refunded,  less  10  cents,  on  the  return  of  the  book.  This 
reform  kept  the  library  intact,  but  the  question  of  the  revenue 
was  still  a  perplexing  problem.  The  membership  dues  had  been 
originally  fixed  at  $2  per  annum,  but  as  the  number  of  members 
diminished  from  neglect  and  non-payment  of  dues,  this  source 
afforded  no  surplus  for  incidental  expenses  and  the  procuring 
of  new  books.  The  Sparta  Dramatic  Club,  a  local  dramatic 
organization,  came  to  the  rescue  at  several  different  occasions 
and  gave  entertainments  for  the  benefit  of  the  library,  from 
which  considerable  amounts  were  realized  and  for  which  the 
members  thereof,  among  whom  were  prominent  Messrs.  ]\I.  S. 
Powell,  the  brothers  H.  R.  and  Harrison  Hayden,  D.  S.  Whitaker, 
George  Farbham,  Mrs.  George  Whitcomb,  Mrs.  M.  A.  Harris,  Mr. 


and  l\Irs.  L.  B.  Noyes  and   otliri's.  dcsci-xinti-   fu!l  credit   i'or  tlie 
liberal  aid  they  lluis  fciulcrcd  in  tin-  inst  ilut ion. 

Finally  it  became  apparent  that  the  library  would  have  to  be 
put  on  some  different  basis  in  oi'dt'r  to  give  it  permanence  and 
provide  for  its  growth  and  stability.  The  membership  had 
dwindled  from  TOO  down  to  tliirteen  in  the  winter  of  lS7;5-4.  A 
meeting  of  the  thirteen  was  held  in  the  office  of  llie  librarian. 
Dr.  AVells,  and  it  was  proposed  to  form  a  new  organization  under 
the  state  law,  then  recently  passed,  authorizing  villages  and 
cities  to  estal)lish  free  public  libraries.  The  first  meeting  was 
held  May  8,  1874.  at  whidi  the  organization,  under  the  state  law. 
was  effected.  By  this  arrangement  the  library  became  a  village 
institution,  subject  to  municii)al  authority,  and  its  afiFaii-s  in 
charge  of  a  board  of  trustees. 

AVhen  the  library  had  finally  become  a  village  institution,  it 
Avas  located  in  the  upper  room  of  a  store  Iniilding  opposite  tin* 
old  Ida  House,  which  is  now  the  Hotel  Lewis;  when  Dr.  AVells 
left  town  the  library  was  removed  to  the  second  floor  of  the 
Schram  building  on  Water  street,  where  it  remained  for  a  good 
many  years,  until  the  present  library  building  was  erected. 

In  1900  there  was  considerable  agitation  with  regard  to  the 
erection  of  a  building  for  the  library,  and  Dr.  AV.  T.  Sarles  had 
taken  some  steps  towards  calling  a  meeting  for  the  purpose  of 
making  some  arrangenu^nts  looking  to  that  end,  but  in  the  mean- 
time Dr.  F.  P.  Stiles,  having  learned  through  reliable  sources 
that  money  could  be  procured  from  Andrew  Carnegie  for  a 
library  building  in  this  city  if  proper  application  was  made,  pre- 
pared such  a  letter,  which  resulted  in  ]\Ir.  Carnegie  agreeing  to 
give  the  sum  of  $10,000  for  the  construction  of  a  library,  upon 
the  condition  that  a  permanent  provision  should  be  made  by  the 
city  of  an  amount  each  year  equaling  10  per  cent  of  the  gift  to 
maintain  the  same.  Tiiis  was  very  readily  granted  by  the  Com- 
mon Council,  and  the  libi-ary  board,  after  considering  several 
sites,  purchased  the  old  Cilobc  Hotel  property,  at  the  corner  of 
IMain  and  Court  streets,  being  a  lot  150  north  and  south  and  130 
east  and  Avest ;  in  1901,  plans  for  the  building  having  been 
adopted,  the  library  board  appointed  C.  I\I.  ]\1  asters,  F.  P.  Stiles 
and  George  A.  Kichardson  as  a  building  conunittee.  The  work 
was  commenced  early  in  1902  and  linished  during  tlu^  month  of 
April,  190;{. 

It  was  found  when  the  building  was  nearly  completed,  that 
the  sum  given  would  not  be  sufficient  to  complete  the  building 
and  to  build  sidewalks,  grade  and  si^cmI  the  ground,  and  an  appli- 


cation  -was  made  to  jMr.  Carnegie,  who  granted  the  sum  of  $2,000 
more,  upon  the  same  condition  that  the  provision  amounting  to 
10  per  cent  of  the  gift  shoukl  be  provided. 

The  library  building,  a  handsome  brick  and  stone  structure 
containing  commodious  and  nicely  furnished  reading  rooms  with 
hot  water  heat  and  electric  lights,  is  one  of  the  most  convenient 
and  tasteful  buildings  of  its  character  to  be  found  anywhere. 
Considerable  credit  is  to  be  given  to  the  building  committee  for 
the  tliorough  manner  in  which  their  work  was  carried  out,  and 
especially  to  George  A.  Richardson,  who  devoted  a  great  deal  of 
time  in  superintending  the  construction  of  the  building  and  in 
the  furnishing  and  fitting  of  it  to  its  present  condition;  he  has 
served  for  more  than  twenty  years  as  president  of  the  library 
board,  all  without  any  compensation  whatever  and  purely  for  the 
satisfaction  of  seeing  the  library  succeed ;  that  it  has  been  an 
institution  of  great  value  to  the  citizens  of  Sparta  there  can  be 
no  question,  containing  as  it  does  at  the  present  time  7,288 
volumes,  consisting  of  all  classes  of  literature  and  comprising 
valuable  reference  works.  At  the  present  time  there  are  about 
twenty-five  periodicals,  consisting  of  magazines  and  newspapers 
taken.  The  library  is  open  daily  under  the  charge  of  Miss  Jennie 
Scouten,  who  has  been  librarian  since  1894,  and  whose  extensive 
knowledge  of  library  work  and  her  invariably  courteous  treat- 
ment to  patrons  of  the  institution  has  made  her  hosts  of  friends. 
At  the  present  time  Miss  Lila  Newberry  is  assistant  librarian, 
and  has  been  for  three  years.  The  present  library  board  consists 
of  George  A.  Richardson,  Dr.  F.  P.  Stiles,  Dr.  Carl  Beebe,  Mrs. 
C.  C.  Newton,  IMrs.  Paul  Schaller  and  Mr.  H.  J.  Masters. 


The  title  of  this  chapter  is  used  to  designate  in  a  general  way 
the  fair  associations,  which  have  existed  for  a  great  many  years 
under  diiferent  titles,  on  this  side  of  the  county. 

The  first  organization  of  the  character  was  called  ''The  ]\Ion- 
roe  County  Agricultural  Society,"  and  was  organized  at  a  very 
early  date  in  the  history  of  the  county ;  in  1857  Robert  E.  Gillette, 
of  Tomah,  whose  name  is  so  closely  connected  with  the  history  of 
that  city,  a  zealous  worker  in  all  things  which  pertained  to  the 
welfare  of  the  county,  suggested  the  advisal)ility  of  organizing 
an  agricultural  society  and,  after  considerable  agitation,  it 
culminated  in  a  meeting  of  representative  citizens  of  the  city 
who  were  favorable  to  the  project. 

Those  who  exhibited  the  greatest  interest  in  promoting  the 
organization  were  R.  E.  Gillette,  Samuel  Hoyt,  T.  B.  Tyler,  L.  S. 
Fisher  and  Amos  Kendall;  after  some  discussion  the  society  was 
formally  organized  early  in  1858,  under  the  laws  of  the  state  of 
Wisconsin  then  existing,  which  provided  for  the  organization  of 
state  and  county  agricultural  societies,  and  it  adopted  the  name 
of  "Monroe  County  Agricultural  Society.'' 

The  first  officers  elected  were  Samuel  Hoyt,  president ;  L.  S. 
Fisher,  secretary,  and  Amos  Kendall,  treasurer. 

The  association  held  its  first  fair  in  Sparta  in  September, 
1858,  in  what  was  then  knoAvn  as  "Denny's  Lot,"  situated  on 
South  AVater  street,  where  the  0.  I.  Newton  Son's  Company 
electric  light  office  and  the  adjacent  lumber  yard  is  situated;  at 
least  one  man  is  living  who  attended  this  fair  in  the  jicrson  of 
Fred  A.  Ilolden.  assistant  register  of  deeds. 

]\Ir.  Ilolden  relates  that  the  fair  was  quite  a  success,  and  that 
the  exhibits  consisted  of  cattle  and  agricultural  products,  and 
the  sports  consisted  of  foot  races  and  a  Avrestling  match,  in  Avhich 
a  -Ml-.  Uui-linganu^  challenged  all  comers.  He  states  that  there 
were  only  three  teams  of  horses  at  the  fair,  lieing  the  ones  owned 
by  Scpiire  Andrews,  who  then  Avas  the  landlord  of  the  "]\Ionroe 
House;"  his  father.  A.  D.  Ilolden.  owning  a  span  and  also  one  of 



the  Bard's.  The  rest  of  the  inhabitants  from  the  country  came 
with  ox  teams  and  with  the  old-fashioned  liueh  pin  Avagons, 
which  were  greased  with  tar.  This  seems  peculiar  at  the  present 
day,  but  it  seems  to  be  the  fact  that  tar  was  used  as  a  lubricator 
for  wagons  in  those  days.  The  receipts  of  the  exhibits  were 
rather  light,  but  exceeded  the  disbursements,  and  the  people  who 
attended  were  unanimous  in  the  claim  that  the  gathering  was  a 
great  success. 

In  1863  the  society  became  the  purchaser  of  the  present  fair 
ground,  situated  west  of  the  city,  for  which  $725  was  paid  and  a 
deed  received  from  the  owner  on  the  third  day  of  September  in 
that  year.  The  plat  originally  consisted  of  an  entire  forty  acres, 
but  this  being  too  much  for  the  purposes  of  the  societ3^  all  but 
twenty-five  acres  were  disposed  of  and  are  comprised  in  the 
present  fair  grounds. 

The  purposes  of  this  society  was  to  promote  the  annual  gath- 
erings at  which  the  best  products  of  the  soil  and  the  dairy  were 
exhibited;  improved  machinery  and  implements  for  agricultural 
and  dairy  purposes  were  exhibited,  and  farmers,  merchants, 
manufacturers  and  all  classes  of  industries  joined  in  making  ex- 
hibits of  their  specialty,  for  which  liberal  premiums  were  offered 
in  all  lines. 

Fairs,  which  were  more  or  less  successful,  were  held  in  the 
succeeding  years,  and  by  means  of  donations  from  citizens,  it  was 
kept  going  financially  and,  up  to  1880,  was  in  a  flourishing  con- 
dition ;  at  that  time  a  tornado,  which  passed  through  this  section 
of  the  country,  caused  a  severe  loss  to  the  society,  as  the  build- 
ings on  the  grounds  Avere  completely  demolished,  causing  a  great 
expense  to  rebuild  and  repair ;  by  prudent  management,  how- 
ever, the  debt  was  paid  and  the  society  once  more  placed  upon 
a  good  financial  footing. 

The  society  continued  its  existence  until  about  1892,  when 
interest  in  it  lagged  and  no  fairs  were  held  and,  in  May,  1894.  it 
was  succeeded  by  the  "Sparta  Driving  and  Agricultural  Associa- 
tion," which  was  incorporated  by  AV.  T.  Sarles,  Fred  Gross. 
M.  R.  Gage,  ^X.  P.  Palmer,  L.  D.  Merrill  and  F.  L.  French,  whose 
names  appear  on  the  original  articles  of  incorporation. 

This  society  acquired  the  old  fair  grounds  and  improved  the 
racetrack  and  held  horse  races  at  difi^erent  times  during  the 
season  of  such  sports,  and  revived  the  old  fair  and  conducted  the 
same  for  a  great  many  years. 

No  fairs  were  held  during  1909  and  1911,  and  the  society,  as 
then  in  existence,  transferred  its  whole  property  in  the  winter  of 


1911-12  to  tlie  "Sparta  Fair  Association,"  suiifiidcrcd  all  llicir 
stock,  and  tlie  organization  Avhicli  now  owns  the  pi-opcrty  is  coin- 
posed  pi'incipally  of  farmers;  it  has  been  thoroughly  reorganized 
with  AV.  H.  llancliett  i)resident  and  AV.  A.  llolden  secretary. 

Active  preparations  ai'c  ])eing  made,  and  undouhtcdly  the 
year  1912  will  see  the  resumption  of  holding  an  annual  lair  in 
the  fall  of  the  year.  There  are  upon  the  grounds  at  the  present 
commodious  grand  stands,  a  large  exlubition  building  for  farm 
products,  mercantile  exhibits  and  all  those  requiring  indoor 
space,  a  large  and  commodious  barn  with  1)0X  stalls  for  racing 
stock,  ample  cattle  sheds  and  barns  for  the  stock,  togetlier  with 
pens  for  pigs  and  sheep  and  a  large  house  Avhere  cliickens  and 
other  domestic  birds  are  exhibited ;  all  together,  the  plant  is 
very  complete;  a  good  half-mile  track  for  racing,  in  the  center  is 
a  baseball  ground.  There  is  an  artesian  well  on  the  grounds 
which  furnishes  the  best  of  water  to  the  l)arns  and  stock  sheds. 

The  neAV  fair  association  starts  with  bright  prospects,  has  a 
very  large  number  of  stockholders,  as  no  person  is  allowed  to 
OAvn  more  than  one  share  of  stock,  and  whatever  place  it  takes 
in  the  future  history  of  the  county,  it  certainly  does  not  lack  for 
good  equipment,  good  membership  and  ample  opportunity. 


IManufactui'ing  was  inaugurated  in  the  little  village  of  Sparta 
in  1853,  when  A.  H.  and  Hilton  Blake  erected  a  sawmill  upon 
the  banks  of  Beaver  creek ;  were  it  still  standing  it  would  now  be 
located  about  in  the  center  of  Water  street;  this  was  the  only 
sawmill  here  in  this  vicinity,  except  the  one  which  is  situated  in 
Angelo,  having  been  built  there  in  1852  by  Seth  Angel. 

Messrs.  Blake  run  this  sawmill  until  about  1857,  when  the 
same  was  purchased  by  K.  and  0.  P.  ]\IcClure,  who  destroyed 
the  old  building  and  built  the  first  grist  mill  in  Sparta ;  this  was 
situated  about  forty  feet  east  of  the  old  building.  This  grist  mill 
was  operated  by  I\IcClure  Brothers  for  several  years  to  great  ad- 
vantage, the  farmers  bringing  their  grain  to  the  mill  from  a 
great  distance  to  be  ground. 

In  June,  1867,  the  property  was  bought  by  T.  B.  Tyler  and 
T.  D.  Steele  for  .$27,000 ;  they  erected  on  the  site  of  the  grist  mill 
a  woolen  mill,  at  an  estimate  cost  of  $30,000,  and  commenced  the 
operation  under  the  firm  name  of  T.  B.  Tyler  &  Co. ;  they  con- 
tinued to  operate  the  mill  until  1872,  when  they  sold  it  to 
II.  Greeve.  At  that  time  the  greater  part  of  the  original  plat 
belonging  to  the  mill  property  had  been  disposed  of  as  building 

From  that  time,  1872  to  1878,  the  mill  did  not  meet  with  a 
great  deal  of  success,  not  running  regularly,  and  in  September  of 
the  latter  year,  T.  B.  Gibson  bought  the  mill  and  commenced 
operation  ]\Iay  1,  1879,  manufacturing  woolen  goods,  making  a 
specialty  of  fine  white  blankets,  which  became  quite  noted.  In 
the  spring  of  1881  Mr.  Gibson  made  several  improvements  in  the 
work  in  order  to  fill  the  demand  for  his  goods,  and  increased  the 
machinery ;  he  manufactured  fine  white  blankets  and  ^Mackinaw 
cloth,  tlie  latter  being  a  grade  of  goods  used  for  out-clothing  for 
lumber  and  woodsmen.  The  business  ran  at  that  time  up  to  a 
capacity  of  $50,000  worth  of  goods  per  year  and  employed  as 
high  as  twenty-five  hands ;  it  was  operated  as  a  woolen  mill  for 
several   years,  until   it  passed  into   other  hands   and  the   manu- 



facture  of  goods  was  no  longer  continued ;  the  building  was  used 
for  various  purposes  at  different  times  up  until  about  1909,  when 
it  was  sold  to  AV.  A.  Ileinstoek,  and  is  now  used  as  a  livery  stable. 

As  early  as  1864  the  village  of  Sparta  boasted  of  a  paper  mill, 
which  was  erected  in  that  year  by  John  L.  Mather,  at  a  cost  of 
$42,000.  In  1871  it  came  into  the  possession  of  Oran  I.  Newton, 
who  ran  it  until  1879,  Avhen  he  rebuilt  the  entire  plant  at  a  cost 
of  over  $50,000.  The  mill  Avas  situated  on  the  LaCrosse  river, 
when  the  water  power,  which  is  now  used  by  the  0.  I.  Newton 
Son's  Electric  Light  Company,  was  first  put  in.  The  mill's 
capacity  was  over  6,000  pounds  of  paper  daily,  and  employed  as 
high  as  twenty  hands,  using  in  the  manufacture  of  a  certain  kind 
of  paper  five  tons  of  straw  daily.  In  addition  to  the  manufacture 
of  wrapping  paper  and  paper  bags,  !Mr.  Newton  dealt  very 
largely  in  other  grades  of  paper,  and  built  up  a  large  trade 
throughout  the  Northwest,  keeping  several  salesmen  on  the  road 

After  his  death  the  mill  was  operated  by  his  sons,  Harry  i\I. 
and  George  Newton,  until  it  burned  some  years  later.  AVith  the 
destruction  of  the  plant  the  business  went  out  of  existence,  as 
the  Newton  boys  did  not  rebuild  it,  but  used  the  Avater  power  for 
operating  the  electric  light  plant,  which  they  subsequently  ac- 
quired, and  the  general  powerhouse  of  which  is  situated  on  the 
site  of  the  old  paper  mill  at  the  present  time. 

Among  other  industries  which  have  gone  out  of  existence  and 
which  were  prominent  at  one  time,  was  the  carriage  works  of 
Messrs.  E.  and  A.  Thorbus,  Avhich  was  established  in  the  village 
of  Sparta  in  the  fall  of  1866  by  the  senior  partner  of  the  firm. 
]\lr.  Thorbus  commenced  business  in  an  old  frame  building  and, 
during  the  first  year,  turned  out  seventy-five  wagons  of  various 
kinds,  the  greater  part  of  which  were  heavy  vehicles,  adapted  for 
hauling  and  fai-m  work.  In  1870  A.  Thorbus  Avas  admitted  as  a 
partner,  bringing  both  business,  capital  and  energy,  and  during 
this  year  the  firm  erected  a  warehouse  at  a  cost  of  $3,000,  which 
they  occupied  for  many  years.  AVhen  the  Avorks  were  run  to 
their  full  capacity,  they  employed  twenty-five  hands  and  kept  in 
stock  al)out  450  vehicles  of  various  kinds. 

As  the  years  went  by  the  manufacture  of  Avagons  Avas  gradu- 
ally discontinued  and,  finally,  under  the  name  of  E.  Thorl)us  & 
Son,  the  busini^ss  Avas  conducted  ]>rincii)ally  as  a  headquarters 
for  farm  machinery  up  to  the  time  of  the  death  of  E.  Thorbus.  It 
Avas  afterAvards  continued  by  the  estate  under  the  management 


of  the  son,  C.  T.  Thorbus,  until  a  few  years  ago,  when  he  sold  it 
to  Davis  &  Jones. 

There  are  three  feed  mills  at  present  being  operated  in  the 
city.  One  on  Water  street  by  G.  H.  Bunnell,  he  having  acquired 
the  Bacon  mill  dam  and  operates  it  at  the  present  time ;  a  pros- 
perous business,  manufacturing  flour  of  different  grades  in  a 
small  way  and  being  very  useful  for  the  farmers  for  feed  grind- 

The  old  mill  by  the  St.  Paul  depot  is  now  owned  by  Bergman 
Bros.,  both  of  these  properties  have,  in  the  past  years,  gone 
through  so  many  different  hands  that  tlie  records  of  them  cannot 
be  gotten  at  the  present  time. 

Both  have  had  various  ups  and  downs,  and  the  trouble  Avitli 
the  water  power,  especially  the  dam,  has  taken  the  course  that 
is  common  with  the  dams  constructed  of  wood  and  dirt.  At 
present  it  appears  to  be  operated  successfully,  being  owned  by 
Bergman  Brothers,  who  have  increased  its  clientage  since  they 
came  in  the  business. 

The  old  McCoy  mill,  situated  on  the  lower  end  of  Court  street, 
is  still  operated  with  the  water  power  which  had  been  in  ex- 
istence for  so  many  years.  It  is  used  as  a  feed  mill  and  has  built 
a  large  clientage  among  the  farmers  of  the  south  and  west. 

Monroe  County  Telephone  Company.  This  company  was 
organized  in  a  small  way  in  the  year  1897,  with  eighty-five 
phones  and  with  V.  V.  Willey,  E.  V.  Benjamin  and  H.  C.  Jackney 
as  incorporators,  who,  in  December,  1907  sold  out  their  hold- 
ings to  about  thirty  local  men,  who  have  since  owned  it.  It  has 
grown  steadily  and  extends  its  lines  in  all  directions  in  the 
county,  and  in  the  year  1904,  it  closed  a  contract  with  Bell  Tele- 
phone Company  by  which  it  is  also  connected  directly  with  long- 
distance lines,  which  is  a  great  convenience  to  its  patrons;  it 
operates  at  the  present  time  552  miles  of  rural  routes  and  city 
lines,  with  950  telephones ;  has  its  central  office  in  the  Teasdale 
building,  where  a  fine  equipment  is  maintained  with  modern  and 
most  improved  switch-boards,  and  in  connection  a  rest  room  for 
the  girl  operators. 

The  plant  is  valued  with  all  its  connection  lines  at  about 
$50,000,  and  owes  its  success  principally  to  Senator  Howard 
Teasdale,  who  has  been  the  secretary  and  general  manager  of 
the  organization  since  its  start. 

The  present  officers  are  C.  M.  Beebe,  president ;  W.  G.  AYil- 
liams,  vice  president ;  H.  Teasdale,  secretary  and  general  man- 
ager, and  W.  McBride,  treasurer. 


Sparta  Grain  Separator  Company.  This  company  lias  tlie 
distinction  of  building  a  machine  lor  the  separating  of  Avheat 
and  oats  and  tlic  cleaning  of  wheat  and  oats,  which  is  the  work 
of  a  Sparta  man,  JMr.  George  W.  Richardson;  ^Ir.  Richardson 
worked  a  great  many  years  upon  his  idea  and  finally  succeeded 
in  getting  a  patent  on  a  machine  which  would  accomplish  the 
Avork,  so  longed  desired  by  mill  and  elevator  men,  that  is  a 
machine  which  Avould  clean  wheat  and  other  mixtures  of  grain, 
separating  them,  thus  making  the  grade  higher. 

The  company  Avas  organized  in  Ihe  year  1902,  in  the  manu- 
facture of  this  machine,  and  started  in  a  small  way  in  its  present 
location  and  met  with  success  and,  finally,  in  the  year  ]909,  the 
entire  plant  was  sold  to  C.  T.  Thorbus,  who  is  now  the  sole 
owner;  he  has  perfected  the  machine  in  various  ways  and  en- 
larged the  plant  at  difit'erent  times  and  the  machines  have  been 
sold  in  various  parts  of  the  United  States,  and  at  the  present  time 
Mr.  Thorbus  has  organized  a  stock  company  at  AVinnipeg, 
Canada,  for  the  manufacture  of  Richardson  Grain  Separators,  so 
that  starting  from  a  small  beginning,  this  business  promises  to 
extend  itself  over  a  large  territory.  Several  sizes  of  these 
machines  are  manufactured,  from  a  small  machine  for  mills,  up 
to  a  large  machine  of  big  capacity  for  handling  grain  in  ele- 

American  Cigar  Company.  This  is  not  an  industry  by  local 
capital,  but  is  one  of  tlic  many  i)lants  of  this  great  company 
which  is  operated  in  ditferent  i)arts  of  the  United  States  for  the 
sorting  and  grading  of  tobacco ;  the  company  located  here  in  the 
year  ]9()1,  and  erected  several  large  brick  buildings,  near  the 
Northwestern  depot,  upon  Ihe  land  donated  to  it  by  the  city  for 
this  purpose;  to  this  plant  is  l)rouglit  a  large  stock  of  tobacco, 
bought  in  different  parts  of  AVisconsin  by  the  diflferent  agents  of 
the  company,  and  here  it  is  sorted,  graded  and  packed ;  the  gen- 
eral manager  and  staff  are  employed  the  year  around  at  the 
plant,  and  during  the  sorting  season  it  has  enijiloyed  as  high  as 
5UU  hands  in  the  handling  of  tobacco. 

There  is  also  an  e(|ui{)nH'nl  of  machinery  for  curing  tobacco, 
by  which  the  leaf  is  started  in  one  end  ol'  the  nuichine  and  at  the 
end  of  a  few  hours  comes  out  tlie  othor  side,  cured  and  ready  for 
use.  This  is  a  very  complicated  machine,  and  reqiiires  the  atten- 
tion of  an  ('\])ci-t  to  operate  it  and  accomplish  the  results,  which 
otherwise  reciuires  considerable  time. 

The  present  general  manager  is  IT.  S.  AFcGiffin,  with  a  corps 
of  assistants. 


Jefferson  Leaf  Tobacco  Company.  This  organization  was  in- 
corporated l)y  AV.  T.  Jefit'erson  and  his  son  Harley,  in  connection 
with  several  others,  in  the  year  1909.  Mr.  W.  T.  Jefferson  had 
formerly  been  a  manager  of  the  plant  of  the  American  Cigar 
Company  here  and  also  state  manager  for  that  institution ;  he  re- 
tired from  its  service  in  1909  and  organized  the  Jefferson  Leaf 
Tobacco  Company ;  his  long  experience  in  the  business  in  Vir- 
ginia and  in  AVisconsin  fitted  him  to  engage  at  once  in  this  busi- 
ness, and  the  company  leased  commodious  quarters,  situated  on 
"Water  street,  where  it  congregates  its  stock  of  leaf  tobacco,  sorts 
and  packs  it.    It  employs  about  fifty  hands. 

The  present  officers  of  the  corporation  are  W.  T.  Jefferson, 
president ;  D.  AY.  Cheney,  vice  president ;  H.  W.  Jefferson,  secre- 
tary and  treasurer. 

Sparta  Iron  Works.  Originally  established  as  an  iron 
foundry,  the  present  plant  is  the  outgrowth  of  the  oldest  estab- 
lished industry  in  the  city.  In  1857  Captain  Fisk  erected  the 
first  foundry  in  response  to  a  demand  growing  up  in  this  section 
of  the  state  for  such  a  business ;  he  afterwards  sold  an  interest 
to  Frank  Skillman  and  Jeremiah  Andreas;  this  firm  ran  the 
business  until  1860,  when  Skillman  acquired  the  entire  business, 
buying  out  the  other  two,  and  conducted  it  until  1865,  when  he 
sold  out  to  LoAvrie,  Mock  &  Stevens ;  this  firm  sold  to  H.  Greve, 
and  he  in  turn  was  bought  out  by  J.  J.  Owsley,  during  Avhose 
ownership  the  plant  was  destroyed  by  fire. 

In  1867  Lowrie,  Irwin  &  Gilbert  built  another  foundry  near 
where  the  present  works  are  located,  and  this  was  finally  pur- 
chased by  the  Sparta  Manufacturing  Company,  and  again  the 
plant  was  destroyed  by  fire.  L.  ]\I.  Newbury  bought  what  was 
left  and  built  another  shop  in  1869,  sold  a  half  interest  to  J.  P. 
AVard,  and  in  1872  built  what  is  the  main  building  of  the  present 
works.  AVard  sold  to  Air.  Satterlee  and  the  firm  of  Newbury  & 
Satterlee  carried  on  the  business  extensively,  at  times  employing 
as  many  as  sixteen  hands. 

The  works  passed  into  the  hands  of  Carl  Newbury  and  J.  U. 
Durant,  by  whom  it  was  formed  into  a  corporation ;  the  entire 
plant  was  taken  over  by  Lee  and  Robert  Canfield,  who  are  the 
principal  stockholders,  and  the  business  has  been  conducted 
under  their  management  ever  since.  Gradually  the  foundry  and 
casting  business  was  dropped  and  the  entire  plant  is  now  devoted 
principally  to  the  manufacture  of  well  drilling  machinery,  and 
in  this  business  the  Canfield  brothers  have  made  a  success  which 
is  hardly  realized  by  the  citizens  of  Sparta  ;  modest  and  unassum- 


intr.  they  have  developed  surprising  business  ability,  employ 
about  forty  hands,  five  of  whom  are  traveling  salesmen,  and  their 
machinery  is  sold  all  over  the  United  States,  in  Canada,  Porto 
Rico,  Africa,  India  and  the  South  American  states  and  elsewhere. 




The  Congregational  church  liad  its  beginning  with  the  com- 
ing of  Rev.  AV.  F.  Avery,  who  arrived  October  24,  1854;  having 
finished  his  studies  at  Amherst  College,  Massachusetts,  he  started 
West  and,  upon  his  arrival,  found  everything  crude  and  primi- 
tive, but  he  entered  into  the  work  with  great  earnestness ;  after 
three  and  a  half  years  his  health  broke  down  from  overwork. 
At  first,  there  being  no  meetinghouse,  services  were  conducted 
in  private  houses,  the  church  being  formally  organized  June  22, 
1855,  commenced  the  building  of  a  church  in  the  winter  of  1856, 
which  was  formally  dedicated  June  11,  1857 ;  it  was  erected  at 
a  cost  of  $3,800  complete.  The  first  deacons  of  the  church  were 
Joseph  Avery,  the  father  of  the  pastor;  Guy  C.  Hoyt,  and  H.  M. 
Sandford.  Deacon  Avery  was  untiring  in  his  efforts  in  behalf  of 
his  church,  and  it  was  through  his  efforts  that  the  church  build- 
ing was  erected.  The  first  board  of  officers  was  elected  March 
8,  1856,  consisting  of  six  trustees,  being  George  AV.  Root,  G.  C. 
Hoyt,  E.  S.  Blake,  E.  Lathrop,  Joseph  Avery  and  A.  F.  Childs. 

In  1858  Rev.  Avery  resigned,  and  from  that  period  to  1867  the 
pulpit  was  occupied  by  five  different  clergymen ;  the  Rev.  Joseph 
Carmichael  became  the  pastor  in  1866  and  served  for  nine  years, 
being  followed  by  Rev.  Geo.  F.  Hunting  for  two  years,  and  he  in 
turn  succeeded  by  Rev.  Frank  T.  Lee,  who  entered  the  pastorate 
January  23,  1879.  During  his  time  the  church  made  rapid 

The  Rev.  AVilliam  Crawford  followed  him,  commencing  the 
work  April  8,  1883,  and  continued  as  pastor  for  about  eighteen 
years,  and  it  was  during  his  long  pastorate  that  the  church 
reached  its  climax  of  success ;  Dr.  Crawford,  a  most  earnest 
Christian,  of  great  executive  ability,  a  profound  scholar  upon 
whom  his  college,  Amherst,  has  conferred  the  degree  of  D.D., 
was  closely  allied  with  the  best  interests  of  Sparta,  and  the 
memory  of  the  great  work  accomplished  by  him  will  long  linger 

in  the  minds  of  the  people  of  Sparta.     It  was  during  his  pastor- 



ate,  ami  largely  due  to  his  efforts,  that  the  present  beautiful 
cluireh  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  about  ii^20,U()0  and  dedicated  June 
23,  1879. 

This  church  is  far  beyond  the  cliurch  building  ordinarily 
found  in  a  city  of  this  size;  it  is  l)uilt  upon  grand  architectural 
lines,  handsome  in  appearance,  fitted  inside  with  a  large  pipe 
organ  and  modern  church  furnishings,  a  large,  roomy  audi- 
torium, tlie  acoustic  properties  of  which  are  excellent,  church 
])arlors  Avhicli  can  be  opened  into  the  main  auditorium  and  a 
Avell-appointed  basement  dining  room  and  kitchen,  in  which 
church  suppers  are  frequently  held. 

Rev.  E.  AV.  lluelster  was  called  to  the  pastorate  from  the 
East,  succeeding  Dr.  CraAvford,  in  January,  1901 ;  upon  his  re- 
tirement, after  considerable  discussion,  the  Rev.  F.  AV.  A\'alker 
Pugh,  pastor  of  the  First  Baptist  Church  of  the  city,  was  en- 
gaged as  pastor,  and  the  two  church  organizations  formed  an 
alliance;  the  Baptist  church  being  so  small  in  num])ers  that  to 
maintain  a  clergyman  was  almost  out  of  the  question ;  the  coali- 
tion Avas  effected ;  the  two  church  societies  joined  in  supporting 
the  church  Avork  of  the  Congregational  church,  although  each 
organization  still  retains  its  olftcers  and  each  conducts  its  annual 
church  meeting  as  before.  The  arrangement  seems  to  be  a  A'ery 
happy  one,  as  the  congregation,  thus  augmentedj  supports  the 
church  very  Avell. 

Rev.  Harding  Hogan  succeeded  Dr.  Pugh.  having  been  the 
pastor  for  about  tAvo  years  last  past ;  Rev.  Hogan  is  a  fortunate 
addition  to  the  local  clergy,  a  man  of  broad  mind,  a  deep  student, 
gifted  far  beyond  the  ordinary  Avith  eloquence,  his  sermons, 
habitually  delivered  AA'ithout  the  aid  of  a  manuscript,  are  models 
of  logic,  thought  and  diction.  There  are  the  usual  societies  con- 
nected AA'ith  the  church  Avhich  maintain  the  ordinary  church  ac- 
tivities and  do  much  charity  A\'ork,  and  the  church  is  fortunate 
in  having  a  large  choir  of  mixed  voices,  ably  conducted  by  Dr. 
S.  D.  Beebe. 


Sparta  Avas  visited  for  the  first  time  by  a  Catholic  priest  in 
1858,  in  Ihe  ]>erson  of  the  Rev.  Father  Rrtche.  Avho  celebrated 
mass  in  a  lailroad  shanty.  At  lliat  time  there  Avere  but  few 
Catholic  families  in  the  village,  but  Avith  the  advent  of  Father 
]\Iontague,  who  succeeded  Father  Roche  in  18G0,  began  the 
groAvtli  of  the  congregation  UJitil  in  llie  year  lS(iT  a  frame  ehureh 
AA'as     built,     under    the     direction     of     Father     Alarco;     Father 


Montague  was  succeeded  by  Father  Stroker  about  1864,  and  he 
in  turn,  by  Father  Gallagher  about  1865,  and  Father  Marco. 

This  building  was  located  somewhere  near  the  present  Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railway  Company  depot,  and  the 
first  members  of  tlie  congregation  were  H.  Fanning,  Thomas  and 
Pat  Brennan,  H.  Schroff,  D.  Sullivan,  P.  Fitzgerald,  C.  Bedenk, 
H.  C.  MuUer,  T.  McGargle,  H.  Carr.  AY.  Lennon,  M.  Bransfield, 
Thomas  and  Bernard  Mulrenin.  Ed  Barry,  William,  Thomas,  Ed 
and  John  BoAvler,  Pat  Davis,  Con.  Carroll,  Jacob  Poss,  J.  Ant- 
weiler,  John  AYagner  and  Alec  Allen,  five  of  whom,  Pat  and 
Thomas  Brennan,  AA^illiam  and  Thomas  Bowler  and  Thomas  Mul- 
renin, are  still  living. 

The  Rev.  Father  Quigley  succeeded  Father  i\Iarco  as  the 
pastor  in  1867,  and  he  in  turn  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Father 
Dorward  of  Tomah,  who  on  the  14th  day  of  August,  1876,  was 
succeeded  in  turn  by  Rev.  J.  B.  IMetzler,  who  held  the  pastorate 
until  August,  1877.  when  the  Rev.  Joseph  Bauer  relieved  him ; 
he  officiated  until  1877,  when  Rev.  J.  AVicker  took  charge,  until 
1879,  when  Rev.  J.  B.  AViedman  succeeded  him.  The  church  first 
erected  in  1867,  near  the  depot,  was  moved  to  the  present  loca- 
tion in  1877 ;  the  membership  at  that  time  consisted  of  about 
fifty  families. 

Rev.  Father  T.  H.  Beau  succeeded  Father  AYiedman  in  the 
pastorate,  and  after  a  short  pastorate  of  a  few  months  by  Rev. 
J.  Kennedy,  he  in  turn  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Father  H.  F. 
Flock,  who  marks  the  twenty-fifth  j^ear  of  his  pastorate  in  1912. 
During  the  latter 's  pastorate  the  old  church  was  enlarged  and 
remodeled  at  an  expense  of  about  $2,000.  Until  about  1897  two 
mission  churches  were  attached  to  the  Sparta  church,  one  at 
Summit  of  about  fifty  families,  and  one  at  Pine  Hill,  near  Sham- 
rock, of  about  twenty  families.  Since  1897  the  Sparta  congre- 
gation has  service  every  Sunday ;  the  aforesaid  church  at  Summit 
now  having  a  resident  pastor,  and  the  church  at  Pine  Hill  being 
attended  from  Black  River  Falls. 

On  Sunday  morning,  January  22,  1905,  the  church  was  totally 
destroyed  by  fire,  which  started  in  the  basement  and,  it  being  an 
old  wooden  building,  it  soon  went  up  into  flames.  The  congre- 
gation, luckily,  had  $2,300  of  insurance  on  this  building,  so  that 
it  was  not  a  total  loss. 

Steps  were  immediately  taken  for  the  erection  of  a  new 
church,  and  on  Sunday,  September  24,  1905,  the  cornerstone  of 
the  new  edifice  was  laid  with  impressive  ceremonies  by  Bishop 
Schwebach,  of  LaCrosse,  and  on  June   5,  two  years  later,  the 


bishop  again  visited  the  elnireh  and  presided  at  the  dedicatory 
ceremonies,  Avliieli  were  very  e]al)orate.  The  clnirch  OAvns  the 
entire  ])lock  upon  wliidi  its  huildinos  are  situated,  Avith  tlie  ex- 
ception of  four  h)ts  Avhieh  are  owned  bj'  the  Franciscan  Sisters 
and  upon  which  stands  the  St.  Mary's  Domestic  Science  school 

The  congregation  has  a  membership  of  something  over  100 
families,  who  are  steady  supporters  of  the  church,  besides  about 
fifty  who  are  occasional  contributors.  Though  not  large,  the 
congregation  has  made  a  splendid  showing  the  last  few  years  in 
erecting  a  new  parsonage  at  a  cost  of  !|<4,000 ;  buying  new  prop- 
erty to  the  value  of  $6,000,  and  building  the  new  church  at  a 
cost  of  $30,000  with  a  residue  debt  of  only  $15,000  at  the  present 
time  and  that  is  being  paid  at  a  rapid  rate. 


This  is  not  financially  connected  with  St.  Patrick's  congrega- 
tion, but  is  a  separate  institution  conducted  by  the  Franciscan 
Sisters  of  LaCrosse,  "Wis.  Originally  the  building  which  was 
considerably  smaller  than  now,  was  used  as  a  school  and  after- 
wards it  was  changed  to  a  girls'  orphanage,  for  which  purpose 
it  Avas  used  until  1889,  when  the  orphans  were  taken  to  LaCrosse, 
and  it  then  became  a  boarding  school  until  about  the  year  1905. 

The  sisters  then  determined  to  undertake  the  opening  of  a 
domestic  science  school  in  connection  with  the  St.  ]\Iary's  Con- 
vent, and  it  became  a  success  from  the  start;  it  then  was  neces- 
sary to  enlarge  the  buildings  to  accommodate  the  increasing  at- 
tendance. The  building  was  thoroughly  remodeled  and  enlarged 
and  school  formally  opened  on  I\Ionday,  January  6,  1908.  It  is 
equipped  with  a  large  and  commodious  kitchen,  a  spacious  dining 
room,  sewing  room,  class  room,  bright,  airy  dormitories,  a  well- 
equipped  laundry,  several  music  rooms,  all  well  lighted,  steam 
heat  and  ventilation  and  provided  with  all  modern  improve- 
ments, arranged  with  a  view  to  the  practical  convenience  and 
comfort  of  the  pupils. 

This  is  a  school  for  girls,  and  its  principal  purpose  is  to  teach 
domestic  science  and  all  its  branches,  which  includes  for  the  first 
year,  cooking  and  serving  of  meals,  table  etiquette,  study  in 
composition  and  nutrient  value  of  various  foods,  housekeeping 
and  home  management,  laundering  in  all  its  branches,  plain 
sewing,  mending  and  darning,  the  making  of  simple  garments, 
common  and  fancy  needlework.  The  second  year  of  the  course 
includes  also  home-nursing,  care  of  the  sick  and  the  sick  room, 


making,  cutting  and  fitting  of  garments  and  art  needlework. 
Music  is  also  taught,  tlie  music  department  being  well  provided 
with  rooms  and  instruments.  Orchestra  concerts  and  musical 
programs  are  provided  for  the  entertainment  of  the  pupils  and 
their  friends ;  there  is  also  a  course  of  drawing  and  painting, 
which  is  optional  for  those  who  desire  to  take  it.  In  connection 
with  the  other  instructions  in  the  school,  religious  instruction  is 
given,  and  the  training  and  discipline  Avhich  will  cultivate  in  its 
pupils  the  Christian  virtues  and  special  traits  of  womanly  char- 
acter that  should  be  prominent  in  good  Christian  homes. 

The  following  is. a  list  of  the  graduates  of  the  school:  1910 
— Veronica  Elner,  New  Ulm,  Minn.  1911 — Emily  Shornar,  La 
Crosse,  Wis. ;  Gertrude  Beecher,  Eau  Claire,  Wis. ;  Pauline  Hil- 
debrand,  Sheboygan,  Wis. ;  Catherine  Schmitt,  St.  Lucas,  la. 
1912 — Clara  Belter,  Athens,  AVis. ;  Anna  Beil,  Athens,  Wis. ; 
Mary  Greiner,  Athens,  AVis. ;  Clemence  Canar,  Mondovi,  AVis. ; 
Florence  Schlosser,  Eau  Claire,  AVis. ;  Anna  Alariek,  Eau  Claire, 
AVis. ;  Sophia  Duren,  Cazenovia,  Wis. ;  Clara  Muehlenkamp,  Nor- 
walk,  AVis. ;  Elizabeth  Rick,  Plain,  AVis. ;  Alary  E.  Hughes,  Green- 
wood, AVis. 

The  total  attendance  for  the  year  1911-12  was  forty-five 


This  city  is  fortunate  in  being  selected  as  one  of  the  three 
points  in  the  United  States  where  is  established  a  home  for  the 
members  of  this  order. 

In  August,  1911,  the  property  known  as  the  Judge  Romanzo 
Bunn  residence,  on  South  Court  street,  was  purchased,  which  in- 
cludes about  thirteen  acres  of  land,  and  became  a  mission  house 
of  this  order,  and  on  September  27th  it  was  dedicated  by  the 
Rev.  James  Schwebaeh,  bishop  of  LaCrosse,  with  impressive 
ceremonies.  This  order  was  originally  founded  in  France,  by 
Very  Rev.  Jules  Chevalier,  December  8,  1851,  but  in  consequence 
of  the  French  anti-clericalism,  the  society  was  moved  from 
France,  wdiere  it  had  a  magnificent  basilica,  dedicated  to  our 
Lady  of  the  Sacred  Heart,  which  annually  attracted  thousands  of 
pilgrims  and  established  its  headquarters  in  Holland,  from  which 
it  rapidly  spread  over  many  countries.  The  mother  home  is  now 
located  in  Rome. 

The  chief  activities  of  the  order  are  the  missions  of  the  South 
Sea  and  Philippine  Islands ;  the  society  is  especially  strong  in 
New  Guinea,  where  it  has  a  complete  organization,  headed  by  an 


arclil)isli()|)  willi  140  ])riests  and  100  lay  bretiircn  ;  in  llic  i'liilip- 
piue  Lslands  tlicro  are  twenty-five  priests  and  twenty  lay  breth- 
ren. Altlioujrli  1lic  missions  are  dang^erons  and  ditficult,  they  are 
declared  lo  he  llic  most  pi'ospt'i'oiis  of  any  througlioul  the  world, 
and  the  ordci-  lias  at  this  time  a  total  membership  of  600  priests 
and  200  lay  brothers.  At  tiie  mission  home  in  tliis  city  tliere  are 
at  tlie  present  time  an  average  of  about  seven  priests  who  are 
here  for  rest  from  their  arduous  labors. 

The  home  is  well  located  geographically,  and  it  is  expected 
in  the  future  that  it  will  grow  in  usefulness  and  be  the  home  of 
many  of  these  missionaries  during  the  times  in  which  they  are 
permitted  to  retire  from  active  service  and  recruit  their  health 
and  strength. 


In  the  early  settlement  of  the  country  it  seems  that  the 
Methodist  denomination  Avas  first  on  the  ground  in  Sparta  in  the 
person  of  Rev.  Frederick  Walrath,  who  preached  the  first  sermon 
in  1851  to  a  congregation  of  five  persons,  services  being  held  in 
the  cabin  of  iNlr.  Petit. 

Rev.  AValrath  continued  to  hold  services  from  that  time  until 
1854,  the  membership  numbering  about  twenty-five  persons ;  in 
that  year  the  first  regularly  appointed  pastor  took  charge,  the 
Rev.  Mr.  ^layne.  Although  regularly  assigned  to  this  clnirch, 
the  organization  did  not,  in  fact,  take  place  until  1850:  at  that 
time  Rev.  Reuben  R.  Wood,  presiding  elder  of  the  LaCrosse  dis- 
trict, AVisconsin  conference,  appointed  Frederick  AValrath,  AV.  J. 
Tucker,  Albert  II.  Blake,  Benjamin  Stevens  and  J.  W.  Harding 
as  trustees  of  the  church  at  Sparta,  to  hold  in  trust  all  church 
property;  the  organization  being  completed  according  to  the 
laws  of  the  state  by  the  presiding  elder  acknowledging  the  ex- 
ecution of  the  certificate  before  E.  S.  Blake,  notary  public,  at 
Sparta,  on  the  16th  day  of  February,  1856,  the  document  being 
filed  in  the  office  of  the  county  clerk  on  the  same  date. 

In  1856  a  neat  church  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  about  H'2,500. 
and  about  that  tinu'  a  bell  was  presented  to  the  church  by  the 
members  of  the  community,  the  sum  of  $450  having  been  raised 
by  subscription  for  that  jMu-pose.  and  became  a  great  addition 
to  the  building.  The  eliureii  was.  of  course,  regularly  sujiplied 
inuler  the  system  used  in  the  Methodist  conference,  Avith  })astors, 
during  the  first  years,  and  for  a  great  many  years  the  five-year 
rub'  being  in  force;  a  record  of  all  of  the  pastors  is  not  available, 
but  among  them  have  been  humi  of  high  intellectual  attainments, 


among  them  might  be  mentioned  the  Rev.  Seamann,  Rev.  Trimm, 
Avho  became  presiding  elder  of  this  district  a  few  years  ago ; 
Rev.  AVright,  who  afterwards  was  sent  to  Europe  in  the  mission- 
ary work;  Rev.  Bauchop,  who  believed  in  practical  patriotism, 
joined  the  Sparta  military  company  and  received  a  commission 
as  lieutenant,  serving  for  a  time  faithfully  and  well. 

Rev.  L.  A.  Brenner  perhaps  accomplished  the  greatest  amount 
of  improvement  in  church  property,  for  during  his  incumbency 
for  a  few  years  ending  in  1911,  the  church  Avas  greatly  improved 
and  enlarged,  and  through  his  etforts  money  was  raised  and  a 
magnificent  pipe  organ  purchased  and  installed ;  the  building  en- 
tirely fitted  with  beautiful  stained  glass  windows. 

In  the  past  years  the  church  has  had  able  managers  among 
its  trustees,  and  has  acquired  the  title  to  most  of  the  block  upon 
Avhich  the  church  building  is  situated ;  has  erected  a  fine  parson- 
age for  the  pastor's  use,  which  is  one  of  the  finest  appointed  resi- 
dences in  the  city. 

During  the  fall  of  1911  the  conference  of  the  LaCrosse  dis- 
trict was  held  at  this  church;  at  this  meeting  Rev.  L.  A.  Brenner 
was  appointed  district  superintendent,  a  fitting  reward  for  good 
and  faithful  service.  The  church  has  a  large  membership,  is  in 
a  good  condition  financially,  and  wields  a  considerable  influence 
in  the  community ;  has  many  societies  connected  with  it,  espe- 
cially among  the  young  people,  and  strong  Sunday  school  and 
Epworth  League ;  the  pastor  at  the  present  writing  being  Rev. 


Was  organized  September  9,  1854,  with  sixteen  members,  its 
first  pastor  being  the  Rev.  James  Squier;  after  an  existence  of 
some  months  the  church  disbanded  and  was  reorganized  on  the 
29th  of  June,  1856,  with  twenty-two  constituent  members,  who 
adopted  the  New  Hampshire  confession  of  faith,  and  during  the 
first  year,  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  AY.  H.  Card,  the  member- 
ship increased  by  the  addition  of  fifty-one  persons ;  in  1 858  the 
first  church  building  was  erected  on  Benton  street ;  subsequently 
this  was  disposed  of  and,  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  S.  S. 
ATalker,  a  church  building  was  erected  on  the  corner  of  Oak  and 
Court  streets,  the  present  site ;  in  1895  the  congregation  having 
grown  to  substantial  proportions,  erected  the  beautiful  church 
Avhich  occupies  the  site  Avhich  was  formally  dedicated  February 
7th,  1897.  The  church,  during  the  succeeding  years,  had  varied 
success,  but  gradually,  through  removals  from  the  city,  the  mem- 


bershij)  clwiiulknl  to  a  })uiiit  wliieh,  as  has  l)i'eii  said,  resulted  in 
the  coalition  with  the  Congregational  society  during  the  pastor- 
ate of  the  Rev.  F.  AV.  AValker  Pugh  ;  at  the  publication  of  this 
history  the  arrangement  still  continues,  a  striking  illustration 
that  letting  down  the  bars  in  denominational  religion  results  and 
can  result  in  greater  good. 


The  first  services  of  this  church  were  held  at  what  was  known 
at  "Union  Block,"  just  south  of  Assembly  hall,  by  Rev.  Fayette 
Durlin,  missionary  stationed  at  LaCrosse ;  he  visited  Sparta  oc- 
casionally thereafter  for  some  time.  Bishop  Kemper  made  the 
first  Episcopal  visitation  in  1859,  at  which  time  Mrs.  J.  AV.  AVal- 
rath,  ]\Irs.  J.  D.  Condit  and  Mrs.  J.  AY.  Smith  received  the  rite  of 
confirmation.  In  1860  the  first  Sunday  school  was  organized  by 
a  few  ladies  at  the  home  of  ]\Irs.  0.  D.  Kaiidall,  which  held  its 
first  sessions  at  Liberty  hall.  In  1861  the  lot  was  purchased 
where  the  little  church  noAv  stands,  and  in  1863  a  plain  church 
"was  erected  through  the  efforts  of  the  few  meml)ers  and  the 
donations  from  all  classes  of  citizens.  In  April,  1863.  St.  John's 
Church  Avas  formally  organized  with  the  Rev.  AV.  P.  Ten  Broeck 
as  pastor.  !Many  clergymen  have  been  assigned  to  tliis  little 
church,  Avhich  has  had  a  varied  existence,  at  times  no  services 
being  held,  at  others  occasional  service  and  at  times  having  a 
missionary  priest  regularly  in  charge. 

Of  late  years  the  most  determined  effort  to  inaugurate  a  re- 
vival of  the  church  membership  and  work  was  undertaken,  with 
the  coming  of  Rev.  A.  J.  R.  Goldsmith  from  England,  sent  here 
by  Bishop  Nicholson;  he  arrived  in  July.  1906.  and  remained 
about  two  years,  during  which  time  he  was  ordained  by  Bishop 
AYebl) ;  he  resigned  and  went  to  Arapahoe,  Neb.  In  September, 
1909,  Rev.  Robert  T.  ]\IcCutchen  assumed  charge,  holding  regu- 
lar services  up  to  the  time  when  he  received  an  appointment  from 
the  general  board  of  missions  in  New  York  City  as  missionary  to 
the  Philippine  Islands,  with  residence  at  Sagada,  for  whicli  duty 
he  and  his  wife  left  Sparta  early  in  1911.  The  church  has  since 
been  closed,  except  for  occasioiud  services  which  have  l)een  sup- 
plied by  Rev.  Link  fioiii  Alauston. 


It  having  been  established  beyond  the  question  that  the  city 
of  Tomah  was  named  from  Tliomas  Carron,  or  "Tomah,"  which 
is  the  French  pronunciation  for  Thomas,  a  biography  of  this 
remarkable  man  merits  a  place  in  this  work.  There  seems  to 
have  been  a  great  deal  of  uncertainty  in  the  past  among  the 
people  of  Tomah  who  have  been  interested  in  investigating  its 
early  days  and  the  reason  for  the  name,  and  it  has  frequently 
been  written  that  he  was  a  Winnebago  chief,  but  through  the 
efforts  of  the  Wisconsin  State  Historical  Society  the  principal 
facts  in  his  life  have  been  gathered  and  are  here  presented. 

Tomah  was  the  most  noted  of  the  sons  of  the  old  Carron,  a 
celebrated  Menomonee  chief,  and  was  born  in  1752  in  the  old 
King's  village,  opposite  Green  Bay.  He  was  a  man  of  magnifi- 
cent appearance,  being  six  feet  tall,  with  dark  eyes  and  handsome 
features,  and  was  very  prepossessing,  with  a  lordly  bearing.  He 
looked  every  inch  a  king  and  one  writer,  Grignon,  says  that  he 
was  the  finest  looking  chief  that  he  had  ever  seen.  He  was  firm, 
prudent,  peaceable  and  conciliatory,  and  wfss  sincerely  loved 
alike  by  the  white  and  red  men  of  his  time.  In  his  early  man- 
hood he  became  the  acting  chief  of  the  ^Menomonee  tribe, 
although  he  had  no  hereditary  title  to  the  chieftainship.  This 
was  held  at  the  time  by  a  man  about  as  old  as  himself,  who  was 
an  idiot.  Tomah  merely  ruled  as  the  acknowledged  strongest 
man  of  his  nation,  and  this  he  continued  to  do  for  a  great  many 
years.  The  Indian  tribes  around  him  are  represented  as  being- 
afraid  of  him,  which  is  mentioned  as  a  singular  fact,  that  he 
never  engaged  in  Avar  with  any  of  them  while  in  control  of  the 
nation,  but  seemed  to  inspire  awe  by  his  great  ability. 

The  home  of  this  tribe  was  in  the  vicinity  of  Green  Bay,  l)ut 
the  Indians  at  different  times  roamed  tJiis  entire  country,  and 
no  doubt  at  some  time  the  chief  Tomah  occupied  for  a  brief  space 
some  portion  of  the  site  of  the  present  city  of  Tomah  as  his  camp- 
ing grounds  and  made  the  acquaintance  of  some  settler  or  settlers 
in  that  region,  who  were  so  impressed  with    his    bearing    and 



frii'n(llin(\s.s  that  liis  name  was  jji-oposed  for  the  little  early  settle- 
ment, and  (^ver  since  the  village,  and  afterwards  the  city,   has 
horiK^   his  name.     An  account  Avritten  by  James  AV.  Biddle,  of 
Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  of  a  visit  to  the  Indian  trilx'S  at  Green  Bay  and 
vicinity  along  in  1810  and  1817,  gives  many  interesting  events  in 
the  history  of  this  great  chief.     jMr.  l^iddle  relates  that  on   his 
visit  he  learned  that  in  1810  or  1811  Tecumseh  was  forming  his 
great  combination  for  drivint:  llic  Americans  back,  who,  like  the 
waves  of  the  sea,  were  encroaching  upon  their  hunting  grounds. 
AYith  this  vicAV   he   visited   Green   Bay,   obtained  a  council    and 
hearing  from  Tomah  and  his  people,  whom  he  addressed  in  a  man- 
ner he  best  knew  how  to  do,  and  in  the  course  of  which,  in  true 
Indian  spirit,  he  pictured  the  glory,  as  well  as  certainty  of  suc- 
cess, and  as  omens  of  this  recapitulated  to  them  his  own  hitherto 
])rosperous  career — the  number  of  battles  he  had  fought,  tlic  vic- 
tories he  had  won,  the  enemies  he  had  slain,  and  the  scalps  he  had 
taken  from   the   lieads    of    the    warrior-foes.     Tonuili    appeared 
sensible  of  this  influence,  for  he  was  opposed  to  leading  his  people 
into  war.     His  reply  was  in  a  tone  to  allay  this  feeling,  and  he 
closed  Avith  the  remark  to  tliem  that  they  had  heard  the  words  of 
Tecumseh — heard  of  the  battles  lie  had  fought,   the  enemies  he 
iiad  slain,  and  the  scalps  he  had  taken.     He  then  paused,  and 
while   the   deepest   silence   reigned   throughout   the   audience   he 
slowly   raised  his   hands,  and  his  eyes  fixed   on  them,  and   in   a 
lower  I)iit  not  less  prouder  tone,  continued,  "But  i1  is  my  boast 
that  these  hands  are  unstained  with  Imiiuiii  blood!*'     The  eflt'ect 
is  described  as  tremendous — nature  obeyed  her  own  impulse;  an 
admiration   Mas  forced  even  from  those  who  could  not.   or  did 
not,  approve  of  the  moral  to  be  implied,  and  the  gravity  of  the 
council  Avas  disturbed  for  an  instant  by  a  murmur  of  ai)proba- 
tion,  a  tribute  of  genius,  overpowering  at  the  moment  the  force 
of  education  and  of  haliit.     He  concluded  Avith  remarking  that 
he  had  ever  supported  the  policy  of  peace,  as  his  nation  Avas  small 
and  consequently  Aveak;  1li;it  he  Avas  I'lilly  awai-e  of  llie  injustice 
of  the  Anu'ricaus  in   tlu-ii-  encroadiiiienls  upon  the  lands  of  Ihe 
Indians,  and  for  them  feai'ed  its  consecjuences.  I)u1   llial    he  saw- 
no  I'elief  for  it  in  going  to  Avai-.  aiul  therefore,  as  a  national  tiling, 
he  Avould  not  do  so,  but   that  if  any  of    his    young    nuMi    Avere 
desirous  of  leaving  their  hunting  grounds  and  foUoAving  Tecum- 
seh they  had  his  permission  to  do  so.     His  prudent  councils  pre- 

The  further  report  of  Mr.  Biddle.  given  in  his  oavu  language, 
is  as  folloAvs:     "I  always  thought  this  an  odd  speech,  a  very 


remarkable  one  to  come  from  a  savage,  for  such  Tomali  was  by 
l)irth  and  edneation,  but  by  nature  I  always  thought  him  one  of 
the  grandest  specimens  of  humanity  I  had  ever  seen.  I  had  not 
met  with  him  at  Green  Ba^' ;  I  was  only  a  few  days  here  in  1816 
and  hurried  with  business,  nor  did  I  hear  much,  if  anvthing,  of 
him,  until  after  meeting  him  the  next  year  at  ^lackinaw.  The 
tirst  I  lieard  of  him  was  a  prescription  of  his  to  Col.  John  Bowyer, 
tlie  Indian  agent  at  Green  Bay,  for  the  gout,  of  which  my  brother, 
EdAvard  Biddle,  told  me,  and  a  very  rational  one  I  thought  it,  '  to 
drink  no  whiskey,  live  on  lean  meat  and  wild  rice  and  scarify 
his  feet.'  This  led  me  to  make  inquiries  about  him  when  I  found 
that  my  brother  had  become  a  warm  friend  of  his — an  admirer 
of  him. 

"When  at  Mackinaw  early  one  morning  in  the  latter  part 
of  May  or  early  in  June,  1817,  I  had  come  out  of  my  lodgings 
and  observed  approaching  me  one  of  tlie  many  Indians  then  on 
the  island,  and  taking  a  look  at  him  as  he  emerged  from  the  fog, 
then  very  heavy,  I  was  struck  as  he  passed  in  a  most  unusual 
manner  by  his  singularly  imposing  presence.  I  had  never  seen, 
I  thought,  so  magnificent  a  man.  He  was  of  large  size,  perhaps 
full  six  feet,  with  hue  proportions,  a  little  stoop-shouldered,  and 
dressed  in  a  someAvhat  dirty  Indian  l)lanket,  and  had  scarcel}^ 
noticed  me  as  he  passed.  I  remember  it  as  distinctly  as  if  it  was 
yesterday.  I  watched  him  until  he  disappeared  again  in  the  fog 
and  remember  almost  giving  expression  to  a  feeling  which  seemed 
irresistibly  to  creep  over  me,  tliat  the  earth  was  too  mean  for 
such  a  man  to  walk  on  !  The  idea,  to  be  sure,  was  discarded  the 
moment  it  came  up,  but  existence  it  had  at  this,  my  first  view,  of 
Toraah.  1  had  no  knowledge  at  the  time  who  he  was  or  that 
Tomah  was  on  the  island,  but  while  standing  there  before  my 
door  and  under  the  influence  of  the  feeling  I  have  described, 
Henry  Graverat,  the  Indian  interpreter,  came  up  and  I  inquired 
of  him  whether  he  knew  an  Indian  who  had  just  passed  by?  He 
replied  yes.  that  it  was  Tomah,  chief  of  the  IMenomonee  Indians, 
who,  with  his  people,  had  arrived  late  the  evening  before  and 
were  encamped  at  the  'Point;'  that  Tomah  had  just  been  with 
him  to  ask  a  council  with  the  Indian  agent,  Maj.  Wm.  H.  Puthuff. 
The  council  was  held  at  10  o'clock  and  I  made  it  my  business  to 

"To  understand  what  follows,  I  must  make  a  short  digression. 
The  British  for  many  years  had  paid  annual  contributions,  termed 
by  them  Indian  annuities,  giving  each  member  of  the  tribe  a  suit 
of  clothes,  consisting  of  a  shirt,  leggins,  breech-clout  and  blanket 


— and  each  family  a  copper  kettle,  knives,  axes,  guns,  ammuni- 
tion, etc.  For  these  each  tribe  came  regularly  in  the  spring  or 
fall,  either  to  ^Mackinaw  or  Drummond's  island  or  the  Sault  Ste. 
]\Iarie.  Tomah  was  a  British  Indian.  He  had  not  himself  engaged 
in  the  war,  but  his  feelings  were  with  the  British,  as  were  per- 
sonally some  of  his  young  men.  He  had  arrived  on  ^Mackinaw 
island  Avith  his  whole  people  on  their  way  to  Drummond's  island 
to  receive  their  usual  annuity,  and  stopped  at  ^Mackinaw  to  rest 
over  night.  There  was  nothing  novel  to  us  in  this  as  a  number 
of  tribes  had  previously  arrived,  stopped  and  had  a  council,  at 
which  they  told  their  story,  always  winding  up  with  professions 
of  love  for  their  'Chemuckiman  Nosah,'  or  American  father,  who, 
they  hoped,  would  open  his  heart  and  give  their  people  some 
meat  to  stay  them  on  tlieir  journey,  and  his  breasts  to  give  them 
some  milk — i.  e.,  whiskey — to  make  them  joyful.  This  was  the 
usual  winding  up  of  all  such  councils.  AVhen  the  council  in  this 
instance  had  met  and  the  proper  time  offered,  Tomah  arose  and 
stated  to  ]\Iajor  Puthuff  that  he  had  arrived  Avith  the  Menoinonee 
nation  the  night  before  on  their  Avay  to  visit  their  Britisli  father, 
and  that  having  stopped  on  the  island  to  rest  over  the  night  he 
had  thought  it  his  duty  to  report  the  fact  to  his  American  father. 
"With  this  simple  announcement  he  sat  down.  Puthuff,  a  little 
nettled,  made  a  short  reply  and  the  council  broke  up. 

"Coming  out  of  the  council  house  I  waited  for  ]\Iajor  Puthuff 
and  remarked  to  him  tliat  Tomah  would  want  some  provisions 
for  his  people,  and  that  I  wished  he  would  give  me  an  order  for 
that  purpose.  'D — n  the  rascal,  why  didn't  he  ask  for  it,  then?' 
'I  suppose,'  said  I,  'being  a  British  Indian,  he  is  too  proud.' 
'AVell,  let  him  starve  then.'  'If  all  are  to  starve  who  are  proud, 
God  help  manj^  that  I  know  of,  major.'  I  had  no  difticulty  in 
prevailing  in  the  matter  as  the  government  had  made  provision 
for  such  issues  to  Indians,  and  Graverat  and  I  made  out  an  esti- 
mate proper  under  the  circumstances  to  give,  and  Tomah  and 
his  people  continued  their  voyage. 

"In  a  few  days  he  and  they  returned,  dejected  and  disconso- 
late. A  change  had  come  over  the  spirit  of  British  policy.  They 
had  just  come  out  of  a  long  and  exhausting  dance,  led  them  by 
Napoleon,  and  were  counting  the  cost.  They  had  been  casting 
around  to  find  where  surest  and  readiest  to  cut  off  drains  upon 
their  treasury  and  judging  tiiat  they  had  no  further  need  of  Indian 
services,  lopped  off  the  whole  list  of  Indian  annuities.  This  was 
already  known  to  ^lackinaw  and  had  been  told  to  Tomah  upon 
his  arrival,  but  he  Avould  not,  or  did  not,  believe  it.     He  found 


it,  however,  too  true.  There  were  no  annuities  there  for  him 
or  for  any  of  the  other  tribes,  many  of  whom  were  there,  and  it 
was  anticipated  at  one  time  that  they  would  rise  against  the 
British  force  there  and  take  what  they  could  get.  But  this  was 
not  attempted. 

"My  brother  Edward,  then  and  now  at  Mackinaw,  had  been 
well  acquainted  with  Tomah  at  Green  Bay,  and  immediately 
after  his  return  to  the  island  he  came  into  the  store,  spoke  a 
few  words  to  my  brother  and  left.  I  had  seen  the  interview 
and  watched  the  result  without  making  any  inquiry,  for  I  saw 
that  my  brother,  who  greatly  loved  Tomah,  was  imbued  with 
all  his  melancholy.  In  a  few  moments  a  young  Indian  came  into 
the  store  with  a  three-gallon  keg,  which  my  brother  bade  the 
young  man  in  the  store  to  fill  with  wdiiskey,  which  was  charged 
on  the  books  to  Tomah.  I  was  looking  over  the  books  but  a  few 
years  ago  and  saw  the  entry  on  the  ledger,  which  brought  with 
it  a  train  of  wild  and  melancholy  thoughts.  This  insult  from 
the  British  authorities,  as  he  took  it,  was  more  than  his  proud 
heart  could  bear.  For  himself  he  might  have  borne  up  against  it, 
but  for  his  people,  and  in  the  sight  of  those  whose  good  offices  he 
had  refused  to  ask,  he  could  or  would  not.  The  keg  Avas  brought 
to  him  in  his  tent,  from  which  he  drank  alone,  and  to  an  excess 
that  relieved  him  on  the  third  day  of  pride,  grief,  joy  and  care. 
He  was  buried  on  the  island.  I  was  present  at  his  funeral  and 
witnessed  his  daughter,  a  young  girl  of  nineteen  or  twenty,  as 
she  mournfully  sang  his  death  song  at  the  head  of  the  coffin  just 
before  lowering  into  the  grave  all  that  was  mortal  of  Tomah.  I 
never  saw  so  distressed  and  broken-hearted  a  people.  They  said 
they  were  no  longer  a  nation,  no  longer  anything.  Tomah  could 
alone  command  and  keep  them  together,  but  now  they  would  be 
scattered  and  lost.  We  made  a  collection  and  bought  them  pro- 
visions which  carried  them  home,  where  they  organized  under 
some  other  chief,  until  driven  from  their  old  hunting-grounds 
by  you  land-grasping  AYisconsiners !" 

Tomah  died  and  was  buried  at  Mackinaw,  July  8,  1818,  at  the 
age  of  sixty-six  years.  On  his  grave  IMr.  John  Law,  of  Green 
Bay,  erected  a  monument  with  the  following  inscription : 

"Here  rests  the  body  of  Thomas  Carron,  grand  chief  of  the 
Folle  Avoine  (Menominee)  nation,  who  departed  this  life  July  8, 
1818,  aged  sixty-six  years,  regretted  by  all  who  knew  him." 

Thus  lived  and  died  this  great  man,  for  great  he  was  in  his 
day,  a  heroic  figure  of  commanding  ability,  gifted  with  that 
nobility  of  character  and  breadth   of  mind  which  makes  men 


great,  whether  civilized  or  savage ;  and  his  great  influence  among 
his  people  and  the  surrounding  tribes  did  much  in  keeping  the 
friendly  relations  -with  the  early  settlers,  whom  he  invariably 
protected.  He  was  fully  as  great  as  Phillip,  of  Pokanoket,  or 
Pontiac,  or  Tecumseh,  not  as  well  known  perhaps,  but  exhi1)iting 
traits  of  character  which  called  for  great  admiration,  and  the 
city  which  bears  his  name  may  well  be  proud  of  it. — Ed. 


Woven  around  the  adoption  of  the  name  of  this  beautiful  city 
are  a  number  of  interesting  facts.  How  and  why  it  was  given 
this  name  appears  a  little  later  in  the  chapter.  "Tomah"  is  truly 
an  euphonious  word,  pleasing  to  hear,  giving  the  idea  of  gentle- 
ness and  yet  sturdy  strength.  The  village  and  the  city  bears  the 
name  of  that  celebrated  Menomonee  chief  whose  life  and  char- 
acter show  him  to  have  been  a  mighty  man  among  his  people 
and  in  his  time.  So  the  city,  his  namesake,  has  become  a  familiar 
word  throughout  the  state  and  stands  for  sturdy  municipal 
strength  and  progress. 

Contrary  to  the  general  belief  as  to  who  was  the  first  settler 
upon  the  site  of  the  city,  credit  usually  being  given  to  Robert 
E.  Gillett,  stands  forth  the  fact  that  Jesse  Boorman  was  the  first 
actual  settler  and  the  first  man  to  acquire  title  to  any  portion  of 
the  land  upon  which  the  city  is  now  situated. 

When  in  1854  Mr.  Boorman,  who  was  then  living  in  Wal- 
worth county,  was  informed  by  an  itinerant  preacher  that  the 
region  to  the  west,  near  the  Mississippi  river,  was  the  "Promised 
Land,"  the  first  idea  of  the  new  settlement  began  to  take  form. 
In  that  year  jNIr.  Boorman  drove  through  from  Walworth  county 
to  LaCrosse  and  entered  three  forties  of  land,  which  are  now  a 
portion  of  the  site  of  the  city.  He  came  back  and  located  the 
land  and  proceeded  to  clear  a  portion  of  it,  going  back  to  Wal- 
worth county  in  the  winter  and  returning  in  the  spring  to  further 
improve  the  land. 

To  digress  from  the  story  at  this  point  it  seems  fitting  to  give 
a  short  sketch  of  Mr.  Boorman 's  life.  He  was  born  July  4,  1830, 
in  Kent  county,  England.  When  about  six  months  of  age  he  came 
with  his  parents  to  this  country,  embarking  at  Liverpool  in  a 
sailing  vessel  and  landing  in  New  York  on  New  Year's  day,  1831, 
the  voyage  having  occupied  six  weeks. 

The  family  soon  located  in  ChautauqvTa  county.  New  York, 
where  they  lived  for  three  years,  moving  from  there  to  Green 
county,  in  sight  of  the  Catskill  mountains,  where  they  resided  for 



three  years  more.  Mr.  Boorman's  father  then  decided  to  "go 
"west,"  left  that  location  and  went  to  Schenectady  by  way  of 
Buffalo,  coming  to  AViseonsin  by  the  lake  route,  passing  through 
Chicago  and  then  on  to  AValworth  count.y  by  teams,  arriving 
there  early  in  June,  1837,  when  "Wisconsin  was  still  a  territory. 
John  Boorman,  Jesse's  father,  entered  320  acres  of  land  in  AVal- 
worth  county;  his  son,  Jesse,  remained  at  home  and  assisted  in 
working  the  farm  until  1854,  when  he  located  the  120  acres  of 
laud  wliich  Mill  be  described  hereafter,  securing  a  patent  signed 
by  James  Buchanan,  then  President. 

In  1855  he,  with  his  brother-in-law,  came  to  Madison  by  rail 
and  then  walked  from  there  to  the  present  site  of  Tomah  and 
established  a  farm  home,  where  he  lived  for  many  years  until 
1903  when,  owing  to  his  advanced  age,  he  retired  from  active 
farm  life  and  has  since  resided  in  the  city  of  Tomah.  He  was 
married  to  Miss  Lucilica  Constance  Ryland,  November  4,  1858. 

In  1855  Robert  E.  Gillett,  accompanied  by  Robert  Howie, 
arrived  upon  the  scene.  Mr.  Gillett  purchased  some  land  which 
lay  south  and  east  of  the  present  location  of  the  city,  and  went  to 
Walworth  county  during  the  Avinter  of  1856-57  and  offered  to 
trade  land  with  ]\Ir.  Boorman.  Mr.  Boorman  requested  him  to 
wait  until  spring,  when  he  would  be  on  the  premises  again. 
Accordingly  in  the  spring  of  1857  Boorman  came  back.  At  that 
time  he  had  no  idea  that  this  location  might  be  a  good  trading 
point  with  the  advent  of  the  railroad  which  it  was  rumored 
would  be  constructed  through  from  ^Milwaukee,  and  the  land  he 
owned  not  being  the  best  for  agricultural  puposes,  on  April  24th 
he  traded  with  Mr.  Gillett.  On  that  day  he  gave  Gillett  a  deed 
of  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter,  the  northwest 
quarter  of  the  southeast  quarter,  and  tlie  southwest  quarter  of  the 
northeast  quarter  of  section  four,  township  seventeen,  range  one 
west,  which  deed  was  recorded  in  the  office  of  the  register  of 
deeds  in  volume  four  of  deeds,  on  page  285,  on  April  24,  1857. 
For  this  land  ^Ir.  Boorman  received  an  equal  amount  and  sixty 
acres  "to  boot,"  which  comprised  a  portion  of  the  old  Boorman 
farm,  upon  whicli,  with  additional  purchases,  he  remained  as 
stated  until  1903. 

]\rr.  Gillett  had  four  forties  in  section  nine,  joining  section 
four  on  tlie  south,  and  the  impulse  which  led  to  the  selection  of 
tliis  point  for  a  village  is  an  interesting  story.  Robert  A.  Gillett, 
the  son  of  Robert  E.,  when  a  young  man  of  twenty  years  was 
employed  with  the  surveying  party  which  staked  out  the  route 
of  the  Alilwaukee  and  LaCrosse  Railroad  from  ^Milwaukee  to  the 


Mississippi  river.  His  father,  Kobert  E.,  instructed  him  to  find 
out  from  the  engineer  in  charge  of  the  work  at  what  point  the 
line  of  railroad  was  most  likely  to  be  built  to  the  north,  and  in 
tlie  course  of  events  it  was  found  that  Council  House  creek  was 
the  most  likely  and  logical  point  for  such  an  extension.  Word 
was  sent  back  to  Milwaukee  and  a  movement  was  immediately 
started  to  buy  the  property  necessary  for  a  town  site.  This  was 
done  at  what  would  be  considered  a  trifling  cost  in  these  days. 
The  United  States  government  and  the  state  of  AVisconsin  held 
title  to  the  land  and  settlers  were  able  to  secure  it  at  very  reason- 
able prices.  The  land  grants  were  secured  by  Robert  E.  Gillett 
and  a  tract  covering  a  mile  in  length  and  a  half-mile  in  width 
was  secured  south  of  and  abutting  upon  the  projected  railroad, 
which  the  founder  often  stated,  and  firmly  believed,  would  some 
day  be  a  railroad  center.  His  untimely  death  prevented  him  from 
seeing  his  dream  realized  even  to  a  small  degree. 

In  1855  Griswold  Gillett,  the  father  of  Robert  E.,  took  up 
160  acres  of  land  adjoining  the  southeast  corner  of  the  original 
village,  on  a  land  warrant  for  service  rendered  the  United  States, 
government  in  the  war  of  1812.  This  became  the  homestead  of 
the  family,  and  on  this  farm  the  third  house  in  the  village  was. 
built.  After  the  trade  which  had  been  made  between  Robert  E. 
Gillett  and  Jesse  Boorman,  plans  were  at  once  made  for  laying 
out  the  town  site.  AVhen  the  plot  of  ground  was  selected  it  was 
necessary  to  find  a  name  for  the  proposed  village,  and  it  appears 
that  the  son,  Robert  A.  Gillett,  after  the  perusal  of  an  old  history 
of  the  state  in  Avhicli  a  record  was  found  telling  that  an  old  and 
highly  esteemed  Indian  chief,  contemporaneous  with  and  friendly 
to  Chief  Oshkosh,  had  at  one  time  gathered  his  tribe  for  confer- 
ence in  the  council  house  located  on  the  headwaters  of  what  is 
now  known  as  Council  creek,  he  chose  the  name  "Tomah,"  which 
was  accordingly  adopted.  In  connection  with  this  chapter  it  is 
eminently  fitting  that  here  be  given  a  short  account  of  the 
founder  of  the  city  and  his  son,  remarkable  men,  both  of  them,  in 
many  ways. 

Robert  E.  Gillett  Avas  born  in  Mesopotamia,  0.,  on  the  23rd 
day  of  June,  1809.  He  was  one  of  the  three  sons  of  Griswold 
Gillett  and  Elvina  Tracy,  both  of  whom  were  pioneer  settlers 
of  the  western  reserve  of  Ohio.  Born  in  the  first  decade  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  Robert  E.  Gillett  combined  the  spirit  of  the 
pioneer  with  an  appreciation  of  the  value  of  education,  and  was 
one  of  the  first  to  become  identified  with  the  educational  move- 
ment of  which  Oberlin  college,  Ohio,  was  the  center,  and  became  • 


thf  first  financial  secretary  of  the  society  or  group  of  earnest  men 
antl   women   who  laid  the  foundation  of  this  Avonderful  school. 
He  was  a  man  of  sterling  character  and  strong  convictions,' and 
his  love  of  justice  prompted  him  to  take  up  the  cause  of  abolition, 
and  lie  Avas  known  throughout  tlie  South  as  a  "black  abolition- 
ist."   Ilis  home  in  Oberlin  later  ])ecame  a  station  in  the  t'iiiiious 
"underground  railroad,"  and  tlie  shop  over  his  kitclien  was  used 
for  sheltering  negro  slaves  on  their  way  to  Canada  and  freedom. 
At  one  time  he  Avas  chosen  by  a  Southern  judge  as  guardian  of 
five  mulatto  children.     Family  records  do  not  sIioav  the  date  of 
this  period  in  his  career,  but  tliere  Avere  three   ^Miner  children 
and  tAVO  LalNIar  children,  the  latter  being  a  branch  of  the  family 
of  AA'hich  Senator  LalMar  of  late  fame  belonged.     These  children 
Avere  taken  to  Oberlin  and  their  estates  administered  in  a  just 
and  satisfactory  manner,  and  all  fiA^e  in  due  time  graduated  from 
Oberlin  college.     His  activity  in  tlie  cause  of  abolition  Avas  cai'- 
ried  on  until  the  election  of  President  Lincoln,  of  Avhom  he  Avas 
a  staunch  supporter.     Just  before  his  death  his  services  Avere 
recognized  by  President  Lincoln,  avIio  commissioned  him  ^Minister 
to   Venezuela,   but   death    came    before    he    could    assume    the 
responsibility  of  this  mission.    In  the  early  days  of  the  settlement 
of  JMonroe  county  he  Avas  one  of  the  fcAV  judicial  officers  in  tiie 
community,  holding  for  a  short  time  the  office  of  justice  of  the 

He  AV'as  married  September  8,  1833,  to  INIarie  Ann  Bussell. 
Tavo  children,  Robert  Arthur  anci  Mary  A.,  Avere  the  fruits  of  this 
marriage.  In  1837  his  Avife  died  and  a  year  later  his  marriage 
to  Lucy  Kellogg  took  place.  The  children  by  this  marriage  Avere 
Ruth  K.,  Theodore  AV.,  Julia  King  and  Frederick  F.  About  a 
year  after  the  death  of  his  second  Avife  he  married  Lois  Ann 
Ingraham,  October  27,  1849,  a  AvidoAv  Avith  tAvo  children,  a  son 
and  a  daughter.  The  son  died  at  an  early  age.  The  daughter. 
Lucy,  lived  a  short  time  in  Tomah,  died  in  early  Avomanhood, 
mourned  by  a  large  circle  of  friends.  Robert  E.  Gillett  died  at 
Tomah,  September  28,  1861. 

No  history  of  Tomah  Avould  be  complete  Avithout  reference, 
at  least,  to  "Grandma  Gillett,"  or  "Aunt  Lois,"  as  she  Avas 
knoAvn  to  the  family,  but  universally  knoAvn  and  called  in  the 
last  years  of  her  life  "Grandma  Gillett"  by  the  people  of  Tomah. 
She  possessed  the  true  pioneer  spirit  and  it  Avas  to  her  qualities 
of  mind  and  heart  that  the  social  life  of  the  neAv  settlement  OAved 
much.  Her  interests  were  Avith  everybody,  her  charity  kncAv  no 
limit  except  that  of  the  means  to  do  Avith,  and  her  religion  Avas 


of  a  type  which  is  so  rare  and  sweet  that  it  has  left  its  imprint 
on  all  who  kneAV  her.  She  survived  her  husband  many  years 
and  was  known  and  loved  by  the  children  of  Tomah  for  three 

Robert  Arthur  Gillett,  son  of  the  founder,  was  born  in  Elyria, 
0.,  July  6,  1834.  As  a  mere  boy  he  traveled  on  horseback  and 
on  foot  as  far  as  the  Indiana  line,  going  two  or  three  times  to 
Boston  with  his  father,  who  was  engaged  in  the  business  of 
drover.  He  lived  in  Ohio  until  about  seventeen  years  of  age, 
when  he  took  his  worldly  goods,  consisting  of  a  team  of  horses, 
a  wagon  and  a  cow,  boarded  a  steamboat  at  Cleveland  and  went 
west,  arriving  in  Milwauke  in  due  course  of  time,  where  he 
engaged  in  teaming.  During  the  early  period  of  the  settlement 
of  Tomah  he  owned  and  operated  a  sawmill  at  LaCrosse,  and 
after  the  panic  of  1857  wiped  out  his  resources  and  his  health 
demanded  a  change  of  climate,  he  again  "went  west,"  this  time 
to  the  gold  fields  of  Colorado,  with  a  wagon  train  of  emigrants 
composed  of  Wisconsin  people,  many  of  whom  never  returned  to 
this  state.  He  was  located  at  Pike's  Peak  and  vicinity  for  about 
eighteen  months,  returning  home  at  the  beginning  of  the  civil 
war,  being  called  back  to  his  father's  death  bed. 

As  has  been  stated  previously,  after  reaching  Milwaukee  and 
being  employed  by  Kellogg  &  Strong  in  teaming,  he  joined  the 
surveying  party  which  blazed  the  trail  of  the  Milwaukee  & 
LaCrosse  Railroad.  As  the  road  building  progressed  he  followed 
the  railroad  business  and  was  the  first  station  agent  at  Iron  Ridge, 
at  Horicon  and  at  Tomah  for  a  short  time,  where  the  family  were 
located,  living  in  the  log  house  on  his  grandfather's  farm.  After 
the  death  of  his  father  he  became  the  administrator  of  the  estate, 
and  although  his  grandfather,  Griswold  Gillett,  was  still  living, 
he  became  the  virtual  head  of  the  familj^  In  1862  he  married 
Sarah  Caroline  Turner  and  took  up  his  residence  at  Tomah,  acting 
as  recruiting  agent  for  the  army. 

In  the  spring  of  1864  he  enlisted  in  the  Forty-third  Regiment, 
Wisconsin  Volunteers,  and  was  commissioned  captain  of  Com- 
pany K  of  that  regiment.  His  discharge  came  with  the  close  of 
the  war.  His  family  consisted  of  five  children,  Charles,  Matie, 
Theodore  W.,  who  died  in  1872;  Minnie,  who  died  in  1902,  and 
Sarah  Lettie,  who  died  in  infancy  in  1872.  During  the  few  years 
following  the  war  he  endeavored  to  unravel  the  tangled  afi^airs 
at  Tomah,  but  in  1866  he  was  obliged  to  abandon  the  task  as  too 
big  for  his  limited  capital.  He  was  elected  chief  clerk  of  the 
AVisconsin  asserablv  in  1866,  and  after  the  close  of  the  session  of 


the  legislature  that  year  he  reengaged  in  the  transportation  busi- 
ness and  was  contracting  agent  for  the  AVestern  Transportation 
Company  for  nearly  thirty  years.  During  tliis  time  he  also  tilled 
many  of  the  clerical  positions  at  ]\Iadison  during  the  winter 
months  and  Avas  always  active  in  state  politics. 

In  1872  his  wife  died  and  a  year  later  he  married  Serepta  A. 
Atkinson,  of  LaCrosse.  He  was  actively  engaged  in  ])usiness  in 
^Milwaukee  up  to  1905,  when  he  again  Avent  west,  this  time  to 
Los  Angeles,  Cal.,  but  returned  the  same  year.  His  second  wife 
died  in  December,  1905,  at  Fox  Lake,  AVis.  His  last  years  were 
spent  with  his  daughter,  ]Matie  AVarren,  at  Fox  Lake,  at  whose 
home  he  passed  aAvay  December  28,  1907,  after  a  most  active  and 
useful  life. 

Resuming  our  narrative :  After  completing  the  trade  Mr.  Gil- 
lett  employed  AYilliam  Spear,  a  civil  engineer,  of  LaCrosse,  who 
made  the  original  plat  of  the  village  settlement  on  the  south  half 
of  section  four  and  a  part  of  the  north  half  of  section  nine,  the 
plat  being  completed  June  4,  1857,  and  the  future  city  began  to 
be  a  reality. 

The  manner  in  w^hich  this  original  plat  was  laid  out  reflected 
the  tendencies  and  character  of  Mr.  Gillett  in  a  most  gratifying 
manner,  Superior  avenue  being  made  100  feet  wide  and  all  other 
avenues  running  north  and  south  seventy  feet  wide,  and  all  cross 
streets  sixty  feet  wide.  His  generosity  was  further  evidenced  by 
the  fact  that  for  a  time  after  the  plat  was  completed  he  offered 
to  give  free  lots  to  any  who  would  build  buildings  upon  them. 
In  the  southeast  corner  of  the  village  he  set  aside  a  ten-acre  tract, 
known  as  the  Gillett  reserve.  Here  was  to  be  the  home  of  the 
founder  of  the  village.  This  tract,  however,  was  destined  never 
to  fulfill  its  original  purpose,  and  in  1869,  or  early  in  1870,  was 
divided  and  sold  to  AYatson  Earle  and  Judge  George  Graham. 
Directly  north  of  this  plat  a  piece  of  ground  was  set  aside  for 
a  female  seminary,  a  beautiful  place,  well  wooded  and  sloping 
eastward  to  Council  creek.  This  project  was  never  carried  out 
owing  to  the  death  of  Islr.  Gillett  in  1861.  His  monument,  how- 
ever, is  the  attractive  Gillett  park  which,  through  the  enterprise 
of  later  generations,  has  been  made  into  a  delightful  spot. 

S.  D.  Hollister,  who  came  to  the  village  soon  after  the  arrival 
of  Mr.  Gillett,  owned  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  northwest 
quarter  of  section  four,  and  in  August,  1858,  platted  what  is 
known  as  " Hollister 's  first  addition''  to  Tomah.  The  survey  was 
made  by  C.  C.  ^Miller,  a  civil  engineer,  lately  settled  in  the  village, 
and  this  plat  was  added  to  and  became  a  part  of  the  village 


proper.  This  was  followed  the  same  year  by  "Railroad  addi- 
tion," platted  by  Robert  E.  Gillett  and  McLean  Stoughton,  on 
August  7,  1858,  being  also  surveyed  by  C.  C.  Miller.  Then  came 
"Hollister's  second  addition,"  which  was  platted  August  19, 
1859,  so  that  in  the  space  of  two  years  the  little  settlement  began 
to  take  form  and  shape  as  a  municipality.  Buildings  sprang  up 
like  mushrooms,  people  came  in  rapidly  from  the  east  to  swell 
the  population,  and  in  1858  Tomah  was  incorporated  into  a  village 
having  facilities  for  transportation  by  the  opening  of  the  Mil- 
waukee and  St.  Paul  Railroad,  became  an  important  trading 

The  first  building  of  which  there  is  any  record  built  in  the 
village  proper  was  the  cabin  built  by  Cady  Hollister  and  occu- 
pied by  him  and  his  wife  and  son,  Solomon  Hollister,  which  was 
erected  on  the  hill  where  the  high  school  building  now  stands. 
The  cabin  built  by  Robert  E.  Gillett  in  1856,  on  what  is  now 
known  as  the  Benjamin  farm,  was  the  second  building  erected 
and  is  still  standing,  being  joreserved  as  one  of  the  few  land- 
marks still  remaining  to  remind  us  of  pioneer  days.  This  cabin, 
according  to  Robert  Howie,  was  originally  started  by  two  hunters 
whose  names  are  unknown,  but  was  afterwards  enlarged  and 
finished  by  Mr.  Gillett. 

Robert  Howie  at  the  writing  of  this  work  is  still  living  at  the 
ripe  old  age  of  eighty-two  years,  and  deserves  more  than  passing 
mention  in  this  book.  Meeting  Robert  E.  Gillett  on  his  way  to 
the  future  village  they  became  acquainted,  and  Mr.  Howie  came 
with  him  and  worked  for  him  a  great  many  years.  Mr.  Howie 
was  born  in  Ayrshire,  Scotland,  August  6,  1830.  When  about 
twenty-six  years  of  age  he  left  his  native  country  and  landed  in 
New  York  on  the  Fourth  of  July,  1856,  and  came  directly  to 
Wisconsin.  ]Mr.  Howie  engaged  for  several  years  in  farm  and 
mill  work,  and  among  his  early  emploj^ments  was  that  of  carrying 
mail  between  Tomah  and  Sparta.  This  he  did  on  foot  through 
the  wilderness,  following  the  Indian  trails,  and  it  is  related  that 
he  made  the  trip  from  Tomah  to  Sparta  and  back  in  one  day, 
sometimes  carrying  as  much  as  $2,000  in  orders  and  cash  in  his 
mail  sack.    This  trip  he  made  twice  a  week. 

After  leaving  the  employment  of  Mr.  Gillett  he  assisted  C.  C. 
IMiller  in  surveying  for  several  months,  and  then  engaged  in 
teaming  from  Sparta  to  Tomah  and  LaCrosse,  hauling  many  of 
the  early  families  and  their  goods  to  Tomah,  and  was  well  known 
throughout  all  that  region.  About  1858  Mr.  Howie  began  to  farm 
the  land  which  he  had  purchased  from  Gillett  and  others,  con- 


sisting  of  100  aei'es  in  and  around  Toniali.  lie  first  erected  Ijarns 
for  stock  and  then  built  his  frame  residence,  which  still  stands 
upon  the  original  site,  having  been  enlarged  and  improved.  In 
1871  hf  was  nian-icd  to  Agnes  Alexander,  a  native  of  Scotland, 
and  to  tliem  Avas  born  five  children.  During  the  course  of  his  life 
he  has  had  many  hardships  to  undergo.  One  time  his  jaws  were 
broken  by  Ihc  kick  of  a  horse;  at  another  time  he  was  run  over 
by  a  Avagon  load  of  hay.  In  the  winter  of  1857,  Avhen  the  snow 
covered  this  territory  to  a  depth  of  five  feet  on  the  level,  he,  in 
company  with  Mr.  Gillett,  befriended  the  Indians  in  many  ways 
and  Avon  their  love  and  friendship. 

As  early  as  1854  AV.  AV.  Jackson  and  AVebster  Kenyon,  Avith 
several  others,  settled  in  the  toAvn  of  Adrian,  at  a  point  Avhich 
they  afterAvards  called  Jacksonville.  Tavo  years  afterAvards  Gil- 
lett built  a  saAAmiill  in  the  northern  part  of  the  village  of  Tomali, 
Avhich  Avas  run  for  him  by  Jackson  and  Kenyon. 

When  the  surA'cyors  Avere  coming  through  the  route  of  the 
]\IilAvaukee  and  LaCrosse  Raihvay  a  keen  rivalry  existed  betAveen 
the  village  of  Tomah  and  Jacksonville  as  to  the  route  of  the 
original  line,  ^luch  pressure  Avas  brought  to  l)ear  upon  the 
surveying  party,  but  Mr.  Gillett  in  his  engaging  and  logical  Avay 
finally  induced  the  surveyors  to  nuike  the  line  Avhere  it  noAv 
stands,  instead  of  sAvinging  farther  to  the  south  and  going 
through  Jacksomilic ;  in  th.e  meantime  a  plat  had  been  made 
of  Jacksonville  and  its  inhabitants  had  full  faith  that  the  railroad 
Avould  go  through  their  community  and  there  Avould  be  estab- 
lished a  future  city;  they  Avere  doomed  to  disapjiointment,  hoAV- 
ever,  and  Jacksonville  dwindled  to  a  mere  settlement  and  later 
became  only  a  farming  community,  and  thus  the  dream  of  a 
municipality  faded  aAvay,  the  victim  of  circumstances. 

To  attempt  to  folloAv  out  the  arrival  of  the  earlier  settlers 
is  a  task  for  Avhich  no  record  noAV  serves,  to  name  them  all  in 
the  first  fcAv  years  of  pioneer  days  is  noAv  an  impossible  task; 
many  familiar  names,  hoAvever,  are  remembered  and  are  here 
given  as  Avell  as  can  be  done  at  this  time;  James  Garnock  and 
family  came  Avith  Robert  IloAvie  in  1855.  ]Mr.  Garnock  soon  after 
opening  a  blacksmith  shop  and  building  a  residence  on  Avhat  is 
still  the  old  (Janioek  homestead;  William  IMunkett  came  from 
Walworth  county  the  same  y<'ar:  AVilliani  AlcLauren  also  came 
Avith  Mr.  IIoAvie  and  -lames  (iarnock  and  settled  in  the  town  near 
tiu'  village. 

The  year  1856  saAV  the  coming  of  S.  Jennings,  O.  W.  Kellogg, 


Joseph  D.  Cady,  who  afterwards  liought  a  lot  on  Superior  Avenue 
and  Imilt  a  house,  Alden  Cremer,  Amasa  Meloy,  Harvey  Bush, 
who  built  the  third  house  or  cabin  in  the  vicinity,  being  situated 
somewhere  near  the  present  cemetery,  C.  C.  Miller,  the  civil 
engineer,  who  built  a  log  cabin  about  where  Watson  Earle's 
liouse  now  stands  and  afterwards  secured  the  property  on  the 
ridge  in  later  days  known  as  the  "Beers"  place.  In  1856  or 
1857  Dr.  Walker  and  Dr.  Goyer  arrived,  which  was  first  on  the 
ground  is  not  known,  but  they  came  at  about  the  same  time  and 
commenced  the  practice  of  medicine  a  few  years  later.  Dr. 
Rouse  Bennett  located  here  and  went  into  the  army  as  a  surgeon 
soon  after  the  commencement  of  the  civil  war.  The  Bradley 
boys,  Josiah,  Charles  and  Henry,  came  in  1857. 

In    1858    James    Rockwood    and    his    four    sons,    Theodore, 
Delorama,   Edgar   and   James  N.   moved  into  the   village   from 
Limerick  Avhere  they  had  located  about  two  years  before,  there 
being  at  that  time  a  saw  mill  operated  there  by  Jackson  and 
Kenyon.    Mr.  Rockwood  secured  the  piece  of  property  where  the 
old  Grant  house   stood  and  proceeded  at  once  to   erect   a  barn 
on  the  back  end  of  it.  AVhen  the  barn  was  finished  he  moved  and 
started  to  keeping  boarders.     He  at   once,   however,   began  the 
construction  of  a  hotel  building  on  the  corner  and  at  its  com- 
pletion  called   it   the   "Rockwood   House,"   vxhich   he   ran   until 
1867  when  he   sold  the  property  to  a  man  named  Smith  from 
Leon  or  LaFayette ;    it  being  right  after  the  war  he  changed  the 
name  to  the   "Grant  House,"  in  honor  of  General  Grant,   and 
conducted  a  hotel  for  a  number  of  years,  when  the  property  was 
sold  to  Mike  Gondrezick. 

John  Dodge  came  in  1858  and  built  a  sliop  having  over  it 
a  public  hall  on  the  site  where  the  old  Dr.  Vincent  residence 
stands:  a